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Vol. V. ^q,V\\' 

Dublin: James Duffy and Sons, 15 Wellington-quay, and 
la Paternoster-row, London. 

London: Burns, Gates, and Co., 17 & 18 Portman-street, and 
63 Paternoster-row, E.G. 

New York : The Gatholic Publishing Society, 
9 Warren-street. 




JirstlBas ofJHas, 


Article I.— St. Ceallach, or Kellach, Bishop of Killala, and Martyr. 
[Sixi/i Cetitury.'] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Irish Life of St. Cellach — His Family 
and Race — His Period — His early Instruction re- 
ceived from St. Kieran — Cellach withdraws from 
Clonmacnoise, and he is nominated King of Con- 
naught, by the Tribe of Hy-Fiachrach ... I 
Chap. II. — Kellach lives a holy Life at Clonmacnoise — He is 
ordained Priest, and afterwards he becomes Bishop 
of Killala — His Virtues — Guaire, King of Connaught, 
is wickedly advised to take away his Life — Keallach 
retires to an Island in Lough Conn — Four of his 
Students are invited to Durluss, where they are per- 
suaded to murder their holy Preceptor ... 6 
Chap. III. — The Students return to Oilean Etgair — They seize 
upon Kellach, and bring him to the Mainland, where 
he is barbarously murdered — His Interment — His 
Death is discovered and avenged by his Brother 
Muredach — Commemoration of the Saint — Conclu- 
sion .. ... ... lO 

Article II. — St. Brieuc, or Brioc, First Bishop and Patron of the Diocese 
OF Brieux, France. [SixthiCentujy.] 

Chap. I — Introduction — Various Accounts of St. Brioc — His 
Birthplace and Parentage — Instructed by St. Ger- 
manus — His early Labours among the People of his 
own Country — He passes over to Armorica ... 15 

Chap. II. — Acts of St. Brieuc while under the Direction of St. 
Germanus — His Miracles — Ordained Priest^St. 
Brieuc visits Great Britain — He returns to France — 
Idolatry there practised — His Parents and other Inha- 
bitants of Brittany are converted to Christianity — 
He builds a Church at Grandelande — Former close 
Relations between Great and Lesser Britain — St. 
Brieuc founds a Monastery at Landebaeron — He 
afterwards settled at the Place, since known as Saint 
Brieuc-des-Vaux — Count Reguel bestowed the House 
and Lands of Champ-du-Rouvre, with all their Depen- 
dencies, as an Endowment ... ... 22 

Chap. III. — Penitential Exercises of St. Brieuc — He heals a 
Paralytic — Speculations regarding his Episcopacy — 
He assists Count Riguel during his last Illness — St. 
Brieuc's happy Departure — Places assigned for his 
Death — Remarkable Visions at the Time — Buried in 
the Cathedral Church, at St. Brieux — Translation of 
his Relics to the Church of St. Sergius and St. Bac- 
chus, at Angers— Subsequent Removal of his Relics 
to St. Brieux — Memorials and Festivals of the holy 
Man — Conclusion ... ... ... 3 1 

Article III.— St. Ultan, Abbot of Fosse, in Belgium. [Sevettih Centtiry.] ... 38 

Article IV. — St. Nathchaoimhe, or Machoemi, Abbot of Terryglass, County of 

Tipperary. [Sixth Century. '\ ... ... ... 43 

Article V. — St. Brecan, or Bracan, Bishop of Ardbraccan, County of Meath, or of 
Arran Island, County of Galway, or of Kilbreckan, County of 
Clare ... ... ... ... 46 


Article VI. — St. Ossen, or Oissene Fota, Abbot of Clonard, County of Meath. 

ySeiienlh Century^ ... ... ... 47 

Article VII. — St. Luaithrenn, Virgin or Widow .. ... ... 48 

Article VIII. — St. Aedhgein, or Aedgein, Bi>liop and Abbot of Fore, County of 

Westmeaih. [Elg/Uh CetUury.'l ... ... 49 

Article IX. — St. Goibnen, or Gobnenus ... ... ... 49 

Article X. — St. Duicholl. of Cluain-Braoin ... ... ... 50 

Article XI. — St. Cairbre, Bishop of Magh Bile, or Moville ... ... 51 

Article XII. — St. Mainchein, or Monchenus ... ... ... 51 

Article XIII. — St. Asaph, Bishop of St. Asaph, Wales. [Sixth Cetituiy.'\ ... 51 

Article XIV. — St. Banban, Bishop ... ... ... 53 

Article XV. — Feast of St. Walburgis, or Walburge, Virgin and Abbess. {Eighth. 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 53 

Article XVI. — St. Suitbertus ... ... ... ... 54 

Article XVII. — St. Ronan, or Roman ... ... ... 54 

Article XVIII. — Feast of St. Philip, the Apostle ... ... 54 

Article XIX. — Festival of the Beginning of the Preaching our Lord Jesus 

Christ ... ... ... ... 55 

Secontf ©as of iHag. 

Article I. — St. Neachtain, of Cill-Uinche, County of Louth, and of 
Fennor, on the River Boyne, County of Meath. [Fifth 

Centiny.] ... ... ... ... 55 

Article II. — St. Germanus, Bishop and Martyr, in the Country of the Ambiani, 

France. [Fi/th Century.] ... ... ... 57 

Article III. — St. Fiachra, Abbot, of Ullard, County of Kilkenny ... 65 

Article IV. — St. Piran, of Padstow and Piran-Sanz, Cornwall, England ... 66 

Article V. — St. Aedan Mac Cuamsie ... ... ... 67 

Article VI. — St. Enan ... ... ... ... 68 

Article VII.- -St. Colman, the Holy ... ... ... 68 

Article VIII. — Feast of St. Brieux, First Bishop and Patron of the Diocese of 

Brieux .. ... ... ... 68 

Article IX.— St. Ultan, Abbot of Fosse ... ... ... 68 

Article X. — Festival of St. Saturninus ... ... ... 68 

Article XI. — Candidus, an Irish Monk. [Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.] ... 69 

Article XII. — St. Columbanus, Bishop ... ... ... 69 

Article XIII. — Reputed Elevation of St. Bertin's Relics ... ... 69 

Efjirti ©as of JHas. 

Article I.— St. Conleth, or Conlaip, Bishop and Patron of Kildare 
Diocese. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.] 

Chap. I. — Introductoiy Remarks- Various Names of St. Con- 
leth — His Parentage and Pedigree — Eremitical Life 
at Old Connell — Antique Remains there — St. Con- 
leth's Interview with St. Biigid, Abbess of Kidare — 
Remarkable Preservation while returning from this 
Visit — He baptizes St. Tighcrnach — St. Conleth, 
First Bishop of Kildare— He secures St. Brigid's 
Friendship and Esteem — Early Commencement of 
Religious Establisliments in the City of Kildare — 
Consecration and I'^mclions of St. Conleth after his 
Election — -Recorded Incident of his being mira- 
culously furnislied with Vestments to celebrate the 
Holy Sacrifice of Mass ... ... 69 

Chap. II. — The Family Pedigrees of St. Brigid and of St. Con- 
laeth — Artisan Proficiency of this holy Man — Old 
Connell supposed to be his usual Place for Residence 
— Inquiry regarding the Nature of Ecclesiastical 
Society at Kildare during the Time of St. Brigid and 


of St. Conleth — Description of an ancient Church 
at Kildare — Supernatural Incident — Adornment of 
ancient Shrines ... ... ... 7^ 

Chap. III. — Various Names for this Saint — Nature of his episco- 
pal Jurisdiction — Recorded Incidents relating to St. 
Conlath's violent Death — The Locality where it is 
said to have occurred, while on his way to Rome — 
Enquiry regarding the Sites of Sechai Condlad, and 
Liamain — Preservation of St. Conlath's Relics — 
Calendar Notices of this holy Bishop — Parochial 
Church of St. Conleth erected at Newbridge — Other 
Memorials — Conclusion. ... ... 86 

Article II. — St. Daircheall, Bishop of Glendalough, County of Wicklovv. [Seventh 

Century.'] ... ... ... ... 95 

Article III. — St. Mochonna, of Derry ... ... ... 96 

Article IV. — St. Nem, or Nehemias, Bishop of Druim DalLin, or Tullagh, County 

of Antrim ... ... ... 96 

Article V. — St. Neccan ... ... ... ... 97 

Article VI. — St. Cairpre, or Corpreus, Bishop of Moville, County of Meath ... 98 

Article VII. — St. Scannal, of Cill-Cobrainne. ... ... ... 98 

Article VIII. — St. Aedan, or Aidanus ... ... ... 99 

Article IX. — St. Sarnat, Daughter of Maelan, Abbess ... ... 99 

Article X. — St. Clothach, Bishop ... ... ... 99 

Article XI. — The Daughters of Oissen. of Rath-eich ... ... 99 

Article XII. — St. Barrinn, of Droma Cula ... ... ... 100 

Article XIII. — St. Athgen, or Corbmac, of Badony, County of Tyrone ... loo 

Article XIV. — St. Juvenalis .. ... ... ... 100 

Article XV. — Festival of the Blessed Alexander, a Cistercian Monk, of Foigni, in 

France. [Thirteenth Century.] ... ... ... loi 

Article XVI. — The Festival of Finding the Holy Cross ,. ... loi 

Article XVII. — Feast of the Conception of the Blessed Mary, ever Virgin ... 102 

Article XVIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Donnan ... ... ... 102 

Article XIX. — Reputed Feast of St. Concraid ... .. ... 102 

Article XX. — Reputed Feast of St. Fergusa .. ... ... 102 

Article XXI. — St. Fumac, in Scotland ... ... ... 102 

Article XXII. — Feast of the Translation of St. Patrick's Arm ... ... 103 

iFourtjj ©ag of lEag, 

Article I. — St. Mochua, or Cronan, Son of Cuimine, of Sliabh Eibhlinne. 

NOW Slieve Phelim Mountains, County of Limerick ... 103 
Article II. — St. Siollan, the Deacon ... ... ... 105 

Article III. — St. Aedh, Son of Brec, or Bricc ... ... ... 106 

Article IV. — Festival of the Blessed Alexander, Cistercian Monk, at Foigni, in 

France. [Thirteenth Century.] ... ... ... 106 

Article V. — St. Colmoc, Bishop of Banff, Scotland. [Tenth' and Eleventh 

Centuries.] ... ... ... ... 106 

Article VI. — Festival assigned for a reputed St. Haymarus, Bishop and Martyr, at 

Toul, in France. [Eighth Century.] ... ... 107 

Article VIL— Feast of St. Antherius ... ... ... 108 

S'\iX\ ©ag of iBas. 

Article I. — St. Faelan Finn, of Kilcolumb, County of Kilkenny ... 108 

Article II.— St. Scandalseus, or Scandalus ... ... ... 108 

Article III.— St. Senan ... ... ... ... no 

Article IV.— Reputed Feast of St. Maura and of St. Brigid, Virgins and Martyrs ... no 
Article v.— Reputed Feast of St. Ectbrict, or Eadbert, the Saxon, or of Saxonland, 

Bishop of Lindisfarne, England ... , ... ... 110 

Article VI.— Festival of the Deacon Justinus ... ... ... iii 


Chap. II. — St. Cataldus raises a young Man to Life — He incurs 
the Enmity of a Chief and of a King — He succeeds 
to a Chieftancy — He is appointed Bishop — His 
Church — Cataldus sets out on a Pilgrimage to Jerusa- 
lem — Admonition for another Destination — He 
arrives in Italy — The Miracles he wrought there caused 
him to be nominated Bishop of Tarentum ... 192 

Chap. III. — Missionary Labours of St. Cataldus in Italy — 
Writings attributed to him — Last Admonitions to the 
Clergy and Chief Men of Tarentum — His Death and 
Interment — Various Miracles then and afterwards 
wrought through his Intercession — Finding and Trans- 
lation of his Relics — Honours paid to his Memory in 
Tarentum — His reputed Prophecies — Veneration 
throughout Italy and France — His Commemora- 
tion in Offices, Calendars and Martyrologies — Conclu- 
sion ... ... ... 199 

Article III. — Cormac or Connachtach, Abbot of lona. \Eigkth and Ninth Cen- 

turiesJ\ ... ... ... 207 

Article IV. — Barban the Wise ... ... ... ... 207 

Article V. — Reputed Festival of Hildebert, Archbishop of the Scots ... 207 

Article VI — Aedh;orAedus ... ... ... ... 208 

Article VII. — St. Connla ... ... ... ... 209 

Article VIII. — Mac Lemruin, or Mac Leninn ... ... ... 209 

Article IX. — St. Finntan ... ... ... ... 209 

ArticleX. — St. Mohsionoc, of Cluain Caoinchne ... ... 209 

Article XI. — Feast of St. Florentius, Bishop of Strasburg ... ... 210 

Article XII. — Festival of St. Wiro, and of St. Plechelm, Bishops and Confessors, 

and of St. Olger, at Ruremond, in Holland ... ... 210 

Article XIII. — St. Saranus ... ... ... ... 210 

Article XIV. — Translation of the Relics of St. Laurence O'Toole, Archbishop of 

Dublin ... ... ... .. 210 

ISkbtntfj ©as of iHau, 

Article I. — St. Criotan, or Cridanus, Credan or Credanus, of Aghavan- 


Seventh Ceiitttry.'\ ... ... ...211 

ArticleIT.— St. Laeghair Lobhar, or Lughaire, theLeper .. ... 213 
Article III.- — St. Fintan, or Fionntain, of Cluain Caoin, probably Clonkeen, Queen's 

County ... ... ... ... 214 

Article IV.— St. Cormac, Priest, of Achadh Finnigh, on the Dodder, County of 

Dublin ... ... ... ... 214 

Article V.— Reputed of St. Mac Tail, of Cill Cuilinn. or Kilcullen, County of 

Kildare ... ... ... ... 217 

Article VI. — St. Senach, the Smith, of Derrybrusk, County of Fermanagh. ^Sup- 
posed to have lived in the Sixth Century^ ... ... 217 

ArticleVIL— St. Caoimhghin. Abbot ... .. ... 220 

Article VIIL— Feast of the Finding of the Relics of St. Gildas, Abbot of Rhuys, 

Bretagne. [Sixth Cent/ay.] ... ... ... 220 

Article IX. — St. Lasrca, or Lassar, Virgin ... ... ... 220 

Article X.— St. Fionnlugh, or Findloga ... ... ... 220 

Article XI. — Reputed of .St. Ampudan, or Anpadan, Bishop of Glenn-da- 

Locha, or Glendalough, County of Wicklow ... ... 221 

AkticleXIL— St. Columcain ... ... ... .. 221 

AkticleXHI.— St. Maoldoid ... ... ... ... 221 

Article XIV.— St. /Elgnei, or Aelgnoeus ... ... ... 221 

Article XV.— Reputed Festivalof St. Cataldus, Bishop of Tarentum, Italy. [Sarnth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 221 

Article XIV.— Reputed Festival of Virgnoi, or Virgneus, Hermit. Scotland. 

[.S'ivt/i and SeT'enth Centuries.] ... ... ... 221 

Article XVII.— Festivalof Holy Job ... ... ... 222 


Eiwelftfi ©as of JHag. 

Article I. — Ailitir, or Elitir, of Mqic-Inis. Lough Derg, and of Clon- 

MACNOiSE, King's County. {^Sixth Century.] ... ... 223 

Article II. — Ere, or Ercus, Nasca, of Tullylish. County of Down ... ... 224 

Article III. — Reputed Festival of St. Erca, a Viry;in ... ... 225 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Bearnosga, of Tullylish, County of Down ... 225 
Article V. — St. Lugid, or Lughaedh, of Drumiskin, County of Louth, and said to 

have been Priest, of Tigh Luta, in Fothartamora. {Supposed to have 

lived in the Fifth Century.] ... ... ... 225 

Article VI.— St. Diomma, of Kildimo, County of Limerick ... ... 228 

Article VII. — The Festival of St. Cyriacus, with Three Hundred Companions, 

Martyrs ... ... ... ... 229 

Article VIII. — St. Hernen, or Ernin .. ... ... 229 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Congal, or Comgall, in Derconigal, or Holy wood, 

Scotland. [Sixth and Sevefith Centicries.] ... ... 230 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of another St. Congallus, in Scotland... ... 231 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Antonina and Six Companion Virgins and 

Martyrs of St. Ursula, Cologne ... ... ... 231 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Merenus, Abbot of Bangor ... ... 232 

EijirteentJj liag of fEatJ* 

Article I. — St. Tighernach, of Boirche, or Mourne, County of Down. 

[Eleventh Century.] ... ... ... 232 

Article II. — St. Moeldod, or Moeldodius, Abbot of Mucnaimh, or Mucknoe, 

County of Monaghan ... ... ... 234 

Article III. — St. A bben, Hermit, of Abingdon, England ... ... 236 

Article IV. — St. Mochonna, of Derry ... ... ... 237 

Article V. — Reputed Festival of St. Moling Luachra. [Seventh Century.] ... 238 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of St. Servan, or St. Serasanus, Apostle of the 

Orkneys, at Pomona. [Fifth Century.] ... ... 238 

Article VII. — Reputed Feast of Dubliterius Fiond or Candidus ... ... 238 

Article Vill. — Reputed Feast of St. Dympna, Virgin, and of St. Gerebern, Bel- 
gium ... ... ... ... 239 

Article IX. — St. or the Blessed Michomeris ... ... ... 239 

Article X. — St. Carthagius, or Carthacus ... ... ... 239 

Article XI. — Feast of Saints Teracus and Probus ... ... 239 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Motomagus ... ... ... 240 

JFoiuteent!) ©as of JHag. 

Article I. — St. Carthage, or Mochudda, Bishop, Abbot, and Patron of 

Lismore. [Sixth and Seventh Centziries.] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Acts of St. Mochudda or Carthage — 
Prognostication regarding him — His Parentage and 
Birth — His Youth and early Vocation to the Clerical 
State — Educated by St. Carthage the Elder — St. 
Mochudda becomes a Priest — He settles down at a 
Place called Kelltulach, but soon he leaves it — He 
visits St. Comgall at Bangor ... ... 240 

Chap. II. — Several holy Men are visited by St. Mochuda — At 
last he is induced to select Rathain for his Religious 
Foundation — Antiquities there— His Manner of Life 
and Rule — Legends related about St. Carthage — 
Virtues of his Monks — Miracles. ... ... 246 

Chap. III. — Miracles wrought by St. Mochuda while at Rahen — 
His chief Disciples there — He visits Kerry — Visited 



at Rahan by St. Columkille — His Prophecy— the Old 
Church at Rahan — Conspiracy there to take away his 
Life — Monastic Anecdotes — Envious Proceedings in- 
stituted to drive him from Rahan — King Blaithmach, 
his Brother Diarmaid, with the Chiefs of Meath, con- 
cerned in this Course of Action — Mochuda and his 
Monks are expelled from Rahan ... ... 254 

Chap. IV. — Departure of St. Carthage and his Monks from Rahin 
— They travel southwards by Way of Drumcullen, 
Saigir, Roscrea, Cashel, Muscraighe, and Ardfinnan, 
towards Lismore— St. Carthage receives a Grant of 
this Place, from the territorial Chief, Maeloctrich — 
Year of his Arrival at Lismore — Establislrment ofSt. 
Carthage, in this Place — His subsequent Proceedings 
and Manner of Living — His Departure from Life — 
His Festival and Memorials — Conclusion ... 266 

Article IL — St. Maolcethair, Son of Ronan, of Kilmelchedor, County of Kerry. 

[Probably in the Sixth Ce?ilwy.'\ ... ... 276 

Article HI. — St. Carthach the Elder, of Manister Thuama. [Sixth Century '\ ... 281 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of Silvanus, Archbishop of Dumblane, in Scotland ... 281 
Article V. — St. Lassar, or Laisre ... ... ... 282 

Article VL — St. Garbhan, or Garban ... ... ... 282 

Article Vn. — St. Mousedon, or Moncodon ... ... ... 283 

Article VHL— St. Maldodus ... ... ... ... 283 

Article IX. — Festival of St. Victor and of St. Corona, Martyrs in Egypt. [Second 

Centttry.] ... ... ... ... 283 

JFiftrcnttJ ©as of JHag, 

Article I. — St. Dympna. Virgin and Martyr, and Patroness of Gheel, 
Belgium. [Sixth or Seventh Century.] 
Chap. I. — Introduction — St. Dympna's Biographers — Conjec- 
tures of Father Henschenius — Inquiry as to the Age 
in which St. Dympna flourished— Her Family and 
natal Place — Her Parentage, Birth, and early Dis- 
positions. ... ... ... 284 

Chap. II. — Death of Dympna's Mother — The- Saint's Vocation 
to the true Faith — Her Father's Proposal of Marriage 
— Dympna's Virtues and Constancy — She seeks the 
Advice of Gerebern — Is counselled to fly from her 
native Country — St. Dympna, Gerebern, and two 
Companions, leave Ireland — They arrive at Antwerp 
— Proceed to Ghele — Take up their Residence in the 
Neighbourhood of St. Martin's Oratory — Their 
pious Manner of Living — Grief of the King on his 
Daughter's Departure — Orders Messengers to seek her 
— Proceeds on a like Search himself — Arrives at 
Antwerp — His Servants bring him Intelligence of 
Dympna's Discovery — He visits the Place of her 
Retreat — Urges her to consent— Gerebern's noble 
Reprimand — the King's Attendants desire the Death 
of Gerebern — Their Reproaches against the holy 
Priest — His just Reproofs — The Servants of the King 
behead Gerebern, whose Life and Death bear a 
strikin'^ Resemblance to the Acts and Passion of St. 
John the Baptist. ... ... ... 295 

Chap. III. — The King orders Dympna to appear before him — His 
Threats and Promises — They areindijjnantly rejected 
by the holy Virgin — In a Fit of Frenzy, the King 
draws his Sword and cuts off the Head of his Daugh- 
ter — St. Dympna and St. Gerebern are decently 
interred by the Inhabitants of that Place — Disentomb- 
ment of their venerable Relics — The People of San- 
tcn steal the Relics of St. Dympna and of St. Gere- 


bern — The former Remains recovered by the People 
of Gheel — Miracles wrought whilst removing them to 
that City — the People of Gheel build a new Church 
and prepare a golden Shrine to honour their glorious 
Patroness — Translation of her Relics — St. Dympna's 
Miracles in behalf of the afflicted ... ... 310 

Chap. IV. — Subsequent Memorials of St. Dympna — Excursion to 
Gheel — Historical Notices of this City — Ancient 
Registers and MSS. — Former Celebrity of Gheel — Its 
general Appearance — Religious Foundations — Parish 
Church of St. Amand — Architectural Description of 
St. Dympna's Church — Chapels and Altars — The 
Calvinists destroy Objects of Art in our Saint's 
Church — The High Altar and its Accessories — The 
Cofter behind this Altar — A Description of St. 
Dympna's Altar within the little Choir — Curious 
wooden Sculptures — Mar.yrdom of St. Dympna and 
of St. Gerebern represented in the Blessed Virgin's 
Chapel — Chapel of St. Dympna — Relics of St. 
Dympna and of St. Gerebern — The great silver 
Shiine of St. Dympna — Other artistic Objects within 
her Church — Consecration of six Altars in 1531 — 
Foundation of the College of Vicars — Erection of 
the Chapter of Canons— Losses sustained by their 
Church — Visit by the Bishop of Bois-le-Duc to Gheel 
— Sale and Purchase of St. Dympna's Church after 
the French Revolution — The Hadscot Hospital and 
Augustinian Convent, at Gheel — Various miraculous 
Chap. V. — Local Memorials of St. Dympna in and near Gheel 
— General Character and Disposition of the Gheelois 
— Foundation of the Government Hospital — Usual 
Mode of treating the Insane — Influences of Religion 
on their State and Condition — Examination of the 
sacred Relics in 1847, by the Cardinal- Archbishop of 
Malines — Memorials and Festivals of the Saint — 
Reference to our Saint in the Calendars — Emblems 
of St. Dympna on the Continent and in Ireland — 
Article II. — St. Gerebern, or Genebrand, Priest, Martyr, and Patron of Sonsbeck. 

\_Sixth or Seventh Century^ ... ... _ 355 

Article III.— St. Dubhlitir, Abbot of Finglas, County of Dublin. [Eighth Ccn- 

^wy-] ... •■■ ... ... 374 

Article IV. — St. Colman, or St. Columban, Mac Ua Laoighse, of Ou^haval. 

Queen's County. [Sixth Cefitnry.] ... .__ -yyy 

Article V. — St. Saran, of Inis-Mor, or the "Great Island," in Ui-Mac-Caille, or 

Imokilly, in Ui-Liathain, County of Cork ... ... 383 

Article VI. — St. Coluim, or Colum, of Loch-Inis-Cre, now Monahincha, County of 

Tipperary ... ... ... ... 384 

Article VII. — St. Dachonna, Bishop of Connor, County of Antrim ... 385 

Article VIII. — St. Columba, Son of Faelghus ... ... ... 386 

Article IX. — St. Comman, Son of Dioma, of Aricul ... ... 386 

Article X. — St. Muiredhach Ua Dubhthaigh ... ... ... 388 

Article XL — St. Muredach, Son cf Nessan ... ... ... 388 

Article XII. — St. Timothy, Martyr at Sirmium, Pannonia ... ... 388 

Article XIII. — Reputed Festival of Caineoc, Virgin ... ... 388 

Article XIV. — St. Chromanus, or Chronanus, Priest and Confessor, of Mernia, 

Scotland. [Tenth Century.'] ... ... .. 388 

Article XV. — Reputed Festival of St. Brenaind ... ... ... 389 

^txteent!j IBag of JHag* 

Article I. — St. Brendan, Brandon, or Brenainn, Bishop and Patron of 
Ardfert, County of Kerry, and of Clonfert, County of 
Galway. [Fifth and Sixth Cenittries.'] 




Chap. 1. — Introduction — Manuscript Acts of St. Brendan — 
Materi:ils for his Bi(jgraphy — Predictions regarding 
him — His Place of Nativity and Parentage — His early 
Training by Bishop Ere and by St. Ita — He visits the 
great Saints of Ireland — Education by St. Finian of 
Cloiiard — St. Brendan writes a Rule dictated by an 
Angel — He begins to found Cells and Monasteries — 
His Connexion with Brandon Mountain ... 389 

Chap. II. — Irish and other Traditions about a great Western 
Continent — St. Barind and the Story of his Voyage 
— He Visits .St. Brendan — This holy Abbot resolves 
on setting out with some of his Mon^s to seek the 
Land of Promise — Preparations for tlieir Departure — 
Tliey at first sail with favouring Winds, and then 
a Calm succeeds — They land on an Island, where one 
of his Monks is buried — They visit -Sheep Island — 
They celebrate Easter on the Jascon's Back — The Para- 
dise of Birds— The Island of St. Ailbe — St. Brendan 
and his Monks visit other Islands — They are saved 
from Dangers of the Ocean — The Three Choirs of 
Saints — The Griffon threatens them — Wonders found 
in the Ocean — An Island of Fire — Judas Iscariot — 
The Hermit St. Paul and his Island — The Land 
of Promise of the Saints — The Island of De- 
lights — Return to Ireland of St. Brendan and his 
Monks .. ... ... 407 

Chap. III. — Irish and European Traditions regarding St. Bren- 
dan's Voyage — The Holy Man visits St. Ita — He 
founds a Monastery at Insula Detrumma — Other 
Foundations in Kerry — Miracles wrought in Bi-yuys 
Fort, and at Insula Detrumma — St. Brendan sails for 
Ikitain and becomes a Disciple of .St. Gildas — His 
Return to Ireland — He founds a Nunnery for his 
Sister Briga, at Annaghdown — He builds a Monas- 
tery, at Inis Mac Hua Cuin — St. Fursey becomes his 
Disciple — Recorded Miracles — Foundation of Clon- 
fert — Residence of St. Brendan in that Place ... 441 

Chap. IV. — Religious Erections of St. Brendan in Ireland — His 
Monastic Rule — Miracles of St. Brendan — His Places 
at Inish-Glora and Brandon Mountain — Writmgs 
attributed to St. Brendan — His closing Days and De- 
parture from Life — His Burial at Clonfert — His 
Memorials in Kalendars, and Places dedicated to 
him — Pilgrimages to Brandon Mountain — Conclu- 
sion ... ... ..- 453 

Article II. — Another supposed St. Brendan, Patron of Clonfert, County of 

Galway ... ... ... ... 472 

Article III. — St. Fiodhmuine, Anchoret of Raithin, King's County, and of Ennis- 

boyne, County of Wicklow. ^Eighth Century.^ ... ... 472 

Article IV. — St. Cairnech, Cairnigh, Crantock, Carantac, or Carantoc, Con- 
fessor, of Wales, and of Tuilin, now Dulane, or Duleene, County 

Meath, Ireland. \FiJlhoi- Sixth Century, '\ ... ... 475 

Article V. — St. Odhran, Priest ... ... ... ... 484 

Article VI. — St. Eman, Son of Aedh ... ... ... 484 

Article VII. — St. Duthracht, of Liath Droma ... ... ... 484 

Article VIII. — St. Maclaisre, Abbot of Bangor, County of Down ... 487 

Article IX. — St. Boetius, also called Breg-boesach, Son of Brondius ... 4vS7 

Article X. — St. Mochamail ... ... ... ... 487 

Article XI — .St. Finntan, of Cluana Cruaich ... ... ... 488 

Article XII. — .St. Fionnchadh, Bishop ... ... ... 488 

Article XIII.— Feast of the Translation or Elevation of the Relics of Saints 

Columban, Eustasius and Waldebert ... ... 488 

Article XIV. — St. Tricius, Bishop and Confessor, in Scotia ... ... 488 

Article XV, — Reputed Feast of St. Bertin, Abbot and Apostle, Belgium ... 488 

Article XVI. — Reputed Festival of St. Benthus, Confessor ... ... 489 


Scbenteentfi ©ag of i$laij« 


Article I.— St. Fionnchan, Bishop of Druim-Eanaigh and of Druim- 

Fess. [Sixth Centurj/.] ... ... ... 489 

Article II. — St. SioUan, Bishop of Daimhinis, or Devenish Island, County of 

Fermanagh, [Sevenf/i Century.'] ... ... 490 

Article III. — Supposed Feast of St. Silave or Silan, Bishop and Confessor ... 492 

Article IV. — The Sons of Ua Slainge, of Cluain-airbh . ... 492 

Article V. — St. Finnen ... ... ... ... 493 

Article VI. — Feast of the Translation of the Relics of St. Malachy O'Morgair, 

Archbishop of Armagh, &c., to Avignon, in France ... 493 

Article VII. — The Daughter or Daughters of Garbhan ... ... 493 

Article VIII. — St. Maolan, of Snamh-Luthair ... ... ... 493 

Article IX. — Feast assigned to St. Moling Luachra, of Timolin ... ... 493 

Article X. — St. Criotan, Bishop at Mahee Island, Coimty of Down ... 494 
Article XI. — St. Cathan, Bishop and Confe.ssor, Isle of Bute, Scotland ... 494 
Article XII. — St. Maw, or Mauditus, Hermit and Confessor, St. Mawes, Corn- 
wall .. ... ... ... 495 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Connallus, Archdeacon of Glasgow ... 496 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of St. Carantoc ... ... ... 496 

Article XV. — Feast of Saints Adrion, Victor and Basilla, Martyrs at Alexandria ... 496 

Article XVI. — Three Ursuline Virgins and Martyrs, at St. Amand, Flanders ... 496 

lEtgfjteentij Bag of JHa^. 

Article I.— St. Convallus, Confessor, Patron of Glasgow, Inchennen, 
Eastwood, and Pollockshaws, Scotland. [Sixth mid Seventh 

Centuries.] ... ... ... ... 497 

Article II. — Merolilanus, a Scottish Priest and Martyr, at Rheims, France. 

[Eighth Century.] ... ... .■• 5°° 

Article III. — St. Bran Beg, of Clane, County of Kildare. [Sixth or Seventh 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 503 

Article IV. — St. Mo-Maedoc, of Fidown, County of Kilkenny ... ... 504 

Article V. —St. Modomnoc, of Tiprat Fachtna ... ... ... 505 

Article VI. — Feast of St. Mark, Bishop and Martyr ... ... 506 

Article VII. — St. Bresal, of Derthach, thought to have been Abbot of lona ... 506 

Article VIII.— St. Saran ... ... ... ... 507 

Article IX. — Feast of St. Mommolin, Bishop of Noyon and Tournay, France. 

[Seventh Century.] ... ... ... 5^7 

Article X.— Translation of the Relics of St. Malachy O'Morgair, to Avignon .. 507 
Article XI. — St. Miodhguss, Son of Ere, of Tigh-Taillten, or Teltown Church, 

County of Meath ... ... ... 507 

Article XII. — St. Feradacius, or St. Ferdachrichus ... .. 508 

Article XIII.— St. Colman, Bishop ... ... ... 5°^ 

Article XIV.— St. Aghna, Virgin .... - ... ... 508 

i^tneteentf} ©au of Jilag, 

Article I. — St. Richella, Virgin ... ... ••• 5"^^ 

Article II. — St. Ciaran, Son of Colga ... ... ■•■ 5'° 

Article III. — St. Cuimmein, or Cuminus, of Baetan ... ••• 5'° 

Article IV. — St. Caradic, or Caradoc ... ... ••• S^' 

Article V. — St. Brittan, of Rath ... ... ■•• 512 

Article VI. — St. Mochonnae, of CillComhartha ... ... — S'S 

Article VII.— St. Ceir ... ... ... ••• S'S 

Article VIII.— St. Dinir, of Eanach-Eir ... ... ••■ 5i3 

Article IX. — The Three Sons of Eoghan, or Eugene ... .•• 5^3 

Article X. — The Feast of Urban's Clergy, Martyrs, at Rome. ... ... 5^3 



Article XI. — The Deposition of Blessed Raban Maur, Abbot of Fulda ... 514 

Article XII. — The Blessed Patrick and Malachy, Cistercians and Martyrs, in 

Ireland ... ... ... ... 514 

S:b3entirt|) ©ao of fHau» 

Article I. — St. Colman, of Doire Mor, or Kilcolman, King's County. 

[Sixth and Seventh Centuries.'\ ... ... ■■■ S^S 

Article II. — St. Conall, Abbot of Iniscaoil, County of Donegal ... ... 518 

Article III. — St. Daniel, of Tulach ... ... ' ... 519 

Article IV. — St. Laidhgenn, or Laidcind ... ... ... 519 

Article V. — St. Cromdithruibh, of Inis-crainn ... ... ... 519 

Article VI. — Festival of S'. Marcellosa, with Companions, Martyrs in Africa ... 520 

Article VII. — St. Mac Laithbhe, of Donoughmore .. ... 520 

Article VIII. — Festival of St. Columbanus of Luxeu, Disciple of St. Columbanus, 

Abbot ... ... ... ... 521 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival for St. Dympna and St. Gerebern, Belgium .. 521 

Article X. — Feasts of Saints Gervasius and Frotassius, Martyrs ... ... 521 

Article XL — St. Ronanus ... ... ... ... 521 

Eixjtnti3;:Krst ©au of JHag. 

Article I.— St. Bairrfhionn, Patron of Druim-Cuilinn, orDruim-Cullen, 
King's County, and of Cill-Bairrfhinn, now Kilb.arron, 
County of Donegal. [ Century. '\ 

Chap. I. — Introduction — St. Bairrfhionn's Family and Period 
— A Disciple of St. Columba — His Connexion with 
Drumcullen — Description of the Place ... 522 

Chap. II. — The probable Migration of St. Barrfoinn from Drum- 
cullen, towards the Northern Part of Ireland — His 
Settlement at Kilbarrind — Its Location and Descrip- 
tion — Visited there by St. Columba — St. Barrind is 
supposed to have been the first European Discoverer 
of the American Continent — His Place in our Calen- 
dars — Conclusion ... ... ... 525 

Article II. — St. Silaus, Bishop and Patron at Lucca, in Hetruria, Italy ... 528 

Article III. — St. Fionnbharr, of Cork, County of Cork ... ... 537 

Article IV. — St. Moinne, or Moennenus. ... ... .. 538 

Article V. — St. Cuimmin, Son of Lughaidh, of Inis-mac-Ua-Darthada, or 

Dartagha ... ... ... ... 538 

Article VI. — St. Polan, said to be of Cill-Mona, said to have been Kilbarrack, 

County of Dublin ... ... ... 538 

Article VII. — St. Colman, Lohhar, or the Leper, of Magh-n-Ec, or Moyne, 

County of Clare ... ... ... 539 

Article VIII. — St. Brigid, daughter of Dima, or Diomman ... ... 540 

Article IX. — St. Colman Cron ... ... ... ... 540 

Article X. — St. Maeldcid, of Lismore, County of Waterford ... ... 540 

Article XL — Translation of the Relics of St. Paternus, Bishop of Venues, 

France ... ... ... ... 54° 

Article XII.— St. Ronan ... ... ... ... 541 

Article XIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Chroniacus. [Seventh Century.] ... 541 

Article XIV. — Reputed Festival of St. Sidonius, or Saens _ ... ... 541 

Article XV. — Festival of St. Timothy and of his Companions, Martyrs ... 541 

EbJfnt2=srconti ©ag of fHau. 

Article L— St. Conall, or Conald Coel, Abbot of Iniscoel, County of 

Donegal. [Seventh Century.] ... ... ... 542 


Article II. — St. Baoithin, of Ennisboyne, County of Wicklow. \Sczenth Centmy.'\ 545 

Article III. — St. Ronan Finn, of Lann Ronain, County of Down ... 547 

Article IV. — St. Brecan, the Pilgrim, of TeampuU Breccain, Island of Aranmore, 

County of Galway ... ... ... 549 

Article V. — Saints Aghna, Luighsech, Caissin, Virgins, of Druim-da-Dhart ... 549 

Article VI. — The Seven Sons of Ednius of Maighin, or Moyne, County of 

Mayo ... ... ... ... 550' 

Article VII. — Reputed Feast of Nortyla, or Nortilas, Bishop of Verden, Lower 

Saxony ... ... .. ... 55° 

Article VIII. — St. Cassinus of Sexhumka ... ... ... 550 

Article IX. — The Sons of Eochaidh ... ... ... 550 

Ebjentij^ljirtr ©ag of iHag. 

Article I. — St. Goban of Mairge, or Goibhnenn, of Tigh Scuithin, now 
Tascoffin, County of Kilkenny. \_Probably Sixth and Seventh 

Centuries.'\ ... ... ... ... 55^ 

Article II. — St. Comman ... ... ... ... 551 

Article III. — St. Faolchon, or Faelchu ... ... ... 553 

Article IV. — St. Cremlithann, or Cremtand, of Magh Dumha ... ... 553 

Article V. — St. Strofan or Straffan, of Cluan-Mor, probably Clonmore, County 

of Carlow ... ... ... ... 553 

Article VI. — Festival of St. Epectinus and Companions, Martyrs... ... 554 

Article VII. — St. Nechtlaice, or Nechtlic, Bishop ... ... 554 

Article VIII. — Reputed Feast of Fidelis, a Scottish Hermit ... ... 555 

®:b3ient2^fourtfj JBag of Pag, 

Article I. — St. Segineus, or Segin, Archbishop of Armagh. [Seventh 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 555 

Article II. — St. Berchan, of Cluain Caoi ... ... ... 556 

Article III. — St. Aidhbe, Bishop and Abbot of Tir-da-Glass, now Terryglass, 

County of Tipperary ... ... ... 557 

Article IV. — St. Stellan of Inis Celtra, now Innis-cealtra, County of Galway ... 559 
Article V. — The Seven Daughters of Fergus, of Tigninghin Ferghusa, or of 

Inis-cealtra, County of Galway ... ... ... 560 

Article VI. — St. Colman ... ... ... ... 560 

Article VII.— St. Siollan, or Sillan ... ... ... 560 

Article VIII. — St. Ultan, Son of Aedhghen ... ... ... 561 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of Ferranus, or Ferianus, a Culdee Bishop, in 

Scotland ... ... .. ... 561 

Article X. — Festival of Ermes, or Hermes ... . ... ... 561 

Article XI. — Festival of St. Rudbertus, or Rupert, Bishop of Saltzburgh ... 561 

Article XII. — Feast of St. Augustine, Bishop and Apostle of the Southern English. 

[Sixth and Seventh Centuries.] ... ... ... 561 

Eiwents^fiftb ©ag of JHas* 

Article I. — St. Dunchadh, Abbot of Iona, in Scotland. [Seventh and 

Eighth Centuries.] .. ... ... c62 

Article II. — St. Criumther Cael, of Kilmore, probably in the County of 

Cavan .. ... ... ... 565 

Article III.— St. Mocholla, Daughter of Diomma ... ... 565 

Article IV. — Festival of St. Aldelmus, or Adelinus. [Seventh and Eighth 

Centuries.] ... ... ... ... c66 

Article V.— St. Modomnoc ... ... ... ... 566 



Article VI. — Festival of St. Dionysius ... ... ... 566 

Article VII. — Festival of St. John the Baptist ... ... ... 567 

Eixitntg^sixtf) Dap of iHay, 

Article I. — St. Began of Cluain-aird-Mobecog, in Muscraige Breoghain, 
County of Tipperary, or of Tigh-chonaill, now 
Stagonnell, in Ui-briun Cualann, County of Wicklow. 
\^Sixth Century.]... ... ... ' ... 5^7 

Article II. — St. Colman Steallan, of Terryglass, County of Tipperary. [Six//i and 

Seventh Centuries.] ... ... ... 574 

Article III. — St. Colman ... ... ... ... 575 

Article IV. — Festival of St. Augustine, Bishop of Canterbury, England. [Sixth and 

Seventh Centuries.] ... ... — 575 

Etoent2=sebentij ©ag of jEag. 

Article I.— St. Cillin, or Killin, Bishop of Tigh Talain, now Tehallan, 

County of Monaghan. [Fifth Century.] ... ... 576 

Article II. — St. Commaigh Comagia, or Comaigh, Virgin, of Snawlooher, or 

Slanore, County of Cavan. [Sixth or Seventh Century.] ... 579 

Article III. — St. Maelan, of Slanore, County of Cavan ... ... 581 

Article IV. — St. Cuintoc, of Snawlooher, County of Cavan ... ... 581 

Article V. — St. Ethian or Ethern, Bishop of Donoughmore mic Laithbhe, in 

Mughdorna ... ... ... ... 582 

Article VI. — Reputed Feast of a St. Echbritan, Ecbriotan, or Echfriotan, Sonof 

Oisu, or Ossa ... ... ... ... 582 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Aculius and his Companions, Martyrs ... 583 

Article VIII. — St. Moduin, Abbot of Saul, County of Down ... ... 584 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Wigbrordus, Apostle of Bavaria ... 584 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of St. Fintana, Virgin, in Scotland ... ... 584 

Article XI. — Feast of St. Fontana ... ... ... 584 

Articlk XII. — Reputed Festival of St. Becan, Abbot ... ... 585 

Article XIII. — Festival of St. Gennanus, Bishop of Paris ... ... 5^5 

Etocntg^eig'^tJ) Dag of fHag. 

Article I. — St. Mael-Odhran, supposed to have been a Monk of Iona, 

Scotland. [Seventh Century.] ... ... ... 585 

Article II. — The Seven Bishops, of Tigh-na-Commairce ... ... 586 

Article III. — St. Faelan, or Foillan, a Confessor ... ... 586 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. German, Tutor of St. Patrick... ... 587 

Article V. — St. Furadhran, of Lann-Turu ... ... ... 587 

Article VI. — St. Eoghan, the .Sage ... ... ... 587 

Article VII. — Reputed Festival of St. Jonas, said to have been Abbot of 

Luxeu, in Burgundy ... ... ... 587 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Winin, Priest, in Cantire, Scotland ... 588 

Article IX.— St. Sillan ... ... ... ... 5S8 

Article X.— St. Dairius ... ... ... ... 5S8 

EiMcntginint!) ©ag of iHag, 

Article I.— St. Brunsecha, Virgin, of Magh-Trea, and of Killyon Parish, 

King's County. [Fifth and Si.\th Century.] ... ... 5S9 


Article II.— St. Commain, Virgin, of Dal-Buinne, and of Derry, Parish of Bally- 

phillip, County of Down ... ... ••• 594 

Article III. — St. Buriena, Virgin, of Cornwall, England ... ... 596 

Article IV. -St. Modune, or Duonius. ... ••■ ••• 597 

Article V. — St. Maeltuile, probably of Dysart, County of Westmeath ... 597 

Article VI.— St. Mobecce, of Trilick, County of Tyrone ... ... 598 

Article VII.— St. Dairius ... ... ... ••■ 599 

Article VIII.— Reputed Feast of St. Uaganus, Bishop of Galloway, Scotland ... 599 

Article IX.— Festival of St. Pollio ... ... ■■■ 600 

Article X.— Reputed Feast of St. Gumbert, or Gundibert. [Seventh or Eighth 

Century.^ ... ... ... ... 600 

El)trtict!) JBatj of Jlag. 

Article I.— St. Madelgisilus, or Mauguille, Solitary, in Picardy, 
France. [Sezvnth Ccntniy.'] 

Chap. I. — Introduction — Writers of the Ads of St. Madelgisilus 
— His early Birth and Education — He accompanies 
St. Fursey to France — Their united Labours — After 
St. Fursey's Death, St. Madelgisilus seeks Admission, 
and he is received as a Religious, in the Monastery at 
Centule ... ... ... 601 

Chap. II. — The Virtues and Manner of Life adopted by St. 
Madelgisilus, at Centule — Angelic Vision — He 
becomes a Hermit at Monstrelet — His devotional Life 
there — His Illness — St. Vulgan and Himself after- 
wards live together — Death of St. Vulgan, and sub- 
sequent Departure of our Saint — His Relics and the 
Miracles he wrought — Translation of his Relics — 
Conclusion ... ... ... 605 

Article II. — St. Goban, orGobban, of Airdne Dairinse .. ... 611 

Article III.— St. Fergussius, of Druim-bile, otherwise, St. Saergusa bile or 

Saerghos, of Druim ... ... ... 613 

Article IV. — St. Ernine, orErninus ... ... ... 614 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Silay, or Silaus, Bishop at Lucca ... 614 

Article VI.— St. Heyna or Hieu. {Seventh Century.] ... ... 614 

Article VII. — Festival of St. Caidoc and Frechor or Adrian, Centule, 
Picardy, and Apostles of the Morini, in France. [Sixth and 
Seventh Centuries.] ... ... ...615 

Article VIII. — Festival of the Nativity of St. Thomas ... ... 616 

Article IX. — Festival of Eutychius, Martyr ... ... ... 617 

Article X.- — Reputed Feast for the Translation of the Relics of St. Dympna and of 

St. Gerebern, at Gheel, in Brabrant ... ... 617 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of St. Totuanus, Martyr ... ... 617 

^i)trt2'-tot ©as of iilag. 

Article I. — St. Feradacius, Abbot of Iona, Scotland. [Ninth 

Century.] ... ... ... ... 617 

Article II.— St. Fer-da-crioch ... ... .. ... 618 

Article III.— St. Eoghan, Bishop of Cremhcaille, or Abbot of Moville, 

County of Down ... ... ... 619 

Article IV.— St. Maelodhrain, of Slane, County of Meath ... ... 619 

Article v.— St. Ernin, of Cranfield Parish, County of Antrim ... ... 621 

Article VI.— St. Coirpre, Abbot of Moville. County of Down ... ... 621 

Article VII.— Feast of St. Chrysogenus, Martyr, at Aquileia ... ... 621 

Article VIII.— St. Petronilla, Virgin ... ... ... 621 

Article IX.— The Blessed John Meagh, S.J., Martyr, near Prague, Bohemia. 

[Seventeenth Century.] ... ... ... 622 

Article X.— Reputed Feast of St. Silanus, a Pilgrim and Bishop ... ... 623 

Article XL— Reputed Feast of Findocha, Virgin, in Scotland ... ... 623 

Article XII.— Reputed Feast of St. Frudocha, Virgin ... ... 623 


Abbot, Right Rev. Father, of La Trappe 
Monastery, Gethsemani, Nelson County, _ 
State of Kentucky, U.S.A. 

Byrne, Very Rev. P. J. Byrne, Dean, V.G., 
P.P.. Dungannon, County of Tyrone. 

Franciscan Convent, Very Rev. Guardian of, 

West Gorton, Manchester, England. 
Slattery, Rev. J., St. Patrick's Catholic 

Church, Bradford, England. 
Walshaw, Very Rev. Canon Samuel, St. 

Mary's Church, Sheffield, England. 


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jfirsJt 2Baj) of iWap* 





WHILE popular traditions have locally preserved the memorials of our 
saints, they have frequently added statements and embellishments 
of a questionable character. In many instances, it may well be supposed, 
the writers of Irish Saints' Lives drew from such sources, and were only partially 
acquainted with the factsof contemporaneous history; oftentimes too, theywere 
ignorant in respect to the period, persons, and circumstances, that transpired 
coeval with them, and a knowledge of which might help to give more accuracy 
and consistency to the narratives, which have descended to us. In a general way, 
most of the detailed prose Lives are mediseval, and apparently not grounded 
on the accounts of authors, who had personal knowledge of their subjects. 
Again, the rhythmic statements of various provincial bards seem to have the 
flavour of romance, more to recomm.end them for popular admiration, than a 
sound historic basis for the exercise of sober judgment, and to sustain the 
local traditions, from which those compositions emanated. Yet, sometimes, 
we are not to regard them as largely the product of imagination and pure in- 
vention. It is, occasionally, with very great diffidence, we are obliged to follow 
those guides, and yet to present such information as they afford, in a reserved 
measure, and frequently in a mood of doubt or dissent. Were it attempted 
to describe minutely the miracles, fortunes, and characteristics of saints, as 
recorded in their old Acts, too often might we wander into narratives, wholly 
irrelevant to those objects sought to be attained. It is more than probable, 
edification given to the reader could hardly prove the result for such an exact 
reproduction of stories manifestly fabulous. However pleasant in perform- 
ance and choice to the writer, to record even harmless legends regarding our 
saints, this might be deemed even prolix and misplaced by the critical reader. 
Moreover, as embracing the later popular accounts of times, long subsequent 

Vol. v.— No. i. ' a 


to the age of those holy persons, besides displacing incongruity, our narrative 
must require space, more than could be available with romantic narratives. Our 
])lan demands, in most cases, very brief biographical notices, and these we 
labour to render consistent, so fiir as may be attempted, with the probabilities 
of history, or with the fair deductions, resulting from a study of our old national 
traditions and modes of thought. In the present ojiening narrative, most pro- 
bably we have both history and romance blended in ])roportions, that now 
cannot well be known or distinguished, and that still require additional re- 
flected lights, to place them in a more satisfactory point of view. 

The earliest copy of St. Cellach's Life we possess at present is probably in 
that collection of prose and verse tracts, contained in the Leabhar Breac, or 
Si)eckled Book, otlierwise styled Leabhar Mor Duna Doighre, or the Great 
Bookof Diin Doighre. The following narrative, based ui)on it, does not conflict, 
except apparently in chronology, with what occurs in our general Irish annals. 
We find, also, among the Messrs. Hodges' and Smith's collection of Manu- 
scripts, in the Royal Irish Academy, a Tract on the Life of St. Cellach.' This is 
only a copy, taken from an original. A somewhat similar Life was in 
possession of the Irish Franciscans, at Louvain.* It resembles that contained 
in the Irish Manuscript Codex, called by some Leabhar Mor Duna Doighrd,3 
but now better known as the Leabhar Breac. The biographical tract in 
question was translated, from Irish into Latin, by Father Thomas O'Sheerin, to 
serve the purpose of Father Gotlefrid Henschenn, who has edited it.'' How- 
ever, distrusting much some poetic or irrelevant rhapsodies which he rejects, 
Father Henschenn has adopted a rescission he deems better suited, to eluci- 
date the present Saint's liistory.s The full text of this piece is now accessible 
to the Irish student, as the Leabhar Breac has been published f and. it is 
interpolated with poetic effusions, in reference to the subject matter. Among 
these are lines, attributed to St.Cellach himself, but, most probably, they are 
only the production of a later period, than when he flourished. Some notices, 
in reference to him, have been entered in a work, compiled by Duald Mac 
Firbis ;7 and, in the Book of Lecan, there is also allusion to him. In Rev. 
Jeoffrey Keating's General History of Ireland, this account is also found 
abridged.* From these various sources, the following narrative has been 

The holy man, whose biography we are about to treat, descended from a 
race of royal ancestors, whose actions have been chronicled, in the general 
annals of Ireland. Thus, St. Ceallach 9 was son to Eugenius Belus — in Irish 

Article i. — Chaptf.r i. — ' It is a vel- Their names render it extremely difficult, 

lum folio, and classed No. 224. liowevcr, to reconcile its narrative with 

' This was a tran>icri]it, from an older exact chronology, 

copy, in the " Leabhar l.reac." * See "Leabhar Breac. the Speckled 

3 Anglicized, "the Great Book of Dun- Book, otherwise styled Leabhnr Mor Duna 

Doighre," which was a place on the Con- Doighre, the Great Book of Diin Doighre ; 

naught side of the Shannon, and some miles a collection of Pieces in Irish and Latin, 

below the town of Athlone. See Professor compiled from ancient sources about the 

O'Curry's "Lectures on the Manuscript close of the Fourteenth Century; now for 

Materials of Ancient Irish History," Lect.ii., the first time published from the original 

PP- 3I' 32- Manuscript in the Libraiyolthe Royarirish 

* See the Bollandists"' Acta Sanctorum," Academy," pp.272 to 276. Dublin. Royal 

tomus i., Maii i. De Sancto Kellaco Epis- IrishAcademyHouse,i9l)a\vsou-stieet,i876. 

copo in Hibernia. A commentary, in live ' .See "The Goueaiogies, Tribes and Cus- 

paragraphs preceding it, and a few notes, toms of Hy-Fiachrach, commonly called 

follow. See pp. 104 to 107. O'Dowda's Country," edited by John 

5 As will afterwards be shown, in text and O' Donovan, pp. 32 to 35. 

notes, various personage^, well designated in ''See Dermod O'Connor's second folio 

our Annals, are introduced in the Irish Life. edition, Book ii., pp. 351, 352. Westmin- 

May I.] 


Eoglian Beul — King of Connaught ; and, he had another brother, who was 
called Cuchoingelt, orMuireadhach.'° Among the bravest and most ambitious, 
vigilant and capable of administrators, in his age and country, Eoghan Beul 
ruled over the province of Connaught, with popular applause and good for- 
tune, which he hoped might be secured for his sons." These named Ceallach 
and Muireadhach were lineal descendants of Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin," 
who flourished as supreme monarch of Ireland, about two centuries previous 
to their birth. At first, he was King over Connaught, when he married Mong- 
finn, sometimes called Munig, with Finn superadded, and by her he was of four sons, Brian, '3 Fiachra,'4 Fergus and Olioll.'s He also married 
Carrina '* — said to have been a Saxon '? — and by her, he had a son, the re- 
nowned Niall of the Nine Hostages. According to the Irish pedigrees, 
Eogan Beul was the son of Ceallach,'^ son to OillioU Molt,'9 son of Dathi,^° 
sometimes called David, son to Fiachra Follsi.athach,^'' son. to Eochaidh 
Muighmeadhoin. His castle ^^ was built on an Island, lying in Lough Mask, 
and from him, it has since been called Inis Eoghain.^3 it lies on the east 
side of the Lough, and the denomination is now written Inish Owen.^'t It 
comprises over twenty-nine acres in extent of surface.'^s 

The date of our saint's birth must been referred to about the year 520, 
according to the most probable opinion. He was the eldest son of his father, 
who selected for him a renowned and holy teacher. The young j)rince Ceal- 
lach was placed at an early age, under the tutelage of St. Kieran, Abbot of 
Clonmacnoise.^^ Charmed with the exercises of religious life, Ceallach re- 
solved to embrace the monastic profession, and there he lived as a monk. 

ster, 1726, fol 

5 Not ad verting to the identity of name, in 
hisedition of Ware, Walter Harris calls him 
"the son of Doghan, or as some say, of Owen 
Bel, King of Connaught." — Vol. i., " Bis- 
hops of Killala," p. 650. 

'° In the valuable Genealogical Table, 
narrating the principal descendants of 
Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, which is found 
in Mr. O'Donovan's translation of the 
" Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of Hy- 
Fiachrach," p. 476, St. Ceallach and his 
brother Cuchoingeltare placed in the seventh 
generation from their famed ancestor. 

" -See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
i., Vita S. Kellaci, sect, i., p. 104. 

'^ He reigned from A.D. 358 to A. D. 365. 
See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol. i., pp. 124, 125. 

'5 From him, are descended the Hy- 
Brien of Connaught. 

"• From him, descend the Hy-Fiachra of 

'5 From him, the territory of Tirolioll, in 
Sligo, had its denomination. See Roderick 
O'Flaherty's " Ogygia," pars, iii., cap. 
Ixxix., p. 374. 

'* Dr. Sylvester O'Halloran calls her a 
princess of the Saxon nation ; but, the 
Saxons at that period had no settlement in 
England. See "General History of Ire- 
land," vol. i., Book vi., chap, v., p. 288. 

'' Roderick O'Flaherty remarks, that the 
Saxons, in conjunction with the Scots, Picts 
and Attacots, had frequently invaded Bri- 
tain, before the period of the Anglo-Saxon 

Conquest. See "Ogygia," pars, iii., cap. 
Ixxix., pp. 376 to 378. 

'^ Called Kellan, in that pedigree, given 
by Culgan, in " Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," 
Februarii iii., Appendix ad Acta S. Col- 
mani, vulgo Macduach, cap. ii., p. 248. 

'9 He ruled for twenty years over Ireland, 
and, by Dr. Svlvester O'Halloran, he is said 
to have been the first Irish sovereign to es- 
tablish Christianity by decree in Ireland. 
Sec "General History of Ireland," vol. ii., 
Bookvii., chap, v., pp. 33, 34. 

*° For tvventy-threeyeais, he was sovereign 
over Ireland, and he was struck dead by 
lightning, in the Alps, A.D. 428. See 
Thomas D'Arcy M 'Gee's " Popular History 
of Ireland," vol. i., Book i., chap, ii., p, 

" He had two sons, Dathi, King of Ire- 
land, and Amalgaidh, King over Connaught. 
See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," 
Februarii iii., Appendix ad Acta S. Colmani, 
vulgo Macduach, cap. i.. p. 248. 

^- There is a curious little poem, quoted by 
Duald Mac Firbis in his large genealogical 
work, describing the residence of King 
Eoghan Beul. 

^3 On it. Dr. John O'Donovan "saw dis- 
tinct traces of its earthen ramparts, in the 
year 183S.''— Addenda Q to " Genealogies, 
Tribes and Customs of Hy-Fiachrach," p, 
473- - . 

^* See thd. Explanatory Index to the 
Map, p. 492. 

^5 It is in the of Ballinchalla, and 
in the barony of Kilmaine, as shown, on the 


Meantime, during the stormy period of his father's reign,=7 Eoghan Beul was 
obliged to defend his principaHty by force of arms, from the attacks of turbu- 
lent and powerful tribes surrounding him. His principahty was often invaded, 
but he usually repelled the invaders and scored a victory. However, a great 
confederacy of the people belonging to Tyrone and Tyrconnell, with other 
Ulster tribes, under the leadership of Ferguss and Donald,^^ made an irrup- 
tion into Connaught, and penetrated so far as the River Moy, carrying devas- 
tation along their course. This obliged Eoghan Beul to collect the forces of 
his province, and soon the rival armies came to blows. About the year of 
our Lord 537, "' a battle was fought at Sligo, and it was fiercely contested. 3° 
The Northern army, however, gained a victory over the Connacians, who 
were obliged to yield, after an obstinate engagement. In it, Eoghan Beul 
received his death-wound, and he was borne from the field by his soldiers, 
who crossed their spears and lances, to support his body, and to serve the pur- 
pose of a litter. However, our saint's father survived the battle of Sligo — in 
which he was mortally wounded — for three days ^3' or, according to other 
accounts, for a week. Soon, afterwards, Guaire asserted his pretentions to 
rule over Connaught. 3' At Clonmacnoise, Ceallach remained, until the disas- 
trous issue of that battle 33 had called him forth from his retirement on the 
Shannon. The Connaught chiefs, and especially these belonging to Hy- 
Fyachrach, deprecating the calamities which were likely to ensue for their 
province, held frequent interviews with their dying king, to ascertain his wishes 
in reference to a successor, and most likely to avert the crisis now approaching. 
During that interval which elapsed, after receiving his wound, and before his 
death took place, it is said, that Eoghan persuaded the tribe of Hy-Fiachrach, 
to elect his elder son as King of Connaught. 3+ His other son, Cuchoingelt, 
or Muireadhach, had not yet attained his majority. 35 In accordance with this 
request of the dying monarch, messengers were despatched to Clonmacnoise, 
and to announce the result of that Sligo battle, with Ceallach's consequent 
promotion. These delegates were instructed, to represent the desperate state 
of their affairs to St. Kieran. The latter received them very hospitably, but 
he refused acceding to their wishes, as he deemed the monastic rules could 
not be dispensed with, in the case of Ceallach. However, the delegates re- 

" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 3 1 According to the Life of our Saint, a 

County of Mayo," sheet 117. copy of wliich remained in posses-ion of 

"^ He founded Clonmacnoise, it is said, Messrs. Hodges and Smith, the publishers to 

A.D. 548, and died A.D. 549, according to the University 01 Dublin, 

the chronolo<^y of Ussher, in "Britannicaium 3=TheAnnalsofInnisfallenrecord thedeath 

Ecclesiarum Atitiquitates." Inde.x. See his of Guaire Ai'ihne, at653. Aijain, the " An- 

Life, at the 9th of September. nalesUitonienses" place hisde.ith, attheyear 

=7 He is said to have lived for thirty-six 662, which does not well accord with the 

years, according to the Vita S. Kellaci, statements in St. Kellach's Lite. See Rev. 

sect. i. Dr. OConor's " Rerum Hilieinicarum 

** These reigned one year over Ireland, Scriptores," tomus ii., p. 15 ; also, tomus 

according to the Ulster Annals, A.D. 565. iv., p. 55. 

See Archbishop Ussher's '• Britannicarum 33 'fhis statement appears to conflict, with 

Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. the date assigned for the battle, and with 

947. that given f.>r the death of St. Kieran. 

"9 The Annals of Innisfallen place this 3* See Major Wood- Martin's " History of 

event, at A.I). 536 ; the Annals of Tigernach Sligo, County and Town," &c., Book ii., 

have it, A.D. 543; while the Annals of chap, iv., p. 135. 

Ulster have it, at A.D. 542, and they again '5 The king had also ordered, that he 

enter it, at A.D. 546. See Rev. Dr. should be interred in an upright position, 

O'Conor's " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip- with his red javelin in his hand, and with his 

tores," tomus ii., pp. 6, 137, and tomus i v., face turned towards Ulster, as if fighting 

pp. 17, 18. with his enemies. See John O'Donovan's 

30 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of" the " Gencalo^^ies, Tribes and Customs of Hy- 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 178 to 181. Fiachrach," Addenda Q, p. 472. 


mained tlierefor two days, and on the last night, they urged upon Keallach those 
arguments, which caused him to resolve on leaving Clonmacnoise. He was 
told, that lie had been chosen unanimously by chiefs and people, to succeed his 
father on the throne of Connaught, and accordingly, the young prince accepted 
their nomination. Without communicating his intention to the saint, under 
whose guardianship he was placed, Kellach prepared to depart. For this 
apparent insubordination, St. Kieran is said to have pronounced a maledic- 
tion, which was thought to have been prophetic of his future fate.^^ 

With the usual ceremonies of inauguration,37 Kellach was elected King of 
the Hy-Fiachrach.3^ After some time, however, the King of Hy-Fiachrach 
Aidhne 39 revolted, as probably, feeling desirous to obtain the first distinction 
in that province. The isolated position of his district 4° it would seem afforded 
him means and opportunity for insurrection. A public convention was held 
by the subordinate chiefs and people, in order to effect some terms of agree- 
ment. Great numbers of partisans on both sides were present. A treaty of 
reconciliation was arranged ; and to this Keallach adhered in good faith, but 
his opponent was more wily and insincere. He invited Keallach to his for- 
tress, and the latter accepted this invitation. He went thither, accompanied 
by a train of guards and followers. Notwithstanding, treachery seems to have 
been practised, for some of these were killed, while Keallach and twenty- 
seven of his followers saved themselves by flight. While revolving in vexation 
of mmd a mode to be revenged on the perfidious king, a better thought at 
last presented itself to Kellach ; for, recollecting the judgment denounced 
against him by St. Kieran, he resolved to quit once more the ambitious views 
and high station to which he had been drawn. 4' Soon, therefore, lie retired to 
a desert place, in the midst of woods, and then like another Peter, he wept 
tears of sorrow for deserting his Divine INlaster.^^ Here, too, he remained for 
a year: and then, taking with him the twenty-seven companions, who were 
saved from death, Kellach resolved on returning to Clonmacnoise. Yet, he 
remained without this city, for a time ; because, he felt a diffidence and 
reproach of conscience, at the presence of St. Kieran. There he waited ad- 
mission, until some of the monks met and recognised him. They exchanged 
with him the kiss of peace, and promised to prepare the Abbot for an inter- 
view with his prodigal son, who had been dead to them, but who came to 
life again, who was lost and yet who had been found.''3 He appears to have 
conciliated the favour of his former instructor, however, and the Abbot felt 

3* These foregoing and subsequent parti- Connaught, in the seventh century. See 

culars, in reference to our saint, are briefly "The Genealogies, Tribes and Customs of 

and elegantly narrated in Mrs. M. C. Fergu- Hy-Fiachrach," edited by John O'Donovan, 

son's " Story of the Irish before the Con- pp. 2, 3, and nn. (f, g). Ibid. 

quest," chap, v., pp. 161 to 163. ^^ Seethe position of this principality, as 

37 For a poetic inspiration on this subject, defined on John O'Donovan's Map, prefixed 

the reader is referred to Thomas Davis' to " The Tribes and Customs of Hy-Many, 

"National and Historical Ballads, Songs, commonly called U'Kelly's Country." 

and Poems," part iii. The True Irish King, *' Six quatrains, attributed to St. Ceal- 

pp. 103 to 106. lach, regretting that at the instigation of 

3^ There is an excellent and interesting friends, he had been induced to abandon the 

Map of Hy-Fiachrach, with some of the ad- clerical profession, in oider to assume the 

jacent districts in the counties of Mayo and Kingship of Connaught, are to be found in 

Sligo, compiled by John O'Donovan, and the published " Le.Jjhar Breac," at p. 273, 

setting forth, in the Irish character and Ian- col. i., line 41. 

guage, the names of those districts, with ^.^ t^t. Mattliew xxvi., 75. 

their historical places. ■♦s .St. Luke xv., 32. 

39 This territory was commensurate M'ith ^"^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail 

the present diocese of Kilmr.ctiuagh. and its i., De ."^-ancto Kellaco Kpiscopoin Hibernia, 

inhabitants were called Cineal Guaire, or Vita, sect. 3, 4, p. I05. 

the descendants of Guaire Aidhne, King of " 


greatly rejoiced, that his spiritual son had returned to assume the yoke which he 
had borne in youth. Kellach fell on his knees before the Abl)Ot. St. Kieran 
affectionately raising him said : " My son, I regret exceedingly I pronounced 
that malediction, when you deserted us, yet it is now irrevocable ; still you shall 
not be deprived of reward and glory, if you only persevere and advance in your 
first vocation ; bear then cheerfully the light and sweet yoke of Christ, than 
whose love nothing else can be so delightful, than whose company nothing 
can be more full of solace, while no kingly state or pleasure can be at all so 
glorious. '4^ These words gc^ve great consolation to Ceallach, and prepared 
him once more for the sweets of a religious life. 



Having thus placed himself again under the direction of St. Kieran, Ceallach 
became thoroughly devoted to his mastf^r, and profited by his precepts.' The 
Holy Spirit then poured on him the choicest graces. He sent away the band 
of seculars, who seem to have been his guards, to wait upon his young brother 
Muredach, who found refuge with his fosterer the dynast of Lugnia.^ With 
renewed ardour, Cellach followed the course of monastic studies and rules, 
so that he gave the greatest possible satisfaction to St. Kieran. At length, 
he was deemed worthy of being promoted to the sacerdotal grade. In due 
course, a vacancy occurring in the See of Killala, the clergy of that diocese, 
hearing about the merits and virtues of Ceallach, united their suffrages, to 
promote him as their chief Pastor. During the reign of Tuathal Melgarb,^ 
King of Ireland, who ruled from a.d. 533 + to a.d. 544, ^ Ceallach was elevated, 
it is tiiought, to the episcopal chair, as Uishop of Killala.^ Here, there is a 
remarkable round tower, standing quite perfect, and even retaining its original 
stone roof, of conical shape. 7 Near it is the Protestant cathedral, rather a 
poor structure, and presenting no special feature of interest.^ The bishop's 
house was formerly in this town,9 celebrated for having been captured by the 

Chapter 11. — ' It is curious to notice, * According to the Annals of Ulster. See 

thnt the Annals of Innisfallen refer llie Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hibermcarum 

foundation of Clonmacnoise, to a.d. 573; Scriptores," tomus iv., p. 15. 

and, they state, that it was called Cluain, s See Roderick O'Flalierty's "Ogygia," 

because it became the scholastic reireat of pars, iii., cap. xciii., p. 430. 

the sons of the King of Connaugiit. See Dr. 'In Harris' Ware, he "is said to have 

O'Conor's " Reruin Hibernicarum Scrip- been Bisho|) of Killala." See vol. i., " Bis- 

torc^," tomus ii., p. 6. hops of Killala," y. 650. 

^ This was a region of Connaught, where ' 1 he accompanying illustration wasdrawn 

the present county olSligo lies, and in which on the spot and transferred to the wood, by 

the dioce!^e of Aclionry is situated. See William K. Wakeman. It was engraved, by 

Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum," Januarii xx. Mrs. Mdl.nrd. 

Vita Secunda S. F\chini. n. 2, p. 140. ^ See W. F. Wakeman's " Touri>ts' 

3 He mounted tlie throne, A.D. 528, and he Guide to Ireland," p. 270. 

was slain, a.d. 538, after reigning eleven 'Sre Rev. G. Ilansbrow's "Improved 

years, according to I>r. O'Donovan's Topographical and Historical Hibernian 

" Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. Ga/etteir." &c., p. 276. 

176 to iSl, "^ See Mr. and Mrs. Hall's "Ireland, its 

May I.] 


French, in August, 1798.'° No vestige of the ancient church remains." 
To about the year 540, his acceptance ol this dignity has been referred. But 
for the authority of this Life,'* we should look in vain to the authentic cata- 
logue, for his place among the Bishops of Killala.'3 Nevertheless, there can 
hardly be a doubt, that at least for a short time, he had assumed the office. 
Although Ceallach, as we are told, anxiously watched over the See of Killala ; 
yet, he found time to visit Clonmacnoise most frequently, thus wishing to 
unite the fruitful cares of Martha, with the pious retirement of Mary. The 
revenues ot his bishopric were spent, in providing for the wants of the poor, 
and in aiding those addicted to literary pursuits.' Students flocked to him 

Killala, County of Mayo. 

from all parts of Ireland, through which the fame of his holiness and liberality 
had spread.'* It appears that Guaire '5 — from the period indicated he might 
be regarded as a distinct person from another Guaire surnamed Aidhne '^ — 
became a successful usurper of the Connaught throne. He feared, however, 
the more rightful claims of the Bishop to that station he then usurped. 
Accordingly, Guaire conceived a mort:al hatred towards Ceallach. At 

Scenery, Character," &c., vol. iii., p. 379. 

" See Nicliolas Carlisle's "Topogiapliical 
Dictionary of Ireland," siih voce Killala. 

" See Walter Harris' Ware, vol. i., " Bis- 
hops of Killala, ' p. 650. 

'5 Archdeacon Henry Cotton has placed 
him in this rank, only as a conjecture, be- 
tween 534 to 544. See " Fasti Ecclesise 
Hibernicse," vol. iv., p. 61. 

'* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

i. De Sancto Kellaco Episcopo in Hiber- 
nia, Vita, &c., sect. 5. p. 105. 

'5 In the account of the Life and Death of 
St. Cellach, as lound in the " LeaMiar 
Breac," he is called Guaire. son of Colnian, 
and also Guaire Aidlme. Here, he is made 
a contemporary with St. Kieran oi Clon- 
macnoise, who IS said to have founded it A.D. 
548, and to have died in 549. See Rev. Dr. 
Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 



one lime, tlie holy bishop had been engaged making a visitation of his dio- 
cese, and accompanied by a great number of his clerics being on his way to 
Kilmore,'7 which was near the River Muad or Moy ; Guaire, the son of 
Colman, happened to be residing at Duilus,'^ with his son Narus, and with 
Neniedius, son to Fercogha. 'When Nemedius discovered, that the pious pre- 
late had passed their house, without paying them a visit, he said to Guaire, 
"Unceremoniously and with little friendliness hath Bishop Kellach passed us 
by, as if he were hostile to us." " It matters not," replied Guaire, " that he has 
gone on his way, for I shall despatch a messenger to invite him, in my name, 
to return, and to hold a conference with us." Accordingly, selecting one of 
his confidants, the latter reached Kellach, at the end of that day's journey. He 
then told the Bishop, that Guaire felt displeased, because he had passed by, 
but still he requested, that Ceallach might return. It happened to be on the 
Sabbath eve, and the Bishop replied, that as the Sunday was approaching, he 
should be engaged all the day, either in celebrating the holy Sacrifice of the 
Mass, or in other sacred duties, at which Guaire who was near might assist,' 
and even have an opportunity for an interview with him. The bishop de- 
clared, also, that if Guaire should come to him, on the Monday following, he 
would willingly return the visit. But, that messenger distorted the words of 
the holy bishop. Being a person of depraved mind and hostile to him, the en- 
voy declared, that Kellach would not go to the king, nor did he show a friendly 
feeling towards the latter. Then, in a transport of rage, Guaire cried out : 
" Return to him again, and tell him, that unless he hurry away from these 
parts, on this very night, I shall burn down the church on himself and on his 
people." This threatening message was conveyed to Kellach, who relying 
nevertheless on Divine Providence remained there, until the Monday follow- 
ing. Then, he went to a village, on the borders of Lough Conn, '9 where he 
spent that night. Afterwards, his course was extended towards Claon-loch."° 
Here was an Island called Etgair,*' or Oilen Edghair, and over it in the air was 
witnessed a vision, representingagreat numberofHoly Angels. Movedbysucha 

land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xi., nn. iSo, 
182, pp. 52, 58 59. 

** We read, that Guaire Aidline was de- 
feated in the battle of Carn-Feradaig, in the 
territory of Clia, and he fled from it, Failbe 
Flann Femhin being the victor, A.D. 627. 
At 621, the Annals of Innistallen have en- 
tered the battle of Cath-Cairn Feradaig — 
Latinized Prceaggeris sacri lapidum Fera- 
dagi — and which was fought between the 
people of Mun^ter and of Connaught. In it, 
Failbe-Fland was conqueror, while Guaire 
Aidne fled. Failbhe Flann did not long 
survive, as his death is recorded, at a.d. 
631, in the Annals of Innisfallen. The 
death of Guaire Aidhne, King of Connaught, 
is placed at A.D. 663, and he was buried 
at Clonmacnoise, according to the Annals 
of Tighernach. See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 
*' Reruni Hiberniiarum .Scriptores," tomus 
ii.,pp. 12, 13, and 1S9. 203. 

'? Now known as Kihnoremoy, ntar Bal- 
lina, and now a vicarage in tiie Diocese of 
Killala. " It is reported to have been the 
See of a Bishop in the sixth century ; but we 
hear of only one prelate." — Archdeacon 
Henry Cotton's " Fasti EcclesiseHiberuica;," 
vol. iv., p. 96. 

'^ This fortress was situated near Kinvara, 
in the south-west of the county of Galway. 
It was the name of the residence of Guaire 
Aidhne, King of Connaught. It is now 
called Dun-Guaire. See John O'Donovan's 
" Genealogies, Tribes, and Customs of Hy- 
Fiachrach," pp. 2S4, 285, n. (b), and- pp. 
290, 291, n. (t). However, there was 
another Durlus Muaidhe, near the River 
Moy. See ibid. Addenda I., p. 416. It 
seems likely enough, this latter was the place, 
mentioned in our text. 

'' Very exquisite steel plate engravings of 
Lough Conn and Mount Neph.n, the Pon- 
toon Bridge and Islands there, will be 
found, in W. H. Bartlett's " Scenery and 
Antiquities of Ireland," vol. i., sect, x., 
PP- 72, 11- 

" The Bollandist editor of St. Kellach'.* 
Life thinks this must be sought for, in the 
county of Siigo, and not far from the River 
Moy. See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Mail i. Vita S. Kellaci, n. (d), p. 107. 
However, it does not seem to be different 
from Lough Conn. 

•' By tliis name, it does not appear now to 
be recognisable. 

" ' ' The banks in many places are hand- 


spectacle, the Bishop with his followers passed over the lake towards it. There, 
he discovered no sacred foundations had yet been established, nor was there any 
monument or memorial of a hermit known. Deeming the angelic apparition 
to denote this island, a^ the place for his future habitation, he resolved not to 
leave it. His clerics, who were with him, at first treated this resolve as one 
lightly made. However, they found it impossible to change their holy 
superior's purpose. Then, they received his instructions regarding the church 
of Killala, and learned the administrator's name, to whose care it was to be 

Dreading the consequences of Guaire's anger, the Bishop thought it pru- 
dent to retire from his bishopric, that he might find a more secure retreat in 
solitude. He fled for concealment to Lough Conn.^^ This is a very hand- 
some sheet of water, in the barony of Tyrawly.^3 Jt is about nine miles long, 
by four broad ; in some views, it is prettily interspersed with islands, castles 
or abbeys. Hither Ceallach betook himself, resolving to live in complete 
seclusion. '+ However, the fame of his holiness, and of his retirement from 
Killala, soon extended over the rest of Ireland. On that insulated spot, called 
Etgair, he built a hermitage. Meantime, his brother Muredach ^s frequently 
paid him visits, to receive his advice, and to comply with his instructions. 
In this retreat, four ecclesiastical students had placed themselves, uixier the 
training and discipline of Cellach, and these are even called clerics. In the 
Latin I>ife of our Saint, these young men are named Moelcronius, Moeldal- 
vanus, Moelsenachus, and Mac-Deoradius, or the son of Deoradius. There, 
they lived a whole Lent, engaged in pious exercises and offices, and under the 
direction of their holy instructor. However, the retreat of Ceallach was soon 
discovered by Guaire. This unhappy prince, on the whole anxious to do what 
he deemed to be just, was led astray by evil-minded sycophants. Probably 
instigated by jealousy and suspicion, when he heard of the frequent inter- 
views between Kellach and his brother Muredach, Guaire conceived an idea, 
that the latter aspired to the kingdom of Connaught, while the bishop lent 
him counsel and encouragement to effect such a purpose. Naturally was 
Guaire averse to entertain any feeling, save that of respect and benevolence 
towards the holy Bishop ; but, his evil counsellors, Narus and Nemedius, 
laboured by day and night to persuade him, that Kellach should be assassina- 
ted. To effect this dread purpose, many and false were the insinuations and 
charges concocted against him. However, Guaire would not enter into such 
a measure, for its sacrilegious and criminal intent caused him to receive it 
only with horror. His counsellors, Narus and Nemedius, then persuaded 
the king, to invite the Bishop to a public banquet, for the purpose of procur- 
ing a family and dynastic reconciliation. Their real purpose was to gain an 
opportunity, for taking Kellach's life, by administering pofson. 

Accordingly, messengers were sent to the holy eremite entreating him to 
accept the king's invitation for a banquet, on a day appointed ; but, he de- 
clined, on the pretext, that his present mode of living and his rule did 
not permit him association with worldly men and pleasures. Failing in 

somely decorated with gentlemen's seats and ^'> See Major Wood-Martin's " History of 

some woods," — M'Parlan's "Statistical Sligo," &c.. Book ii., chap, iv., p. 136. 

Survey of the County of Mayo," p. 22. "^ It is stated, that he lived a year under 

^3 A road and bridge — called the Pontoon the coiitairce, or protection, of Marcan, King 

— now pass between Lough Conn and Lough of Ua Maine and Meadiuighe. The latter 

CuUen. The narrow channel connecting is stated to have addressed three quatrians 

these lakes, is often swept by a tremendous to him, on his departure. These are given 

current. See Mr. and Mrs. Hall's " Le- in the " Leabhar Breac," at p. 275, col. ii., 

land, its Scenery, Character," &c., vol. iii., line 5. 

P- 382. "^ Tliis, perhaps, was the fortress, known as 


this object, the messengers then entreated the bishop, to allow his clerical 
companions to visit Diirliis,^'^ where Guaire lived. The bishop told them, 
that his students were free to go or stay, as they thought fit. Wherefore, these, 
havin'^ accepted the invitation of Guaire, set out for his fort, with the mes- 
sen<^'ers. Tliere, they were honourably received. After the royal banquet, when 
the clerics were placed on the ri-ht and left of Guaire, they were highly feasted, 
and tliey became intoxicated. Then, drawn aside to a secret chamber, the 
seducers approached them, and, while urging, that the peace of their country 
depended on Kellach's death, they bribed those four students, to murder their 
professor and spiritual guide. Their Irish names are given, as Mac Deoraidh, 
Maelcroin, Maeldalua, and Maelseanaigh. Not only promises of horses and 
herds, with other seductions held out, but even the whole territory of Tir-Amal- 
gaid,^7 were offered to them, as the reward for their crime.^^ Forgetting their 
sacred calling, and their intimate relations with Kellach, the unhappy young 
men agreed to execute the deed suggested to them, under the influence of 
drink." They retired to bed for the night, and the following morning, while 
sober, their purpose was not changed.^s 



All matters having been arranged for their departure from Durlus,' the per- 
fidious young men left Guaire, and confirmed in their resolution, to perpetrate 
a most revolting murder. Hiding arms under their clerical garments, those sacri- 
legious students returned to the boats, v/hich were left on the shore of Claon- 
loch, and they sailed in them over to the Island. There was found their holy 
Bishop, intent on reciting his Psaltery ; nor did he notice them, until his office 
had been finished. Then, he approached, and detected, in the changing 
countenances, eyes, and nervous motions of the young men, a presage of their 
wicked designs. He cried out : " O youths, you return to me with different 
looks, from those which possessed you on parting from me, and you have 
treacherously entered into Guaire's plots to murder me. Behold, my sons, you 
have assumed a base engagement, by following wicked counsel, and there- 
fore set it aside ; if you adopt this my advice, you will gain a greater reward, 
tiian any Guaire could offer." The students were somewhat moved, on hear- 
ing these exhortations;^ but, recognising the dire plot, which had been forced 

Dulrus Guaire, about five miles from Boirin, " History of Irelani : Critical and Philoso- 

to which allusion is made in Dermod pliical," vol. i., part xii., chap, vi., viii., pp. 

O'Connor's Keating's " Gciieral History of 411,422. London and Dublin, 1881. 

Ireland," Book ii., p. 361. Duffy's edition. =• 'I'his is said to h;ive been the Flease 

'7 This territory, now commensurate with /jw^a or patrimonial inheritance of Cucoin- 

the Barony of Tyrawly. is said to have been gelt. 

so called irom Amalgad, son of King Dathi, '* See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

who brought back the ashes of his sire from tomus i., Mali i. 'Vita S. Kellaci, sect. 6, 

Gaul, fighting ten battles on the way, at 7, 8. 9. lo. pp. 105, 106. 

Lundum, probably London, Corper Cinge Chapter iii. — ' This fort seems to have 

or Cime, Colon, Faile, Miscall, Coirte, been the cue alluded to, m Colgan's " Acta 

Moile, Grenius, and Fermia. Without Sanctorum HibirniK," Februarii iii. De S. 

comment or explanation, these battles and Colmano, vulgo Mac Duach, chap, viii., x., 

places are found, in the oldest Irish nianu- p. 245. 

script extant. Sec Standish O'Grady's Y^ '^'^y ^'c P''^sented, in the shape of six 


on them, they now urged, there could be no withdrawal from such a promise, 
and tl)ey objected, too, that by falsi tying it, they could not find in all Hibernia 
a place of security, against the power and vengeance of Guaire. 

All their holy master's expostulations and arguments were vainly 
urged upon minds, so strongly possessed by satanic promptings. They 
seized upon him, and dragged him to the edge of the island, by 
force and violence. Then, they placed him in a boat, which was 
steered for the mainland. ^rhere, he was led into a thick wood, 
near the shore. Keallach still continued to protest against their treacherous 
designs, and he endeavoured once more to dissuade them, by stating, 
they could find refuge from Guaire, at Clonmacnoise, or elsewhere, and 
under the protection of some, among the Irish kings. Finding those 
wicked young men would not desist, he entreated a respite for one day more. 
This request was reluctantly granted. When night came, they placed him 
within the hollow of an oak tree, and kept a watch at its opening. However, 
the youths were oppressed with fatigue, and they fell into a deep slumber. A 
thought came into the mind of Kellach, that he might now escape. However, 
recollecting the prophecy of St. Kieran, in his regard ; the holy man deemed, 
that the Divine decree should be there awaited, both as to death and judg- 
ment. " It is better for me," he mused, " here tranquilly and courageously 
to meet my death, than to fly and to be slain, as a coward, when weakness and 
hunger should cause me to fall into the hands of my oppressors. "3 Accord- 
ingly, he remained there tranquilly until daybreak, while engaged in prayer and 
holy contemplation. This was to be his last day upon earth; and, at dawn, for a 
moment, Keallach withdrew from the light, into his hollow cave. Yet, 
ashamed of his pusillanimity, he soon came forth again, to hear the birds 
sweetly singing, and the woods resounding their notes, as the morning began 
to brighten. On the night of Wednesday, the Bishop had a remarkable 
vision, during his sleep. He dreamed, that four mastiff dogs had attacked and 
torn him violently, through ferny ground, and next had dragged him into a 
whirlpool, whence he could not escape. This Ceallach considered, as indi- 
cating the sort of fate, he was now destined to experience. The holy man 
then burst into accents of praise to the great Creator. He sang a hymn in 
Irish, the text of which has been preserved in a metrical form. Afterwards, 
Kellach was drawn forth, from the hollow of the tree, by his perfidious dis- 
ciples ; and, he was struck repeatedly, until life became extinct. While the 
blood flowed from his body, the wild beasts and birds congregating there 
tore it in pieces. Before leaving, Mac Ueoraidh, Maelcroin, Maeldalua and 
Maelseanaigh, appear to have left the bleeding remains in the hollow tree, as 
if for concealment. The persons, who committed this barbarous murder, 
are called foster-brothers * to the saint. When he had been slain, they has- 
tened to the fort of Guaire, and there he is said to have received them, with 
joy and favours. 5 

These base murderers had thus beset the man of God. His assassination 
is said to have occurred, in the southern part of Tyrawly. The murder was 
perpetrated, according to a popular tradition, between Lough Conn and 
Lough Cuillinn. The particular place is stated ° to have been Addergool.' 

quatrians, in the published " Leabhar * Probably, because they had been cared 

Breac," at p. 274, col. i., line 32. Their for by him, on the Island, and while they 

authorship is attributed to St. Ceallach. were Kellach 's pupils. 

3 In the "Leabhar Breac," at p. 274, col. 5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

ii., line I, are to he found twenty quatrians, Mail i., Vita S. Kellaci, sect. II, 12, 13, 

supposed to have been composed by Cel- p. 106. 

lach. after the manner of his death had been * See Harris' Wgre, vol. i., "Bishops of 

revealed to him in a vision, Killala," p. 650. 


[May I. 

As a reward for their treachery, the territory of Tyrawly was given to the 
assassins, by Guaire,whirli seems to mark, not only his comphcitywith, but even 
his high approval of, their crime. They erected a stronghold, at a place called 
Dun Fine,^ which lay within that territory, and ihere they took up an abode.9 
This barbarous deed was afterwards revenged by Cucoingelt. On 
the very day of its occurrence, he had come on a visit to his brother; but, not 
finding him at Oilen Edghair, and having had some intimation of designs en- 
tertained by Guaire, at once, Cucoingelt began to suspect that his brother had 
fallen a victim to his enemy's wiles. Having instituted the necessary enquiries, 
regarding the time of Ceallach's departure from the hermitage, and his pro- 
bable route ;'° after some search, Cucoingelt discovered the mangled remains 
of his deceased brother, concealed in the hollow trunk of an oak." These 
were disfigured and scarcely recognisable, as wolves and birds of prey had 
been attracted to this place, by the effluvia proceeding from the dead body.'* 

Turlogh Round Tower, County of Mayo. 

Cucoingelt performed the last sad oflSces, towards those lacerated remains 
of his sainted brother. At first, he applied to the clergy, at Dunmore — after- 
wards called Turloch church '3 — for permission to bury the body there ; but, 
dreading Guaire's resentment, they refused this request. The place is now 

' The parish of Acklergoole — Iving west of 
Loui^li Conn — in the barony of Tiraw ley, is 
de>cril)ed, on the " • 'rdnance Survey Town- 
lanil Maps for the County of Mavo," slicets 
38. 46, 47, 48. 58, 59, 60, 6S. A(lder;^oole 
townland, also called Knock Maria, is on 
sheet 47. 

* Now DnnTeeny, in the north of the 
barony of 'I'irawley. It is marked, on tlie 
" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 

County of Mayo,'' sheet 6. 

9 Here there was an old church, the head 
of a palish called Dunfeeny or Dunfinny, 
about nine miles west from Killala. The 
p'.acc received name from this fort, and within 
it> enclosure, the old cluirch was after- 
wards budt. See John O'Donovan's "Genea- 
logies. 'Iril'es, and Customs ol Hy Fiach- 
rach,'" pp. 6, 7, n. (z). 

'° The Latin Life says " iter carpsit inter 


known, in connexion with a ruined churoh, and a well-preserved round 
tower.^+ Afterwards, Muiredach besought the priests in charge of Lis Cail- 
lain church, ^5 to grant the same favour, but he was again denied the privilege 
sought. This refusal sorely grieved him, and he retired from this place with 
an aching heart, when suddenly fire was seen to descend from Heaven, while, 
in his presence and in that of his companions, the church was entirely con- 
smned. It was never afterwards restored, to that time, when St. Kellach's 
Liie had been written. Another remarkable miracle followed close on the 
foregoing incident. The crowd of noble mourners stood around the coffin, 
not yet resolved what to do. Two stags then appeared, and drew his body 
to its last resting-place ;'^ nor was there a mortal to guide them. The 
funeral cortege followed the direction they took, and the mourners 
were even consoled, because of this extraordinary manifestation by Divine 
Providence. At length, the deer drawing the coffin, to which they had been 
harnessed, stopped before the door of a certain oratory. Then, suddenly rang 
out the church bell of its own accord, as if to welcome there the sacred re- 
mains. These were deposited in Eiscreach church, '7 with becoming solemnity, 
psalms, canticles and sacred rites being employed. Angels in great numbers 
were seen above the grave, and the people of that place felt greatly rejoiced, 
to have such a precious deposit committed to them. Then is furnished a 
sequel, to the foregoing beautiful legend. The stags, when unyoked from the 
saint's coffin, would not stir from the place ; but, like beasts of burden, they 
became domesticated, and they served the inhabitants while ploughing, and 
during other rustic operations. Each evening, when loosed from the yoke, 
they sought holy Kellach's grave, and licked it with token of affection. Thus, 
did those mute animals teach the people there to venerate the saint, and to 
pay constant honours to his memory.'^ 

While standing over those mangled remains, as they were con- 
signed to the tomb, Cucoingelt's outraged feelings found vent, in a 
vow of vengeance, against the perpetrators of this barbarous murder. 
He is related, to have chanted a dirge, or caoin, over the body of Ceal- 
lach, as it was lowered into the grave. '9 Cugoingelt then put in train of action 
his designs for revenge, and in a manner, as singularly conceived, as it was 
fatal and effective in execution. Time was required, for the maturing of his 
object ; and, then, having assembled about three hundred of his retainers and 
relatives, this chief retired with them into Hy- Many territory, where helivedwith 

duo stagna Loch-Con et Loch-Cuilinn." by William F. Wakemaii, and engraved by 

" In vasti roboris caudicem, ad cavese Mrs. Millard, 

similitudinem vacuatum, compingunt." — '^ This place has not been identified. 

"Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mali i. Vita '* See, Le Comte de Montalembert's 

S. Kellaci, sect. 12, 14, pp. 106, 107. " Les Moines de I'OcGident," tome ii., liv. 

" In the " Leabhar Breac,'' at p. 275, col. viii., chap. ii. , p. 426. 

i., line 17, are nine quatrains, supposed to '^ It has not been identified; but, possibly, 

have been spoken, by Muredach, son of it may have been Eiscir-Abhan, now Inish- 

Eogan Bel, over the mutilated body of his crone, near the River Moy, in Tireragh 

brother Cellach, on discoveiing where it had barony, and county of Sligo. See Dr. 

been hidden by his murderers. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four Masters," 

■3 This is a parish in the barony of Carra. vol. v., p. 1315, and n. (d^. 

It is shown, on the "Ordnance Survey '^ See the Bullandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

Townland Maps for the County of M^yo," tomus i., Maii i. Vita S. Kellaci, sect. 15, 

sheets 48, 59, 60, 69, 70, 79. The town- 16, 17, p. 107. 

land is on sheet 70. '5 In the " Leabhar Breac," at p. 275, col. 

'* They are near Castlebar. Under the i., line 60, are three quatrains, supposed to 

shadow of the round tower lie the remains of have been spoken, by Cucoingelt, son of 

the once famous George Robert Fitzgerald. Eogan Bel, over the grave of his brother. 

The accompanying illustration is Irom a Cellach. 

photograph taken on the spot, by T. J. ^'^ He died of the great plague in Ireland, 

Wynne, Castlebar, transferred to the wood A.D.664, afterajointniignwithKingDiarmaid 




that armed band of followers, during one year. He afterwards spent some 
time in Meath, where he married Aife, daughter to Blathniac,='° King of Ire- 
land. But, at length, he returned to Tyrawly."' Having procured the 
friendly assistance of a swine-herd, to whom he discovered his intention ; 
this man entered warmly into his plot, and procured its successful accomplish- 
ment. The prince, having disguised himself as a swine-herd, was admitted 
to the fort of Dun-Fine, and as a companion of that menial. Cuct»ingelt had 
previously posted his armed bands, in the neighbourhood of Dun-Fine castle, 
that they might be ready to surprise it, wiien a signal should be given. During 
a banquet, Cellach's murderers, with their guests and vassals, became stupidly 
intoxicated ; and, this being an opportunity the prince so c'-gerly desired, he 
despatched his friend the swine-herd, to give notice to his men, that their 
time for action had arrived. Immediately, they rushed forward and surprised 
the castle. Having slain its guards and vassals, they spa ed the guests. The 
four murderers of holy Bishop Cellach were seized, and bound with chains ; 
while the guests, who were made aware of those circuristances, and the dis- 
guise assumed by Cucoingelt, felt rather pleased than otherwise, at the success 
of his plot. They even drank to the avenger's fortunes. On the day follow- 
ing, the murderers were brought in chains, to a place r.alled Durlus Muaidhe,^^ 
and across Lee Durluis.-^ until they arrived at Ardnarea,*^ or Ardnaree, on 
the River Moy.^5 Here, they were executed, ir a manner characterizing 
Cucoingelt's barbarity, even allowing for the di-e provocation he had re- 
ceived. ^^ One account has it, that the assassins were torn to pieces, by wild 
horses ;^7 while, according to others, they were tianged.^^ The Hill of Ard 
na Riagh is in the parish of Kilmore Moy, -md barony of Tirawly, a short 
distance to the south of Ballina. It is a rem^irkable cromlech, supported by 
three pillar-stones, and fixed as level as a h'^rizontal dial.'? Situated on a hill 
to the west side of the River Moy, and nearly opposite to Ard-na-Ree, is 
shown Ard-na-Maol, or the height or hill of the Afaols, i.e., where the four 
youths, whose names began with the wcrd Maol, were interred. 3° The monu- 
ment raised over them is yet in existence. Afterwards, Cucoingelt received 
the submission of the Tir Fiachrach and Tir Amhalgaidh tribes, with hos- 
tages ; and, he banished Guaire to Me southern part of the province. Here, 

of eight years. See Dr. O'Dono'an's 
" Annals of the Four Masters," vol. -•, pp. 
276, 277. 

^' There are five quatrains, addressed by 
Aife to her husband Cvigoini^eh, vhen he 
was about pioceeding to L'onnaug'it, to re- 
venge the death of his brothc Celhich. 
These are to be found, in the published 
"Leabhar Breac," p. 275, col. !'., b'le 44. 

" This place has not been id^ntilled. 

^3 This place has not been ir'entititd. 

"* See Harri>' Ware, vol. i. " Bishops of 
Killala," p. 650. 

*5This village is but a su'mrb of Ballina, 
on the east side of the Rive- Moy. It is in 
the barony of Tireragh, an! shown, on the 
" Ordnance Survey Town'^nd M.ips for the 
County of Sligo," sheet 2)- 

=' See Major Wood-Mirtin's "History of 
Sligo," &c., buokii., ci>'P- i^'-. P- U^- 

'^ There are three qu:'rains, on the fate of 
those, who murdered St. Cellach, in the 
"Leabhar Breac." p. 276, col. i., line 59. 

"^ " At the river c* Sal Srotha Dert,' (an 
ancient name of th( Kiver Moy), which is 

called the Muaidh, and it was from them the 
hill over the Muaidh was called Ard na 
Kiogh ; .ontl, Ard na Maol is the name of 
the hill on the other side of the stream, 
where they were interred." — John O Dono- 
van's translation of " Genealogies, Tribes 
and Customs of Hy Fiachrach." p. 35. 

'' ''It is now po[niIariy called the Table of 
the Giants by the natives when speaking 
English, and C/och an togbhdla, i.e., the 
raised stone, in Irish. This is the only Crom- 
lech in Ireland, which can be satisfactorily 
connected with history. In the Dinnsean- 
chus this moMument is called Leaf^ht na 
Afaol, and said to occupy a loftv situation, 
which coupled with the description of its 
situation on the other side of the Moy, op]io- 
site Ard na riagh, leaves no doubt of its 
identity." Ibid., pp. 34, 35, note x. 

3° For a more circumstantial account of 
the execution and interment of the four 
Maols, the reader is leferrcd to the Diii- 
seanchus, in the Book of Lecan, at fol. 

■*' It would seem, however, that at some 


he drove the usurper, within the territories of Tir Fiachrach Aidhne ; and, his 
previous extent of sway over Connaught was now confined, to a very small 
district of that province. 3' Thus was a foul murder avenged, by a retribution, 
barbarous and revolting, it is true ; yet, who shall say, the sufferers in this life 
had atoned for a deep crime committed against God's holy law ? 

In the DunkeUl Litany 3^ occurs the name of a Bishop Kellach ;33 but, 
it does not follow, that he was identical with the present holy man, so named 
and distinguished in ecclesiastical rank. 34 In the published Martyrology of 
Tallagh,^5 at the ist of May. we find the entry of Celhnn h Fiachrach ; and, 
this also very nearly corresponds, with what is given in the Franciscan copy,36 
at the Kalends of May. On this day was celebrated the festival of Ceallan 
Ua Fiachrach, as we read in the Martyrology of Donegal. 37 

In the foregoing tragic and afflicting narrative of St. Ceallach's Life, we 
have several useful lessons presented. In the first phce, his own inconstancy 
of resolution to persevere in the religious state, on which he had entered, and 
his disobedience, marked with the denunciation of his holy master, St. Kieran; 
next, the fatal suspicions excited, jealousy and envy creating the plot laid to 
repress his apprehended worldly ambition ; then, his death resolved on, and 
attended with circumstances of such atrocity and perfidy, although the holy 
man was not unprepared, for his departure from life. Again, it may be 
seen, that when murder has been perpetrated, and with imagined secrecy, im- 
punity seldom attends the murderer, detested by his fellowmen ; discovery of 
the deed and the perpetrators is usually followed by condign punishment ; 
while, worldly interest or satisfaction soon ceases to hold out advantages, for 
the wretched miscreant. Vengeance is the Lord's, and he will repay — fre- 
quently in this life, but assuredly in the next, where grievous crimes unre- 
pented of are never to be expiated, for the tortures of the damned shall there 
last, for ever and ever. 




THE great missionary saints of the early Church, with sublime heroism, pre- 
pared themselves to accomplish the regeneration of human society. The 
lowest species of servility springs from superstition, and from being subject to 

time subsequent, Cucoingelt went to the Cucoingelt, bv Guaire, son of Colman, and 

house of Guaire, while there are three qua- his emissaries. See the published " Leabhar 

trains extant, and supposed to have been Breac," at p. 276, col. ii., lines 30, 38, 

spoken by the former, in consequence of a 67. 

vision he had, that he should there be mur- 32 According to William F. Skene, he was 

dered. Emissaries of Guaire Aidne are said probably that Bishop Kellach, who emanci- 

to have assassinated the two sons of Eogan pated the church on the Collis Credulitatis at 

Bel, King of Connaught, Cellach and Cu- Scone, in the reign of Constantine III. 

coingelt ; and fourteen quatrains are preser- See "Chronicle of the Picts and Scots," 

ved on the subsequent desertion of Eogan p. 9. 

Bel's residence. Again, there are twelve 33 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

quatrains, on the murder of Cellach and Scottish Saints, " p. 361. 




persons' opinions, when, at the same time,reason persuades us, that theseare en- 
tirely false. Christianity has always infused a nobler spirit into its converts from 
paganism ; and, it has often made them great reformers of corrupt practices. 
Among the benefactors of a country, glorious and renowned on the Continent 
of Europe, the present holy man is distinguished ; while his fame and influ- 
ence have impressed their abiding record, in a part of France, where religion 
has been cherished, as essential for the spiritual and prosperous life of her 

From various sources are we obliged to glean particulars of this biogra- 
phy. An ancient Breviary contains the Legend of St. Brioc's life.' We find, 
also, that an old Memorial of St. Brioc^ is cited, by Archbishop Ussher. The 
Acts of St. Brieuc, or Brioc, have been edited in French, by Albert le Grand, in 
his Lives of the Saints belonginL^to Armoric Britain. 3 The Life of this saint 
has been Avritten, also in French,* by L. G. de la Devison, a canon of Brieux 
church. 5 This iDook was published in the year 1637,^ and it is held in high 
esteem. 7 The BoUandists have also published this saint's Acts, at the xst of 
May ; and, these consist of his Life, taken from his Proper Office for the 
church of St. Brioc, in nine para'::,raphs, with annotations.^ There are three 
additional paragraphs, containing an account of the Translation of this saint's 
relics, the whole being preceded by seven paragraphs, forming an introduc- 
tory Dissertation. 9 These Acts are edited by Father Godefrid Henschenn. 
In Baillet's work,'° at the ist of May, we have a Life of St. Brieu, or Briocus. 
In the First Volume of I^obineau's Saints of Bretagne," we find an account 
of St. Brieuc, the first Bishop and Patron of Brieux." The Rev. Alban 
Butler,'3 and Godescard,''* have notices regarding him. Lately, Lobineau's 
Lives of the Saints of Bretagne, has been edited, 's with many corrections and 
additions, by L'Abbe Tresvaux, Canon, Vicar-General and Official of Paris. '^ 

3* Dempster has a St. Celiach who is 
venerated, according to him, at the 14th of 
February ; but. from the account, he differs 
from the pre.-;ent venerable bishop. See 
•' llistoria Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," 
tomus i., lil). iii., num. 272, pp. 160, 161. 

35 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

3* It is written there CellAin Vi pAcVi- 


37 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves. See 
Appendix to the Introduction, n. xlvii., and 
pp. 116, 117. 

Article ii. — Chapter i. — ' The Bol- 
landists and Baillet had no knowledge con- 
cerning this legend, which was discovered 
at a time later than that at which they wrote. 
Hence, they have not been able to speak 
about our saint, in an exact manner ; and 
they should not be too scrupulously fol- 
lowed, in all their statements regarding St. 

' See, also, John Leland's Itinerary, vol. 
iii., p. 15. 

3 This work is intituled, " De Vitis Sanc- 
torum Britannia Armoricoe." 

* It is intituled : " Vie et Miracles de 
Saint Brieuc et de Sunt Cjuillaume," (en- 
semble la Translation de Rellques dudit 
Saint Brieuc et la canonization dudit Saint 
Guillaume, &c.) Tliis little work was pub- 
lished in one volume, i2mo. at Saint Brieuc. 

5 We regret our not being able to procure 

a copy of his Life. 

* See " Les Annales Briochines," par 
I'Abbe Ruffelct, chanoine de la cathedrale, 
in one volume, iSm.o, published at Saint 
Brieuc, a.d. 1771. 

7 See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de Bre- 
tagne," par ^L L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome i,, 
p. 70. _ 

* This is printed, from an ancient Manu- 
script, found in the public Library at Rotho- 
mag. No. 70. 

9 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.. Mail i. 
De Sancto Brioco, Episcopo in Britannia 
Armorica, pp. 91 to 94. 

'° See " Les Vies des Saints," tome ii., 
pp. 24, 25. 

" It was pubhshed, at Rennes, A.D. 1724, 
in folio. " Ce livre a d'exactitude, mais il 
manque d'onction." — Feller's Dictionnaire 
Ilisiorique. Art. Lobineau. 

"See "LTIistoire des Saints de Bre- 
tagne," tome i. , at May 1st, pp. 70 to 87. His 
period is referred to A.n. 502. 

'3 See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other principal Saints," vol. v., May i. 

'* See " Les Vies des Peres et des Mar- 
tyrs," at the 1st of May. 

'5 This work was printed at Paris, in five 
volumes, A.D. 1836, 8vo. 

'* It is entitled, " Les Vies des 
Saints De Bretagne et des Per- 
sonnes d'une eminente picte qui ont 

May I.] 



The Life of St. Brioc/^ is said to have been drawn, from the original Legend 
of this saint, discovered in part, by Father Lobineau ; as also, from the 
ancient Breviary, containing a Legend of St. Brioc's Life. The Petits Bol- 
landistes have their notices regarding him.'^ Li nearly all the great French 
Biographical Dictionaries, the name of St. Brieux, Brioc, or Brieuc, is to be 
found. Thus, in the early part of this century, it was produced in a volumin- 
ous work. ^9 The Life of St. Brieux also appears, in the " Biographie Univer- 
selle, Ancienne et Moderne,=° edited by M. Michaud ; in the Dictionnaire 
Universel, Historique, Critique et Bibliographique ;^' as likewise, in the "Nou- 
velle Biographie Generale,"^^ the most extended of such works. Also, St. 
Briocus ''3 is noticed, in a recent English collection of Biographies, very care- 
fully compiled, '''^ as likewise, in the Rev. S. Baring-Gould's work.^s Monta- 
lembert has classed this holy man, with the seven chief missionary bishops of 
Bretagne ;^^ and, the same writer has notices of S:. Brieux's works, after he 
had chosen that country for his monastic establishment. ^7 

This saint appears to have been variously named, Broc, Brieuc, Brio- 
magle or Vriomacle, and Latinized as Briocus, Briocius and Briomaclus. In the 
Breton dialect, he is called Briec. There are several authors, who make him 
a native of Ireland. ^^ A certain writer, while treating this Life, calls St. 
Briocus a Briton : it is admitted, he states, that Briton apparently sometimes 
included Hibernia or Ireland. ^9 Among those, who make St. Briea a native 
of Ireland, are William Camden,3° and Archbishop Ussher.3' Hennschenius 

vecu dans cette Province," par Dom. Guy 
Alexis Lobineau, Pretre, religieux Benedic- 
Un de la congregation de Saint Maur, Nou- 
velle edition, revue coirigee et considera- 
blement augmentee, &c., &c. 

'^ See tome i., pp. 70 to 87 of this edi- 

'^ See "Vies des Saints," &c., tome v., 
Premier Jour de Mai, pp. 194 to 196. 

'9 See " Biographie Universelle, Ancienne 
et Moderne, ou Histoire, par ordre Alpha- 
betique, de la Vie publique et privee de tous 
les Hommes qui se sont fait remarquer par 
leurs ecrits, leurs actions, leurs talents, leurs 
vertus ou leurs crimes, ouvrage entierement 
neuf, redige par une societe des gens de 
lettres et de savants," tome v., pp. 597, 598. 
This, the first edition, was issued at Paris, 
A.D. 181 1, et seq., 8vo. 

^° See " Biographie Universelle Ancienne 
et Moderne ou Histoire, par ordre Alphabe- 
tique, de la Vie publique et privee de tous 
les Plommes qui se sont fait remarquer par 
leurs ecrits, leurs actions, leur talents, leurs 
vertus ou leurs crimes." Nouvelle Edition, 
publiee sous la direction de M. Michaud ; 
revue, corrigee, et considerablement aug- 
mentee d'Articles omis ou nouveaux : ouv- 
rage redige par une Societe de gens de 
Lettres et de Savants. Paris, 1843, et seq., 
Imp. 4to. 

'^ Neuvieme Edition, d'apres la Huitieme 
Edition publiee par MM. Chaudon et De- 
landine, tomeiii., Art. Brieuc (saint), p. 292, 
Paris, 8vo. 

" Edited by M. le Dr. Hoefer, tome vii.. 
Art. Brieuc, Brioc or Briock (saint), col. 
390» 391. 

^3 See "Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 
phy, Literature, Sects and Doctrines, being a 
continuation of the Dictionary of the Bible," 
edited by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D., 
and Henry Wace, M.A., &c., vol. i., p. 


^^ It was published in London, a.d. 1877, 
et seq., in Roy. 8vo shape. 

*5 See " Lives ofthe Saints," vol. v., May 
I, pp. 20, 21. 

^'^ See "Les Moines d'Occident," tome ii., 
liv. vii., chap, iv., p. 314. 

^^ See ibid., liv. viii. , chap. iii. , p. 433. 

^^ See "Dictionnaire Universel, Histori- 
que, Critique et Bibliographique," tome iii., 
where it is entered, at Art. Brieuc (saint). 
There we read, "Briocus natif d'Irlande," 
&c., p. 292. 

=9 See the Tractarian " Lives of the Eng- 
lish Saints," vol. ix., chap, x., p. 96. 

3° See " Britannia, i' in that part which 
treats of Hibernia, and especially on the 
county of Cork, p. 739. 

3' After giving au extract from Saussaius' 
Galilean Martyrology, referring to our saint, 
Ussher adds : " Hffic Saussaius de S. Brioco 
urbis Briocensis (vulgo S. Brieu) ab ejus 
nomine nuncupatse in Britannia Armorica 
primo Episcopo '• quern alii non Bi-iianniam 
(id enim Saussaius voluit quum patria Ang- 
lumfmsse scripsit) sed Hibo-num, e territorio 
Corcagiensi oriundum ; neque German! 
Aiitissiodorensis sed Germani Parisieiisis, in 
schola ipsius Episcopali, discipulum fuisse 
tradiilerunt : qua in re, quid fuerit causae cur 
ab aliorum sententia discesserit, in Commen- 
tariis quos pollicetur Apodictitis ut ostendat 
expectamus." — " Btitannicarum Ecclesiarum 




says,3' that " Corriticiana gens " is incorrectly located, by some writers, in Ire- 
land ; while, it should be taken for theCeretici, orCoretani,ofBritain.33 Certain 
writers have alleged, this country of the Coriticians was identical with the pre- 
sent county of Cork, in Ireland. There, at the present time, is the second city 
of Ireland, near a spacious harbour.34 Some state, that St. Brieuc had perhaps 
a master named St. Gormain, as his instructor, who might have been incor- 
rectly called St. Germain. It is known, that there were many saints in Ireland 
bearing the former name.^s Where the country, thus denominated Corititaina, 
was situated, has occasioned no little difference of opinion.3^ Many writers 

General View of the City of Cork. 

state, that St. Brieuc was a native of insular Britain. 37 According to some ac- 
counts, the "Cereticagens3^ had been located, in that particularpartof it,which 
was opposite to the Irish coast, and which, having once received the Chris- 

Antiquitates," cap. xi., pp. 184, 185. 

3' See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
i., n. (a), p. 94. 

33 See Vita ex officio proprio Ecclesiae S. 

3* The accompanying illustration of the 
City of Cork is taken from a photograph, 
and it has been drawn by William F. Wakc- 
nian, on the wood, which was engraved, by 
Mrs. Millard. 

35 The Abbe Tresvaux would not under- 
take to pronounce definitively on this matter, 
only so far as Ireland was concerned. He 
supposed our Island as having no claim 
whatever to the birth of St. Brieuc. 

3^ L'Abb^ Tresvaux remarks, that while 

it has been universally acknowledged, that 
this saint was a native of the " Coriticiana 
regio," the position of such territory is not 
known with certainty. 

37 See M. le Dr. Hoefer's " Nouvelle Bio- 
graphic Generale," tomevii., col. 390. 

3^ The Rev. Alban Butler assigns different 
opinions, respecting the province of Coriti- 
ciana, " which some take for Cerctica, now 
Cardigansliiie ; others for the Coretans, 
situated on the Trent, now in Staffordshire 
and Derbyshire ; others will have it to be 
Cornwall." — "Lives of the Fathers, Mar- 
tyrs and other principal Saints," vol. v., 
May I. 

39 Nennius, speaking of the Island of Bri- 



tian faith, always retained it, even when their fellow-countrymen, the Britons,39 
were oppressed by the Saxon, and driven for refuge, towards inaccessible and 
remote parts of Wales. According to Andrew Saussayj^o St. Brioc is said to 
have been an Englishman by birth — for he places that province of the Cori- 
ticiana in England — but, for this remark, he has been corrected by Dean 
Cressy, who notes, "he should have said a Brittain."^' Henschennius seems 
to entertain an opinion, that this saint was a native of that part of England, 
known as Coretana. The same writer also remarks, that the Coretani were 
known to have been a people of the Britons, subject to the Romans, and to 
have held that part, in which the large Mercian kingdom extended, from 
ocean to the bounds of the Ceretici. At the year of Christ 586, we read in 
Matthew of Westminster, that the Archbishops, Theonus of London and Tha- 
diocus of York, seeing all the churches hitherto subject to their jurisdiction 
destroyed, fled into Cambria, of which Ceretica forraed a part.^" Many of the 
clergy and people imitated their example ; while, these are supposed to have 
been subjects of Thadiocus, known as Coretani or Coritani. Hence, the birth 
and age ofSt. Brioc are thought to bereferable to that time.^3 The "Coriticiana 
regio"'*^ is said to be the country of theCeretes,to the west of ancient Cambria, 
or modern Wales, and it was opposite the coast of Ireland, according to some 
writers. In Latin, this tract was named " Ceretica " or the " Cereticana 
regio," being shown at present as Cardigan-shire. Such an opinion, so far as 
the birth of this saint is concerned, seems to rest for a foundation, on the 
similarity of these names, Coriticiana, and Ceretica, or Cereticana, as also on 
the circumstance, that Brioc had been the son of a Breton nobleman, the 
term Breton usually referring to the inhabitants of Wales. Others derive the 
origin of our saint from that country, belonging to the ancient Coritans or 
Coritaves, who were situated on the River Trent, and who inhabited the pre- 
sent counties of Stafford and Derby.ts Having found in the geographer 
Ptolemy's works a Corinium, near the Severn, and about the source of the 
Thames, where the present county of Gloucester lies, and as there appears to be 
no great difference between the Coriticiana regio and the Coriniana regio^ M. 
Abbe Tresvaux is inclined to believe, this might be the part of the country, 
where St. Brieuc was born. Besides, this situation was sufficiently near to 
Cambria ; whence, it would seem, were derived those parents, of whom St. 
Brieux was bonL-^^ There are other writers, such as le P. Albert and Bertrand 

tain, says, that its inhabitants consist of four ^ In the Life of our saint, as published in 

different people, the Scots, the Picts, the L'Abbe Tresvaux's edition of Lobineau's 

Saxons, and the Ancient Britons. See the " Vies des Saints de Bretagne," we are told, 

curious version in Irish of the Historia Bri- that our saint's father lived in that part of 

tonum, or History of the Britons, which has Great Britain, " cortnue alors sous le nom 

for its title LeAbhA^ 'bt^eAchnAcli Amifo de Coriticiana regio." 

pf, for an account of these early colonists of ^s Their supposition has been founded on 

our Islands. This work has been edited, the circumstance, that St. German of Aux- 

with a Translation and Notes, by James erre had not been known to the Ceretes, but 

Henthorn Todd, D.D., M.R.I.A., and by the only to the Coritans. 

Hon. Algernon Herbert ; it was published by ■** Nor was it very distant from those 

the Irish Arch^ological Society, at Dublin, places, where St. Germain of Auxerre 

in 1848. preached, so that St. Brieuc could easily 

*° In his " Martyrologium Gallicanum," at have gone to hear and see him. This same 

the 30th of April. writer states, that he consulted the truly 

"*' See his "Church History of Brittany," learned Dr. John Lingard, in 1834, regard- 
Book ix., chap, xiv., pp. 189, 190. ing this matter. He replied, that according 

*^ See " Flores Historiarum," pp. 198 to his opinion, the Coritician tribe inhabited 

to 200. that part of the country, known as the 

*3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., i. Maii. county of Cardigan, at the present time. He 

Acta S. Brioci, Commentarius Prjevius, said, also, that in any case, it ought to be 

sect. 4, p. 92, held as certain, that St. Brieuc had been a 


[May I. 

d'Argentre, who have wished to make our saint a native ofCornwall. However, 
this latter district was formerly called Cornubia or Kerno.v. 

Brioc was of a distinguished line/7 and son to a nobleman of great distinc- 
tion, called Cerpus, or Cerpo.*^ He lived in a province, named Corrititiana.*? 
Others call it Carticiana ;S° and, while some persons take it to have been the 
country of Cornouailles, others will have it to be Ceretica, now Cardigan- 
shire. The supposition most generally entertained is, that this territory 
formed a portion of the British Isles.s' His mother is called Eldruda; and, 
this name is thought to have been derived, from a Breton word, composed 
of f//, and of driid., said to mean " illustrious," or " well-beloved,"52 by Albert 
le Grand, who most probably took the ancient Acts of St. Brioc, as authority. 
The name Eldrude is supposed undoubtedly to have been a Saxon one ; and, 
Henschenn pretends, from this clue, we may derive the conclusion, that our 
saint was not born, until some time had elapsed after the Saxons' arrival in 
England. This conjecture should favour the opinion of those, who place his 
birth, at the time when St. Germain of Paris S3 lived, about the year 550,5* or 
a little latter. But, we are not obliged to suppose, that Eldruda was solely a 
Saxon name ; for, it was also a Breton one ; being compounded from the re- 
duplicative preposition ^//and Drud.^^ According to some authorities, Brioc 
was born, early in the year 409, s^ or 410.57 This chronology supposes, that 
he was a disciple of St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerre,58 to whom his parents 
had committed him, and who brought him to Gaul, This is thought,59 to 
strengthen the opinion of St. Brioc having been a Coretan.^° Hennschen deems 
it scarcely probable, that St, German's labours and fame reached the Ceretici 
of Wales, as they were more rude and uncultivated than other Britons.^' 

Breton. See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints 
de Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, 
tome i., n. i., p. 71. 

*' Saussay says "nobili editus stirpe." — 
" Martyrologium Galiicanum," at Apiilis 

^ Thus he is named, by Albert le 

*9 In the Proper Office of our saint, we 
read, in the first Lesson : " Briocus nobilis 
genere, ex gente Corriiiciana, non sine alto 
Numinis concilo editus est." 

5° See M. Michaud's " Biographic Univer- 
selle Ancienne et Modeme," tome v., p. 

5' Dr. Lanigan has only a passing allu- 
sion to St. Briocus, without hazarding any 
statement of his own, as to the country of 
his birth. Yet, he gives references to Ussher 
and Camden. See " Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland," vol. i., chap, i., sect, ix., and 
nn. 78, 79, 80, p. 21. 

5= See M. Michaud's " Biographie Univer- 
selle, Ancienne et Modeme," tome v., p. 

53 His feast occurs, at the 28th of May. 
His Life has been written, by Fortunatus of 
Poitiers. St. Germain died, a. D. 576. 

5^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
i. Acta S. Brioci, Commentarius Praevius, 
sect. 2, p. 92. 

55 See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de 
Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome 
i., n, 2, p. 71. 

5* See Baillet's " Vies des Saints," tome ii., 
p. 24. 

5? See Lobineau's "Vies des Saints de 
Bretagne," par ]NL L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome i., 
pp. 71, 72. 

5* St. Geraian of Auxerre is said to have 
travelled and preached in Britain, about 
the year 429, and to have prolonged his 
life until the year 520. An account of 
St. Germanus, Bishop of Auxerie, will be 
found in "Histoire Literaire de la France," 
tome ii., Cinquieme Siecle, sect, i., ii., pp. 
256 to 261. 

5' By Father Hennschenn. 

^° Cressy in his " Church History of Brit- 
tany," Book ix., chap, xiv., p. 190, and at 
the year 439, observes, that " Certain Irish 
Historians would challenge S. Briocus to 
their countiy, as having been born in the 
territory of Cork. But his having been a 
disciple of St. Germanus, who had nothing 
to do with Ireland, proves him a Brittain. And 
whereas, Bishop Usher conjectures that the 
master of St. Briocus might have been ano- 
ther St. Germanus, Bi>hop of Paris, who 
lived in the following age : His living with 
Conanus and relation of kindred to him de- 
monstrate him both a Brittain, and more 
ancient than the youni^er St. Germanus." 

^' Yet, the BoUandist writer observes, as 
Briocus flourished towards the close of the 
sixth century, it might be possible, that he 
had been born among the Ceretci, in Cam- 
bria or Wales, or among the Coretani, who 
had been banished thither. Or, might not 
the mother of our saint, supj.osed to have 
been a Saxon by birth, and perhaps also a 
pagan, have married a Briton, Cerpo, when 


Neither had the Pelagian heresy reached them, nor were the Saxons desirous of 
carrying their conquests, into those remote regions, which they inhabited.^* 
Following the account of Andrew Saussay, who makes St. Germain of Aux- 
erre ^3 to be a contemporary and master of St. Brioc, the birth of this latter 
holy man should be referred to the fifth century. However, it is thought, 
that the original Acts ^4 of St. Brioc had only mentioned a St. Germanus, 
simply as having been his instructor; and that, subsequently, conjectures 
were added to distinguish this St. Germanus, as having been of Auxerre, 
according to some writers, or as having been of Paris,^5 according to others. 
In the time of the former, the Corritician province had been converted 
entirely to the Christian faith, although Pelagianism had spread among the 
Britons, subdued and formed into a tributary Roman province ;^^ while, in the 
time of St. Germain of Paris, a vast horde of Pagan Saxons had invaded the 
Island of Great Britain. ^7 However, the Britons continued to preserve the 
Christian faith, during this time, and therefore, it is thought, that both the 
parents of St. Brioc had been Christians. ^^ St'll, it has been asserted, his 
father and mother had been pagans, previous to the time of his birth.°9 

That Brioc was destined foran exalted degree of sanctity, in the inscrutable 
decrees of Divine Providence, appeared, from miraculous revelations made to 
his mother, while she was asleep. These happened in the middle of the night, 
and when she was not less involved in a natural darkness, than in the shadow 
of idolatrous errors. An angel then appeared and told her, she should give 
birth to a son, who would be dear to the Almighty, who should be crowned 
with Divine gifts, as likewise become an athlete and a propagator of the Chris- 
tian Religion. She was also warned to admonish her husband, that he should 
avoid the foolish worship of idols. Our saint's mother was astonished, but 
according to the Holy Angel's command, she related to her husband what 
had occurred, and delivered to him that message, thus divinely transmitted. 
But, the husband would not believe, what his wife had told him regarding 
this matter, even when more than once related. His infidelity continued, 
until the third night, after this vision already described. Then, the angel 
appeared to him, while asleep, and repeated what had been already told to 
Eldruda. When this angel had departed, and morning began to dawn, Cer- 
pus informed his friends, about all he had heard and seen. Immediately, he 
broke into pieces those idols, which he had heretofore worshipped. After- 

that Cerpo followed his bishop, retiring into ters were so old and so obliterated, with the 

Cambria, and might not our saint have been exception of a few words here and there, 

the issue of their marriage in this latter that no person could read them, or draw any 

country ? Such is Henschennius' other con- meaning from them. 

jecture, but, he says, if we admit his supposi- ^^ A History of the Life and Writings of 

tion, our saint must have been coniempo- St. Germanus, Bishop of Paris, is given by 

raneous with St. German of Paris. tlie Benedictines, in their " Histoire Lite- 

*^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail raire de la France," tome iii., Sixieme 

i. Acta S. Brioci., Commentarius Prsevius, Siecle, sect, i., ii., pp. 310 to 317. 
sect. 5, p. 92. *' According to Fatlier Godefrid Hen- 

^3 His feast occurs, at the i6th of July. schenn. 

^'' These are said to have been preserved ^^ To these, St. Augustine and his com- 

at Auvergne, in the Discalced Carmelite panions were sent as missionaries, by Pope 

House of Claremont, as Lewis Jacob, a Car- St. Gregory the Great, in the year 596. See 

melite — who had published some books at Rev. Dr. Lingard's "History of England," 

Paris — informed Hennschenn. The latter vol. i., chap, ii., p. 75- 

was anxious to preserve this Tract, or a '^ See *' Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

transcript, when dealmg with the Life of St. i. Acta S. Brioci. Commentarius Prsevius, 

Brioc, and he applied for that purpose to the sects. 2, 3, pp. 91, 92. 

Rev. Father Josephus Ignatius a S. Amonio, °^ From the account of our saint, as con- 

a Discalced Carmelite "ex Toparchis de tained in the Proper Office of Brieux 

Robec." However, he learned, the charac- church. 


wards, he began to distribute the half of those goods he possessed, for the 
support and nourishment of poor persons. '° 

A due course of time being completed, the mother of our saint gave birth 
to her son. By Divine monition, the infant was named Brioc. From his 
most tender years, he led an angelic and a pure life. While of immature age, 
his morals were those of a sage, whose sagacious mental powers appeared 
directing the physical organization of a mere youth. He was observed to 
advance daily towards perfection, neither spending his youthful years in those 
trifles, that usually engage children's attention, nor in the idle sports of those, 
who were of an age to become his play-fellows. When Brioc had attained 
years, at which his tender age might be formed to useful pursuits ; mindful 
of that command she had first received from the Angel, his mother delivered 
him, 7' to the care of St, Germain, 7^ to receive suitable instruction. But, it 
is said, that his father wished him to be kept at home, as not intending he 
should be initiated into Holy Orders, because he destined Brieuc to become 
heir of his possessions. However, the Angel of God warned his father, that 
he ^should not oppose his own to the Divine will. He was admonished to 
commit his son to St. Germain's care.73 As St. Germain of Paris was not 
known to have held any peculiar connection with the Britons, Henschen- 
nius is inclined to disbelieve, that our saint had been committed to his care. 
He rather thinks, that St. Brioc was sent for his instruction to the neighbour- 
ing Island of Hibernia, which, after it had received the faith from St. Patrick, 
became a common school for the Britons and Gauls. Here, he says, that 
many Germans, or rather Gormans, are known to have flourished, to one of 
whom, perhaps, our saint had been entrusted for instruction. At a more 
adult age, it has been conjectured, that Brioc returned into his own country 
of Britain. In this place, it is thought, that he laboured usefully among his 
kinsfolk. It is said, also, that he built a monastery there. Then, he passed 
over to Armorica, also known as Lesser Brittany.?'* At the time of this voy- 
age, a certain Count Rigual is stated to have ruled over a part of that country. 
The era of his government, could it only be discovered, should tlirow addi- 
tional light on St. Brioc's precise period. 's 



At an early age, Brieuc's father had resolved on committing his son to the 
charge of St. German, and he sent some persons with him as companions.* 

'" The editor adds, in a note, that he does '' Supposed to have been bishop of Paris, 

not believe St. Brioc's nation or father had He ruled from the year 555, or the following 

been addicted to the worship of idols. See year, until a.d. 576, when he died, on the 

ibid. Acta S. Brioci, sect, i., p. 93, and n. 28th of May. See an account of this holy 

(])), p. 94. bishop, in Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the 

'■ Such is a statement, contained in the Fathers, Martyrs and other principal 

Proper Office, read in Brieux church. Saints," vol. v., May xxviii. 


When they had visited that pious Bishop, full of God's holy spirit, Germanus 
was enabled to declare the boy's name, his country, and his race, as also to 
predict, that like a sunbeam, he should enlighten the Christian world, and 
that he should prove an eloquent gospel preacher. While Brioc saluted the 
holy Bishop, and humbly knelt at his feet, a white dove flew downwards, and 
settled on our saint's head. Then, Brioc's master and host congratulated 
the youthful stranger, on his arrival. In a short time, the boy made great 
proficiency in all kinds of learning, while he showed the excellence of his 
disposition, and his studious habits. Nor did he less advance in piety than 
in learning. When he had not exceeded the tenth year of his age, Brioc distri- 
buted to the needy, not alone many of his effects, but even those garments, 
with which he was clothed. Among other charitable acts related, on a cer- 
tain occasion, he was met by a leper, who asked him for an alms. Beino- 
sent for water, Brioc held a vessel in his hand, and this he gave to the mendi- 
cant, as he had nothing else to bestow ; for, his compassionate disposition 
did not suffer him to unheed any supplication. The boy was then accused 
to St. German, as a thoughtless waster of monastic effects. But, at this junc- 
ture, he fell on his knees before the altar, and poured forth prayers and tears." 
A brazen vessel of admirable beauty was miraculously sent him. This he 
presented to his master, who was enabled to judge of the wonderful manner, 
in which his disciple was favoured by God.3 In another account concerning 
Brioc, thatSt. German, in whose-.presence the miracle was wrought, and who had 
been our saint's teacher, is said to have been St. German, ■♦ Bishop of Auxerre.5 
This latter holy man, and St. Loup,^ Bishop of Troyes, passed over to Great 
Britain, a.d. 429 or 430, when their reputation quickly spread throughout that 
whole Island. 7 Men, women, and children, flocked in crowds from all quarters, 
especially when it had been announced to them, that these holy and learned 
men had come to hold a public disputation with the Pelagians, in Verulam.^ 
Among the number, St. Brieuc, who was then about twenty years of age, felt 
desirous of hearing these venerable men. He was presented by his parents 
to St. German, or rather he offered himself to this holy Bishop. The latter 
observed the young man's excellent natural qualities, his admirable sweet- 
ness of disposition, modesty of deportment, agreeable manners, a mind capa- 
ble of receiving instruction, a docile spirit, a happy training, combined with 
a variety of other talents and gifts. Therefore, Germanus received him with 
great joy. At the same time, the bishop told those clerics, who accompanied 
him, that he had already formed the highest expectations, regarding Brioc's 
future career. Afterwards, St. German returned from the Island of Britain to 

" See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii * His feast occurs, at the 29th of July. 

i. Acta S. Brioci, sect. 2, p. 93. s See " Biographic Universclle Ancienne 

7* It is stated, that the people of this pro- et Moderne," &c., sous la direction de M. 

vince were called Bretons, because they came Michaud, tome v., p. 528. 
at an early period from Great Britain, flying * The Benedictines have set forth the par- 

from the barbarians who ravaged it. See ticulars of his Life and Writings, in " His- 

" Histoire Literaire de !a France," tome ii., toire Literaire de la France," tome ii., Cin- 

Cinquieme Siecle, p. 366. quieme Siecle, sect, i., ii., pp. 486 to 494. 

75 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mali ^ See Constantius, Vita S. Germani, lib. 

i. Acta S. Brioci, Commentarius Prsevius, i., cap. 23. 
sect. 5, p. 92. s Now St. Alban's, in the hundred of 

Chapter ii. — "According to the Pro- Cashio. According to the Roman historians, 

per Office of this saint. it was founded by the Britons, at an earlier 

" See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de Bre- period than London. It was surrounded by 

tagne," par M. LAbbe Tresvaux, tome pre- a rampart and fosse, at the time of Csesar's 

mier, pp. 73, 74. invasion. It is situated, in the county of 

3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii Hertford. For a fuller description, see 

i. Acta S. Brioci, sect. 3, p. 93. Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary ofEng- 


France, towards the end of a.d. 430, or about the commencement of 431, 
taking with him, as stated, his new disciple, as also a St. Iltut. This com- 
panionship formed a reciprocal advantage for both, while they had an addi- 
tional pleasure, it is said, to find St. Patrick,? the future Apostle of Ireland, 
at Auxerre, where all of these holy persons spent some time in company.^** 

From what has been already observed, it may be seen, that these conflicting 
accounts regarding our saint's acts must have been sufficiently perplexing, to 
divide the opinions of learned men, concerning that person to whom St. 
Brieuc had been confided in his youth. A Legend of St. Serge," and an 
ancient Breviary of the diocese of St. Brieuc, state positively, that St. Ger- 
main of Paris was his master, and that the parents of our saint sent him to 
Paris, at the age of ten years. This account might be supposed to bring 
greater weight with it, than all contrary reasons, that could be advanced ; and, 
it should necessarily oblige us to defer the period, at which St. Brieuc lived, 
to 120 or 140 years later, than in the other case. However, this Legend 
contains an apparent contradiction. For, it supposes, that St. German, the 
master of our saint, had been more than twenty-five years a Bishop ; but, 
this computation cannot agree with St. German of Paris, as his episcopate did 
not extend beyond twenty or twenty-one years, that is from a.d. 555 to 
576.'= In a simple and in an indeterminate manner, it has been stated, ^3 
that St. Brieuc was instructed by St. Germain, without further specification, and 
that he had the happiness of finding, in the same school, St. Patrick and St. 
Iltut. '•♦ That opinion, which makes St. Brieuc a disciple of St. German of 
Auxerre, has been adopted, in St. Brieuc's Proper Office, printed in 1782, and 
in the Proper Office of St. Treguier ; it is also an opinion of the Abbes Deric, 
Rufifelet '5 and Tresvaux.'° To the latter, it seems the one best sustained by 
argument, and most consonant with the facts of history. 

Under his master, this young and valiant soldier of Christ began to contend 
against the assaults of Satan, by rigorous fasts, that he might the better over- 
come carnal temptations, which are usually the most dangerous and fatal to a 
novice, in the ways of a spiritual life. By these means, he was able to contend 
against the enemy of man's salvation, even when his approaches were directed 
against other persons. On a certain occasion, the wicked spirit had terrified an 

land," vol. i., pp. 20 to 22. '3 i^i the abridgment of a manuscript col- 

" See his Life, in vol. iii. of this work, at lection, mentioned by Abbe Tresvaux. 

17th of March. '•' This latter circumstance shows, there- 

'"See Lobineau's "Vies des Saints de fore, that St. German of Auxerre must have 

Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome been the person designated, 

i., p. 72. '5 We are referred lo note 15, of the Abbe 

" In Manuscript. Rufifelet, in support of those assertions. 

'- Again, it has been said, that St. Patrick. '* This writer adds: "Nous regrettons 
and St. Iltut were disciples of St. German, que INI. Brice, Lazariste et directeur du 
with St. Brieuc. But, St. Patrick and St. Seminaire de Saint-Bricuc, editeur du Pro- 
Iltut could not have been disciples to St. pre du diocese public en 1813, ait cru devoir 
German of Paris, at a period long subse- I'abandonner dans les lesons du saint pairon. 
quent to that when they lived ; while, at the Si Ton objecte que la Vie de S. Germain 
same time, it is well known, that both these d'Auxerre ne dit rien de S. Brieuc, nous 
former snints were disciples to St. German repondions que celle de S. German de Paris 
of Auxerre. Wherefore, it appears probable, n'en parle pas davantage : les BoUandistes 
that the legend of our saint wislied to speak seuls en font mention dans la Vie de ce der- 
of the latter ; although, through mistake or nicr, mais sur I'autorite de Du Saussay, et 
a want of judgment, the writer inserted the Ton sait que cette autorite n'est pas dun 
name of St. German, Bishop of Paris. Or, grand poids. On ne neut done rien con- 
perhaps, there may have been an unautho- dure du silence garde par lesauieurs de 
rized addition of that particular See to a I'une et I'antre \'ie." — Lobineau's " Vies des 
single name, as found entered in the original Saints de Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tres- 
text. vaux, tome i., n. 7, pp. 72, 73. 


honourable and excellent young man, by a horrible spectre or image, which 
had been presented to his view ; this demon had also possessed his intended 
victim, when Brieuc succeeded in dispelling the spectre, and in liberating 
that young man. About this same time, a thorn had entered tlie foot of a 
youth, who in consequence endured great pain, until the assistance of our 
saint was invoked. Pouring forth a short prayer, and by the aspersion of holy 
water, St. Brioc happily obtained the recovery of that afflicted person.^? 
Meantime, our saint had attained an age, to qualify him for reception of the 
priestly dignity, and the miracles which he wrought induced St. Germanus to 
procure his elevation. On a day when the holy Bishop was about to ordain 
two priests, whose qualifications were approved by him, he asked St. Brieuc, 
if he were in a disposition to receive Holy Orders with them. Our saint felt 
persuaded, that to obey St. German proved obedience to God himself, and 
that he could not be deceived, in trusting to the counsels of so perfect a man. 
He answered, therefore, with the simplicity of a child, he was ready to do 
whatever should be required of him. St. German'knew this answer proceeded 
from humility, perfect as that, which should have caused him to refuse priest- 
hood. He therefore ordained our saint, with the two other candidates. The 
Divine pleasure was manifested, and in a miraculous manner, on this occa- 
sion. For, while the holy Bishop was engaged in the function of ordination, 
having imposed his hands on Brieuc's head, a column of fire reached from 
the head of our saint to the very roof of the church, and it continued during 
the whole ceremony. A remarkable fervour, that appeared in the conduct 
of this newly-ordained priest, was a proof he had received the graces of the 
Holy Spirit in plenitude. In a wonderful manner, it pleased Almighty God 
to communicate his wishes, that our saint should undertake a mission to the 
country where his parents dwelt, so that he might convey thither that mental 
illumination and ardour, with which his soul was penetrated. In a dream, 
an Angel of the Lord ordered him to depart immediately for Britain, where 
he should draw his parents, relations, and countrymen, from the errors of 
gentiles ; which phrases may be considered, either as referring to complete 
paganism, or only to superstitious actions, which were often mingled with 
Christian practices, among the inhabitants of that country. Thus might we 
understand, in two different ways, that paganism attributed to Brieuc's parents 
and country. At this time, it is supposed, that in Cambria and about 
the county at Gloucester, the Gospel light had not yet effectively penetrated. 
Nor will this appear surprising, when we reflect upon the situation of these 
particular districts. The erection of Sees at Landaff, St. David's, Kaer- 
leon, St. Asaph, Bangor, in Wales, and at Wigorn, now Worcester, took place, 
after the period of St. Brieuc's birth and education, as generally supposed. 
It is said, also, in the Life of St. Samson, ^^ that even in his time, there were 
many pagans living on the east borders of the Severn, as likewise in Somerset 
and Devonshire, to the north of which counties, lay Gloucester and Wales. 
Another manner, in which the errors of St. Brieuc's parents may be explained, 
is, by supposing the whole Island of Britain had become Christian, even 
although it retained many customs, which savoured of idolatry, and especially 
that pagan festival, held on the ist of January.^9 In the time of St. German 
of Auxerre, this great feast was profaned in Italy, by debauchery and mas- 
querades. ^° These shameful customs might have furnished occasion, for the 

'7 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii before Christianity had been established on 

Acta S. Brioci, sect. 4, p. 93. a firm basis. 

'^ His feast occurs, at the 2Sth of July. "" This appears, from a sermon of St. Peter 

'9 This was suppressed with much difficulty, Chrysologus. 


author of the Legend, containing our saint's Acts, to speak about the idolatry 
of his parents ; thus, not taking care to distinguish between the act of cele- 
brating^ a pagan festival, and a formal profession of paganism. The first 
manner of understanding the legendary text appears more conformable to 
probability. Indeed, if there were idolatry in Italy, during St. Benedict's 
time, there can be no reason to suppose, it did not exist in the country about 
Worcester, and in Wales, at that period indicated for our saint's return from 


After his vision, St. Brieuc went to see St. German, and told him 
with great ingenuousness regarding that dream, which he had during the 
night ; for, he was accustomed to submit whatever happened to his master's 
knowledge, with a view of being governed by his counsels. Immediately, St. 
German knew that it was a true revelation. Embracing our saint with much 
tenderness, he said, " Go, my son, where God invites you, and answer by 
your zeal, in honour of your vocation." He told our saint instantly to procure 
everything necessary for his voyage, and the Bishop even furnished him with a 
companion, bestowing his blessing on both of them. When St. Brioc arrived at 
the sea-shore, he found a vessel had been there delayed, for seven continuous 
days, owing to an accidentally adverse tempest." The sailors were disturbed 
in mind, on account of their delay ; but, our saint re-assured their hopes with 
a promise, that the Almighty would be pleased, on the morrow, to send them 
a favourable conjuncture of weather and sea, when they should all embark.'3 
According to such prediction, on the day named, St. Brioc went on board 
the vessel, and cleared out of port, with a favourable wind and a smooth sea. 
We are told, dolphins and sea monsters were seen tossing about the ship, and 
leaping, as if anxious to devour the sailors. This caused them great alarm. 
St. Brioc alone seemed composed in mind, and, by his prayers, he is said to 
have driven those monsters from the vessel. At length, the voyagers reached 
the wished-for shore; and, then St. Brioc, with his companions, joyfully sought 
the paternal mansion. Having arrived there, on the ist day of January, he 
found, according to a usual custom, that his father and mother had prepared 
a banquet for all their friends, whom they ordinarily entertained for threedays. 
This was a festival, entirely of a pagan character, in which, if we credit the 
legend of our saint's Life, after impious sacrifices had been offered to Janus,'* 
they besought him, as chief of their family, and of all their gods, to become 
propitious towards those persons, who invoked him. Afterwards, disguised 
as false divinities, as old persons, as beasts, and in a variety of other shapes, 
men ran through the fields, shouted, sang, danced, and then passed a con- 
siderable part of the day and night, in eating and drinking to excess.^s Such 
practices were condemned in France, by Canons of the Second Council of 
Tours, in the year 566,='^ and, in decrees of Auxerre, about the year 586.^7 

" See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de dum insolentius quidam exultaret perfringit 

Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome sibi femur, et luctuosis clamoribus vocifera- 

i., n. I, p. 75- tur." 

'"See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i. Vita =' According to Cabassutius, the Council 

S. Brioci, sect. 5, p. 93. of Tours occurred, a.d. 570. 

^3 See Lobineau's "Vies des Saints de "' In regulating exemptions from fasting 

Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome on festival days, for monks about this time, 

i., pp. 74 to 76. we are thus admonished : " Excipitur tri- 

'='■• Supposed, in Heathen Mythology, to duum quod .id calcandam gentilium consue- 

have been the most ancient King of Italy. tudinem Patres nostri statuerunt privatas in 

See an account of him, in Lempricre's Calendisjanuarii fieri Litanias : ut in Eccle- 

" Classical Dictionarj'," jMiJ r^jr^ Janus. siis psallatur et hora octava in Calendis 

'5 Describing these pagan customs, the ijisius Circumcisionis Missa Deo propiiio 

Proper Office of our saint says : " Ageban- celebretur." See Cabassutius' " Notitia 

tur per multos dies ludi profani, personabant Ecclesiastica Historiarum, Conciliorum, et 

aedes canticis, ducebantur chorea; ; in quibus Canonum," &c., p. 269. 


Traces of these customs are found to have existed, in many places, a long 
time after the sixth century. When the old forms of Druidism were 
almost extinct in other parts of France, they continued still in Armorica,''' 
and these were alHed with pagan officialism, to repel the Christian reli- 

The gaiety of the guests increased, so soon as they had recognised Brioc ; 
while, his father and mother were almost beside themselves, with those trans- 
ports of joy they experienced. 3° But, all were greatly surprised, when being 
invited to take part in their festival, and to seat himself at table with them, 
our saint answered them with much determination, and at the same time with 
great affability and modesty, that he could not participate in this feast of 
demons, without renouncing the true God, whom he adored, and that Christian 
baptism, which he had received. Faith could not permit him to become defiled, 
by their impious superstitions. Thence, taking occasion to dilate on the purity 
of the Christian religion, and on the holiness of its practices, he contrasted 
these with the grossness and folly of their idolatr/, the ridiculous ceremonies 
of which had reduced them to caricature the very beasts. In a short time, he 
persuaded them, how foolish were all such errors. Convinced by his reason- 
ing, they abandoned their previous absurdities, in order to embrace the light 
of Christianity. Yet, that spirit of dissoluteness and of debauchery, with which 
they were filled, prevented our saint from obtaining a complete triumph over 
the prevalence of evil customs, by the sole energy and arguments of his dis- 
course. Miracles were necessary, to procure this victory ; and, it is said, 
that God furnished him with the opportunity and grace to perform them, at 
this juncture. We are assured, he healed, in miraculous manner, a young 
man of condition, who had fallen heavily, while sporting with the most wanton 
persons in the crowd. Thatperson remained almost lifeless on the spot, his thigh 
having been broken, and his right hand having become dislocated. The 
sight of such a prodigy caused intense admiration among those present, and 
obliged them to protest, they would not worship any other God, but that 
adorable Deity, about whom St. Brieuc preached. They promised for ever 
to renounce their false divinities, who possessed no power to effect any cure, 
like to that performed. At the same time, it happened, a certain boy, who 
had been bitten by a rabid dog, became excited to such acts of frenzy, that 
he bit his own tongue, and he seemed inclined to do further mischief u'Don 
himself and others. IBut, St. Brioc's fame as a wonder-worker had spread 
through that part of the country. When brought to our saint, the latter 
placed his finger in the boy's mouth, and instantly his madness ceased. Pro- 
fiting by favourable dispositions, manifested among the principal inhabitants 
of his country, whose convictions were strengthened by such miracles, the 
saint carefully instructed them, publicly and privately, until they had been 
sufficiently catechised and prepared. Then, he conferred on them the sacra- 
ment of baptism. Having instituted a fast of seven days, St. Brioc induced 
his parents and others in the Corritician country, to renounce idolatrous 
errors, to embrace the faith, to receive the first sacrament of initiation, and to 
devote themselves wholly to Christ's service. Having succeeded in estab- 
lishing the Christian faith throughout that entire province, St. Brioc was care- 

""^ However, the origin of Druidism is ii., chap, iv., sect. 6, p. 518. 

traceable to Great Britain and Ireland: ''^ See Amedee Thierry's " Histoire de la 

" C'est en Bretagne que le drudisme etait Gaulc, sous rAdministration Romaine " 

ne : c'est en Bretagne et en Irlande qu'il se tome ii., chap, vii., p. 306. 

retira au jour de la persecution."— Ernest ^o According to the Legend of St. Brioc's 

Desjardins' "Geographie Historique et Life. 

Administrative de la Gaule Romaine," tome 31 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 


ful to erect temples in lionour of the living God, and of his saints, in suitable 
localities. Not being able, however, to attend personally to the wants of his 
different missions, Brioc procured priests for their service. 

Although the legend of his Life does not mention the matter ; 
doubtless, at this time, he had received the episcopal character. For, 
he is represented, as performing all functions of a pastor and a bishop, 
in the new mission which he had established, and of which he became 
the true apostle. He applied in particular, to the instruction of his 
parents, who became spiritual children of their own son ; and, unques- 
tionably, to them, he was chiefly indebted for means necessary to build 
a church, in a desert place, called Grande-Lande. Here, a great number of 
disciples were assembled, for whose guidance he established a rule, which he 
had received from his master Germanus, and which, under direction of the 
latter, he had followed. Many miracles of St. Brieuc are recorded, while he 
was engaged on the building of this church. Among others, it is said, that 
the devil felt enraged, at the progress of his work, and endeavoured to deter 
those immediately engaged in its construction. One of the carpenters, while 
cutting wood, had the misfortune off lop of his thumb. By Divine favour, St. 
Brioc again set it in proper position. Many horrible spectres, who made use of 
threats towards the saint and his labourers, were disregarded by him, and finally 
they were expelled. A great famine, also, oppressed the people in that province, 
who fled to our saint's monastery for support. There, Brioc was enabled to 
feed them, as likewise his religious, in an abundant manner, until the 
approaching harvest, which proved an abundant one.3^ By these and like 
miracles, St. Brioc acquired a great reputation for his charity and hospitality, 
and he constantly afforded refuge to the afflicted. 3^ Having remained for a 
considerable length of time in this monastery, where he became more sancti- 
fied each day, and having adopted the most perfect practices of a religious 
life, exercising all the works of zeal and charity his station permitted ; during 
night, on a festival of Pentecost, having lightly slumbered in choir, after reci- 
ting the Divine Ofiice, an angel visited the Abbot, Having passed the previous 
time in prayer, and in singing with his community matins for the day, the 
heavenly messenger commanded St. Brieuc to go without delay into Armorica, 
whither God had sent him, to procure the salvation of great numbers. Imme- 
diately, he prepared to obey this Divine mandate, and he hastened to embark, 
with about one hundred and sixty 33 companions. Towards the year 480, it is 
said, this voyage took place. We are told, when these set sail, the devil 
stayed their ship, in the midst of her course, until St. Brioc's mastery over- 
came impediment. Then, with a swift passage over, their vessel reached the 
Armoric coast. They disembarked at a port, named Achm, according to the 
Abridgment of our saint's Life. This place is supposed to have been situated 
in the Achk country, within the ancient diocese of Leon, where it extends 
landward, or towards Jundy river, in the country of Treguier. It is said, our 
saint here converted to the Christian! faith a chieftain of the country, who 
was named Conon.3-» 

i.. Acta S. Brioci, sect. 6, p. 93. perfection of a Religious life, he built a 

3' See Lobineau's "Vies des Saints de monastery, and there by the liberality of the 

Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome snid Count, he layd the foundation of an 

i., pp. 76 to 78. EpiscopallSec, and being consecr.\ted Bishop 

3^ The Proper Office of St. Brioc's church Ijy the Archbishop ofTouis, Metropolitan of 

makes the number 168. that country, he with an admirable splendour 

^ Saussaius calls this Conon, Count of Tri- of vertue and piety governed the said Diocese 

guier, and says, that he was a kinsman of our for the of thirty ye.irs." — Dean 

saint, who baptized him. "Then assem- Cres^y's "Church History of Brittany," 

bling severall devout persons aspiring to the Book ix., chap, xiv., p. 189. 


There can be no doubt, but that a continuous intercourse had been estab- 
lished from times remote, between the people of Great Britain and those of 
Armorica, or Lesser Britain. The legions of Great Britain had been engaged, in 
elevating Maximus to be the Roman Emperor, a.d. 383, and these settled in 
Armorica under theirConan,3S or chief, who was called Meriadec,orrather Mur- 
doch, who is thought to have been the first Comte de Bretagne.s^ But, it is said 
to have been under the conduct of Rivalon, or Rioval, about a.d. 460, that 
the Britons came over in great numbers. 37 Through the aid of Conan, and 
that of people living in the district, St. Brieuc was enabled to erect a monas- 
tery, 3^ at a place called Landebaeron. This, he governed, until the Coriti- 
cians, whom he had left, were afflicted with a grievous pestilence. At the 
juncture, St. Brioc's presence was earnestly requested, so that he might 
deliver his people from their distemper. It is added, he returned immedi- 
ately to them. Having, by his prayers, and by his presence, purified the air, 
dissipated those malignant influences corrupting it, and established health and 
security throughout that region, he returned to his monastery of Landebaeron, 
where he dwelt for some time. Finding, however, 'hat his presence there had 
been a cause of reproach to some imperfect disciples, who were dazzled by 
the lustre of his virtues, St. Brioc left one of his religious as president over 
this house, and he came by sea, with eighty religious,39 who wished to follow 
him. Coasting from the west, and in an easterly direction, he arrived at a port, 
which forms the embouchure of Gouet River,4° where, having embarked, he 
was favourably received by Count Kigual. By some writers, it is thought, 
that the Rigual, who received St. Brieuc, was a son to Hoel L, and that he 
flourished in the sixth century.^^ Others deem it more probable, that he was 
a Count Rivelen, who possessed some property in that part of the country. 

Here, St. Brioc established a residence in a valley, branching out on either 
hand, and the sides of which were covered with fresh foliage. From him, it has 
since been named St. Brieuc-des-Vaux.+^ It lies in Upper Brittany, and not 
far from the sea, which is hidden from it, however, owing to the enclosure of 
surrounding hills. The streets and churches there are tolerably handsome ; 
but, St. Michael's church, in the suburb so named, is the largest at the place. '•3 
St. Brieux was situated in that part of Armoric Britain, which bordered on the 
British Ocean, between St. Malo '»'♦ and Land-Triguier.'<5 In that city, he 
founded a monastery. There, according to a local tradition, the holy man is 
said to have lived, with the members of his religious community. The church 
of the monastery, which he founded, was soon erected into a cathedral ; and, 
it is stated, that our saint was appointed as the first Bishop over that place.-*^ 

33 See "Histoire de Bretagne," &c., par Murray's "Handbook for Travellers in 

Pierre le Bavd, chap, i., p. 2. France," sect. ii. , route 36, p. 125. 

3"^ See M. Michelet's " Histoire de ■*' It has not been at all proved, however, 

France," tomei., liv., ii., cap. i., p. 176, and that the Rigual in question was the son of 

n. 2, ibid. Paris, 1835, et suiv, 8vo. Hoel I., who ruled from A.D. 509 to 545 

37 See Le SieurF. deMezeray's "Histoire See M. Daru's "Histoire de Bretagne," 
de France depuis Faramond jusqu'au Regne tome i., liv. ii., pp. 146 to 150. 

de Louis le Juste. Enrichie de plusilurs belles '•'^ According to an abridged Legend of St. 

et rares Antiquitez^et de la vie de Reynes," Brioc's Life, and the Manuscript Memoirs of 

&c., tome i., liv. iv., sect, xvi., p. 243. A P. du Paz. 

Paris, A.D. 1685, fol. ''3 The accompanying engraving, by Mrs. 

38 The Bollandist editor says : " Traditio Millard, was drawn on the wood by William 
tst appulisse ad portum Trecorium, tibi dein F. Wakeman, from an original French 
urbs episcopalis Trecora sen Trecorium con- etching. 

slructatsi." — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., "•* Formerly called Maclovius. or Maclo- 

Maii i. Acta S. Brioci, n. (d), p. 94. viopolis. a city of Celtic Gaul. It was called 

39 The Proper Office of St. Brieuc's church Aletha, and Alethum. St. Malo arose from 
makes this number 84. the ruins of this latter place. It has a good 

■*° On it, St. Brieuc is now situated. See port, and it is favourably situated for com- 



[May I. 

Like the soldiers of Caesar, St. Brieuc and his companions proceeded into 
forests devoted to druidic rites, and examined them with great curiosity. Hav- 
ing recognised the holy man as a relative, Riguel gave him the house and lands 
of Champ-du-Rouvre,'*7 with all their dependencies. St. Brieuc choose for him- 
self a site, in a place called the " double valley." This was divided by a 
transparent stream. He had the great trees and copsewood cut down ; then, 
he had recourse to the spade and hoe, to dig and weed the soil.'*^ Here, he 

City and Cathedral of St. Brieux, France. 

built a monastery and church, which were immediately dedicated to St. 
Stephen. We are told, that he restored Count Rigual to health, on the occa- 
sion of his visit.'^? This nobleman manifested his gratitude, by his liberality 
towards our saint.5° It is then said, that a pleasant fountain flowed by our 
saint's monastery, which was very near a river, that emptied itself into the 
Cessonian port, now better known as the Bay of St. Brieux.s^ 

merce ; having been built on the small island 
of St. Aaron, now joined by abridge to the 
mainland. See Bavdrand's " Novum Lexi- 
con Geograpliicuni," tomus i., p. 442. 

^s This place was also known as Treco- 
rium. See ;/'/(/., tomus ii., ]•>. 279. 

^' See Lcs Petits Bollandistes' "Vies des 
Saints," tome v. Premier Jour de Mai, 
p. 196. 

^' In Latin, " Aulam Campi Roboris." 

*' See Le Comte de Montalembert's "Les 
Moines de rOccidcnt," tome ii., livre viii., 
chap, iii., p. 433. 

« In the Proper Office of St. Brieuc's 

5° "Le Grand scribit hunc comitem Rigua- 
lem primo obfuisse, verum morbo occupatum 
destitisse, et dein sanatum pisestitisse favo* 
rem." — " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
i.jActaS. Brioci, n. (e), p. 94. 

5' See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de 
Bretagne," par M. Abb(? Tresvaux, tome 
premier, pp. 78, 79, and " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Maii i. Acta S. Brioci, sect. 8, 
p. 93. 




St. Brieuc lived within his new house, in an admirable manner, and he be- 
stowed every care on the instruction of all its neighbouring people, until, as 
stated, about the year 500. Although, at this time, it is said, he was over ninety 
years of age ; yet, such an unusual term of life did not diminish his zeal and 
austerities ; on the contrary, the more he advanced in years, the more his 
fervour seemed increasing, as manifested by his great fasts and other peniten- 
tial exercises. We are assured, he wrought many miracles, in that country, 
which he inhabited. Among other favours, he procured the healing of a poor 
paralytic, whom his friends were obliged to bring on a litter, or hand-barrow. 
This man, owing to the wise designs of Providence, had been conducted towards 
his house, having been borne by two men. These wandered from their course, 
in the midst of a wood ; but, towards the commencement of night, they for- 
tunately arrived at the monastery gate, where they demanded hospitality. In 
order to appease that inquietude, which their families naturally experienced 
on their account, St. Brioc sent them back to their homes, having first directed 
them on their way. He retained, however, the infirm man with himself. To 
procure his restoration, the saint spent a whole night in prayer. Next morn- 
ing, those two men, having come to seek the paralytic, had the great satisfac- 
tion of finding him perfectly restored. This miracle increased St. Brieuc's 
fame throughout that whole district of country ; and, people flocked to 
him from all parts, to consult him, on a variety of matters, but more especially 
to receive his advice on those affairs, that concerned their immortal souls. 

The strange silence of St. Brieuc's Legend, and of its Abridgment, 
which do not mention his episcopacy, and which reveal nothing, that should 
lead us to infer it, coupled with the circumstance, that he had not a known 
successor as such to the time of Nomino^, who is said to have erected the 
monastery of St. Brieuc into a bishopric, should almost induce a belief, of our 
saint not having been a bishop. However, a marble tomb, found in the year 
I2IO, gave him such a title. This is confirmed, likewise, by popular tradi- 
tion, and in a legend, cited by Pierre Le Bavd.^ There is reason to believe, 
Brieuc had been consecrated bishop, in his own country, and by those pre- 
lates, from whom he demanded priests for new churches he had founded, 
and, at a time, when he converted many of his own country people. Perhaps, 
also, he was only consecrated a regionary bishop, without his having any par- 
ticular see, or local title." Among the number of those, who entertained the 
highest idea concerning the virtue and wisdom of God's holy servant, was 
Riguel himself. This nobleman, after having ceded his house of Champ-du- 
Rouvre to St. Brieuc, retired to the house of Helion or Hilion.3 Heretofore, 
this chateau bore the name of Vieille Stable, or Coz-Crau. As our saint had 

CHAPTER III. — ' In his " Histoire de pp. 79, 80. 

Bretagne," chap, xxix., p. 214. 3 According to the Archives of the Church 

' See Lobineau's " Viesdes Saints de Bre- of Nantes. 

tagne," par M. Abb^ Tresvaux, tome i., '♦See Les Petits Bollandistes "Vies 


a singular devotion towards the Holy Mother of God, he caused an oratory 
to be built, sufficiently near his cathedral, and on the borders of a stream. 
This was known as Notre-Dame-de-la-Fontaine, and thither he often retired 
to offer his prayers.* For him, this formed a sort of hermitage.s Having 
attained a very advanced age, and finding himself in a dangerous state of ill- 
ness, the Castellan declared, that he would receive Holy Viaticum fromBrieuc's 
hands. He said to those, who entreated him to partake of the last sacra- 
ments, he trusted in the mercy of Jesus Christ, that he should not die, until 
he had received absolution and holy communion, through tlie ministry of our 
saint. To Brieuc, the Count sent a pressing message, to come and see him, 
in this extremity. St. Brieuc got ready his chariot, to visit the sick nobleman ; 
for, his extreme old age did not allow him to travel, in any other manner. 
During his journey, St. Brioc was surrounded by a crowd of his religious, who 
followed, and who sang psalms and canticles of praise to God, whilst on 
their way. We are even told, that the Almighty caused our saint to hear a 
heavenly harmony, which re-echoed to his own hymns, and in commemoration 
of this miracle, that Brieuc stopped on his way, to plant a cross, destined to 
be a memorial of this signal favour. Having reached Rigual's house, by his 
prayers, exhortations and good counsels, the saint contributed to procure for 
that nobleman, the inestimable happiness of departing life, in a truly Christian 
manner. In recompense for such service, Rigual the Count presented him 
with his castle, with the land cultivated by his dependents, and with the 
lordship of the whole parish.^ 

The saintly old Bishop did not long survive the death of Riguel. 
Having an intimation, that the time for his heavenly birth approached, 
Brioc called together all his brethren. To their prayers he particularly 
recommended himself, while he exhorted them, with words of piety and 
wisdom. A fever, which seized upon the saint, warned him that dissolution 
might shortly be expected. A fast of six days having been enjoined on all 
his brethren, and performed by them, St. Brioc received Holy Viaticum, and 
imparted his last benediction to the monks. He then sweetly breathed his 
last, it is thought by some, about a.d. 502 ^ — others will have it about 614 ^ — 
being more than ninety years of age. The legend adds, that at the time of 
his death, a chamber in which he expired was filled with an aromatic odour, 
which continued until the moment appointed for his interment. According 
to the general concurrence of writers, 9 he died at Brieuc ; and, in the reli- 
gious house he had there founded. However, Saussay '° places his death at 
Angers, probably deceived by the fact, that the greater par^ of his relics had 
been preserved in that city, as shall be subsequently related." A great num- 
ber of miracles rendered testimony to his glorious heritage in heaven, and to 
his love of God, while upon earth. It is added, that at the moment of his 

des Saints," tome v., Premier Jour de Mai, death. It is said, that "having gone to 

p. 196. Angers on ecclesiastical business, he there 

s See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of breathed his last." — " Lives of the Engli>h 

the Saints," vol. v., May i, p. 21. Saints," No. ix., part i., cap. xvi , p. 169. 

* See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de Bre- "° In his Gallic Martyrology, at the 50th 
tagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome i., of April. 

pp. 80, 81. " Cressy, who translates Saussay's ac- 

1 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the count, thus continues : " From thence 

Fathers, Martyrs, and other principal (Angers) iiis Body was carried back, and 

Saints," vol. v., May I. with great honour buried in the Church, 

* See Les Petits Bollandistes " Vies which himself had built, where frequent 
des Saints," tome v., Premier Jour de Mai, miracles were wrought at his Relicks. Tlius 
p. 196. as he gave his name to the Monastery, Town, 

9 However, the Life of St. German, com- and ^Iother-Clulrch of that Dioce>e. so he 
piled by Puseyite wriiers, gives a different likewise afforded continual jirotcction to 
account, regarding the place of St. Briocus' them." See *' Church History of Brittany," 


departure, visions announced this happy event for two disciples, who then 
dwelt in Grande-Lande monastery. One of these, named Marcan, a good 
and religious man, who is venerated as the patron of a parish in Dol's ancient 
diocese, is said to have seen his soul carried away, in the shape of a dove, by 
Angels. T\\t\x flamboyante wings were emblematic of our saint's great charity. 
Another, named Sivian or Sieu,'^ saw our saint, in a dream, and all brilliant 
with light, mounting by a ladder, which reached towards heaven, while it was 
surrounded by mutitudes of angels. On the morning after this vision, being 
much excited, he hastened to the monastery of Vaux,'3 to be the better 
informed, regarding what had occurred. While sailing from Great towards 
Lesser Brittany, the devil appeared to him, when sleeping on the ship's poop, 
during the middle of the night, and that evil spirit endeavoured to suffocate 
the voyager. Having invoked tlie name of St. Brieuc, and implored his suc- 
cour, Sivian was rescued from every danger. Arriving at the monastery for 
which he was bound, Sivian heard,'concerning the death of their common father, 
from his religious. In turn, the disciple related vision he had experienced, 
and that subsequent danger, from which he had been delivered. This account 
filled all with great joy, and caused them to return the Almighty thanks for 
testimonies afforded, regarding the undoubted beatification of their dear 
deceased patron. It is probable, that Lan-Sieu parish church '+ has derived 
its name, from the person, who had this extraordinary vision. 

The body of St. Brieuc is said to have been buried in the cathedral church, ^5 
attached to his monastery. Many and famous are those miracles on record, 
whereby the Almighty distinguished St. Brioc's merits, either when his name 
had been invoked, or when his tomb had been visited, by children of the faith. 
In paintings, he is represented, as treading on a dragon, or with a column of 
fire, which designated him for ordination, according to popular tradition.'^ The 
Sannmarthani suppose, that about a.d. 846, the monastery of St. Brieuc was 
constituted an episcopal See, by Nomengius or Nominoe, a ruler over this 
part of Brittany. To him succeeded a son Herispogius, also called Ylispo- 
dius.'7 He ruled from 862, until the year 866, when he was slain. Between 
the years 862 and 866, whilst Ylispodius ruled over Brittany, a translation of 
our saint's relics took place. Then they were brought to the church of St. 
Sergius and Bacchus,'^ near Angers, owing to an irruption of the Northmen 
invaders. There they were afterwards honourably kept, and holy Brioc's body 
was preserved in the monastic church of those venerable patrons, '9 almost in its 
entirety, and for a long lapse of ages. At aperiod when St. Brieuc's relics were 
removed from St.Stephen'schurch — which had been founded by the holy Bishop 
— in order to be transferred to the abbey of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus, at 

Book ix., chap, xiv., pp. 189, 190. Bretagne," par M. L'Abbe Tresvaux, tome 

'^ In the Bollandist account^ this person is i., pp. 81, 82. 

name Simanus. He is said to have lived, "^ The monastery of St. Sergius and of St. 

in the Coiritician country, at this time. He Bacchus, had been erected during the 

was a religious man, likewise, and x disciple seventh century, and it existed at a time Hen- 

of St. Brioc. schennius edited the Acts of our saint. See 

'3 St. Brieux was so called, because it is at "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail i. Acta 

the junction of several valleys. See l^ev. S. S. Brioci, Commentarius Previus, sect. 7, p. 

Baring-Gould's " Lives of the Saints," vol. 92, and Vita ex Proprio Officio Ecclesi^ S. 

v., May I., p. 21. Brioci, sect. 9, and n. (f), p. 94. Ibid. 

"t It is situated near St. Malo. '' According to Mabillon, although the 

'5 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies origin of this monastery is buried in obscu- 

des Saints," tome v., Premier Jour de Mai, rity, a charter issued during the reign of 

p. 196. Chlodoveus Junior shows, that it was then 

'* See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of in existence. See "Annates Ordinis S. 

the Saints," vol. v., May i, p. 21. Benedicti," tomus i., lib. xiii., sect, xxvii., 

'7 See Lobineau's " Vies des Saints de p. 389. 



Angers, they were placed in a sack,^" formed of deer-skin, when Erispoe was 
Duke over Bretagne. In the year 965, Salvator, bishop of Aleth, had carried 
a part of these precious remains to Paris, where they were deposited, in St. 
Barthelemi's church.^' In 988, another portion of those rehcs had been placed 
in a new church, built at Crepy in Valois, whitlier they had been brouglit 
from Cliartres. The church of St. Benoit-sur- Loire possessed likewise asmall 
fragment of St. Brieuc's relics. That Sunday, which fell on the last day of 
July, A.D. 1 166 — although the body of our saint was not entire, at this period 
— a translation of his relics took place. It was conducted in a solemn and 
public manner, in presence of Henry II., King of England. Most probably, 
at this time, the relics of St. Brieuc were deposed in that shrine, where Peter, 
Bishop of Brieuc, afterwards discovered tliem, and from which they could 
not be removed, without a goldsmith's assistance. Besides Henry II., 
King of England, Conon, Count of Bretagne, William, Bishop of Angers, 
William, Abbot of St. Serge, William, Abbot of St. Aubin, Hugh, Abbot of 
St. Nicholas, William, Abbot of St. Maur-sur-Loire, and William, Abbot of 
All Saints, at Angers, were assembled on this interesting occasion. ^^ 

In the year 12 10, while Philip was king over France, and Peter 
was bishop at St. Brieuc, this latter had been apprized by his clergy, 
from the time of his appointment to the See, that the diocesan Patron's 
holy relics had been preserved, in the church of St. Sergius and St. 
Bacchus. The bishop resolved, by labouring effectually, to procure, at 
least, a part of these precious remains. He was informed, that no other 
relic belonging to holy Brieuc had been preserved in the church to 
which he was collated, and which had its name from our saint, except- 
ing a bell and a band, or fillet, that formerly belonged to or had some connec- 
tion with the venerated patron. On hearing this. Bishop Peter went to 
Angers, in order to accomplish the object of his most earnest desires. He 
prudently resolved, to request the presence of the bishop and leading clergy 
of that city, at an interview, together with the abbot and brothers of the 
monastery of St. Sergius and St. Bacchus. To this assembly also were in- 
vited persons of distinction, in that part of the country. He greatly desired to 
secure a unanimous expression of assent, for his pious request. Accordingly, all 
were assembled in the church of Angers, at an appointed day and hour. There, 
Bishop Peter preached a most eloquent sermon from the holy Scriptures, to 
the great delight and edification of his audience. So persuasive were his 
words, we are told, that if this bishop had sought the greater part of their 
monastery, its monks would have yielded to his demand, so powerfully were 
their hearts moved by his impressive eloquence. But, temporal gifts were 
not an object of ambition for the Bishop of Brieuc. This prelate declared, he 

'° Regarding that portion of them, once corpus S. Brioci Confessoris Episcopi in 

preserved at Angers, nothing now re- ecclesiaB. Sergii.qureest Andegavis, ethono- 

mains. rifice repositum in eadem Eccltsia, officium 

^' That cliurch has no present existence, prasbente Guilelmo Andegavensium Epis- 

but within it had been erected a chapel, for- copo, assistentibus Guillelmo ejusdem Ec- 

mcrly dedicated to our saint. desire Abbate, Guillelmo B. Albini, Hu- 

^' The account of this solemn translation gone S. Nicolai, Guillelmo B. Manri Abba- 
is thus described, in a charter, beloni;iiig to ti bus, cum multo Cleri populique tripudio, 
the same monastery, and edited by Mabillon. Guillclmus Omnium Sanctorum Abbas huic 
It runs in the following terms :" Hcnricus, Translationi inteifuit, et Conanus Comes 
Rex Anglorum, et Dux Normannorum et Biitaiinia.' See I.obineau's Vies des 
Aquitnnorum, et Come; Andcgavorum, om- Saints de Bretagne," par M. 1 Abbe Tres- 
niluis Sanctre Eccle>ia; Dei tiliis salutem. vaux, pp. 85, 86, and n. (l) ibid. Also, 
Noverit universitas vestra, quod anno ab " Acta Sanctorum," tomus L Maii i. Acta 
Incarnationc Domini MCLXVi et regni nos- S. Brioci. Commentarius PoEvius., sect. 7, 
trix.,pridie Kalendas Augusti, Luna xxx., p. 92. 
die Dominica, me presente translatum est "^ It is most likely, thi? rscription was in 


only desired a part of the holy patron's remains, such object being the sole mo- 
tive of his present visit to Angers. If the venerable abbot of the place would 
graciously hear his petition, he engaged, that the church of St. Brieuc should 
feel for ever indebted to that of his abbey. As St. Brieuc's chief pastor, the 
bishop ottered with grateful thanks, the advantages of an inseparable alliance, 
which should continue through ages yet to come, between both religious 
establishments. The abbot then retired to hold a conference with his reli- 
gious. At first, he feared to comply with the bishop's request, lest he might 
incur the saint's displeasure. However, on matured deliberation, he con- 
sidered it inexpedient, to refuse the reasonable request of his pious supplicant. 
This latter resolution obtained, in fine, the unanimous concurrence of all his 
brethren. In order that he might avoid opposition from any recusant or wounded 
feeling, which might be manifested in or out of the monastery, on account of 
this partition[of our saint's remains, the abbot selected a time, for accomplish- 
ment of his resolution, when all the inmates of his house had retired to rest, 
and after a recital of the midnight office. When they had retired, the abbot 
received anew assurances given to him by Bishop Peter. He caused these 
promises to be repeated in presence of chosen witnesses, who had already 
heard the first guarantees offered. After Matins had been concluded, and 
while the monks sought retirement and rest in their dormitories, the Abbot 
and Fathers, who were conscious regarding what must succeed, repaired to the 
church, being clothed with white garments. They removed that silver shrine, 
containing our saint's relics, from the top of their altar, and in presence of the 
Bishop. By aid of a goldsmith, the reliquary was soon opened. Then, St. 
Brioc's remains were found enclosed, and within a covering made of deer-skin. 
A marble tablet was discovered, and on it was found engraved an inscription 
to this effect : " Here lies the body of the most holy Confessor Brioc, Bishop 
of Brittan}^, which had been brought by Ylispodius, King of the Bretons, to 
this church, which, at that time, was his chapel."^3 On reading this inscrip- 
tion, all who were present — not being sufficiently instructed regarding past 
history — were surprised to hear the name of a king, hitherto little known to 
them. His kingdom, nevertheless, extended as far as Vendomois, according 
to ancient and authentic records. When the shrine had been opened, a most 
agreeable odour was diffused around the jolace, in which these assistants 
officiated. The abbot then presented the Breton Bishop with an arm, two 
ribs, and a joint of St. Brieuc's neck.^4 These remains were received, as an 
incomparable treasure. They were placed in a precious vase, and committed 
to the care of the treasurer of Angers church. This man was a particular 
friend to Bishop Peter. Being now ready to take his departure, as the chief 
object of his desire had thus been happily effected, on the following morning, 
the prelate assisted at the holy sacrifice of Mass, and then began to think of 
returning to his episcopal See. He hastened to resume the homeward jour- 
ney, as a vigilant guardian of his precious treasure. The bishop and clergy 
of Angers accompanied him in solemn procession towards the city gates, 
while they sang hymns and canticles in praise of that illustrious saint, whose 
relics were then being removed, and to that city which bore his name. We 
cannot feel surprised, that full of joy on account of having such a treasure, 
Bishop Peter had a dream, while asleep on that very night, and regarding 

Latin, the original of which may be found pella sua, Yh'spodius Rex Britannorum." 

thus rendered, in the Bollandists' collection, Lobineau has rendered it into French. 

at the 1st of May. It runs as follows: -■'See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies 

"Hie jacet corpus Beatissimi Confessoris des Saints," tome v. Premier Jour de Mai. 

Brioci Episcopi Britannia;, quod detulit ad p. 196. 

basilicam istam, quae tunc temporis erat ca- 'S Mabillon relates, that the monastery of 


a matter, which had afforded him such agreeable occupation during the pre- 
vious day. He imagined, that surrounded by an astonishing hght, St. Brioc 
had appeared to liim and said : "Take care, my son, that those rehcsbe pre- 
served with due honour in my church." On receiving this admonition, the 
bishop sent innnediately word to the St. Brieux clergy and people, to warn 
them about his happy return, and requesting them to be ready for reception 
of their holy patron's remains, on the i8th of October, the festival day of St 
Luke. In obedience to their pious bishop's command, a vast multitude of 
persons on the day appointed came to meet him, with all the religious solem- 
nity and joy, that could be desired or imagined. Among the rest, Alain I., 
Count of Pentiiievre, of Gonello, Guingamp, Avaugour, &c., son to Henry, 
Count of Penthievre and to Matilda of Vendome, assisted at this grand cere- 
mony. The Count prostrated himself on earth, to venerate the holy relics of St. 
Bricuc, He even received them, and bore them within his own arms, to the 
cathedral church. ^5 it is said, that at the moment of entrance into this edifice, 
the sacred relics were heard to emit sounds, as if they had been animated, 
and as if they had made an effort to issue from that vase, in which they had 
been carried. Such strange prodigy was regarded as an indication of joy, 
manifested by St. Brieuc, when a portion of his remains entered a place, 
that formerly had been so dear to him, where he had received so many graces 
from Heaven, and where God's power had been manifested by wonderful 
miracles accorded to the people's faith, and to their holy patron's prayers.^^ 

The monument dedicated to this saint, in St. Sergius' and St. 
Bacchus' church, which had been erected into a parish, was destroyed 
some years previous to the revolution of 1789. It is said, this Vandalic 
act was intended to prevent certain superstitious practices. At present, 
St. Brioc's ring is preserved in Brieuc. The mayor and his corporate 
civic companions proceeded with certain public ceremonies to kiss his 
ring, on the annual return of each May-day. =7 Before the French revolution, 
the sacred relics of this saint were enclosed in a silver shrine, and they 
were saved from profanation, at that iconoclastic period. In the year 
1820, Monseigneur Hyacinthe de Qu^len — afterwards Bishop of Paris, and 
at that time. Coadjutor of the same See ^^ — presented a beautiful reliquary of 
gilt bronze, for the reception of our saint's relics. That prelate had been a 
priest of St. Brieux diocese, and an honorary canon of the same church. In 
the reliquary presented, the saint's remains are now preserved. ^9 

He was venerated, as the principal patron of that diocese and city, which 
bore his name. In works of art, he was often represented with a purse or 
aumoniire; and, he was regarded as the special patron of purse-makers, pro- 
bably because this branch of industry had flourished formerly in the city of 
St. Brieuc.3° The festival of St. Brieux had been formerly celebrated, on the 
ist of May, as found in ancient Manuscripts. 3^ Molanus and other writers 3* 
have fixed his chief festival, at the ist of May. Still, the name of St. Brieuc is 
not found in the Roman Martyrology. However, it occurs in the Martyrologies 

St. Brioc, founded in the sixth century, be- ^9 See Lobineau's "Viesdes Saints de 

came converted into an episcopal seat and Bretagne," par M.L' Abbe Tresvaux, tome i., 

city. See " AnnalesOrdinis S. Benedicti," pp. 82 to 85, and n. (i). Ibid. 

tomus i., lib. vi., sect, xxv., p. 152. 3° See Les Petits Bollandists' "Vies des 

^* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.. Mail Saints," tome v.. Premier Jour de Mai, p. 

i., Acta S. Brioci. Historia Translationis, 196. • 

sect. I, 2, 3, p. 94. 3' In Manuscriptis Cassinensi, S. Bene- 

''^ See Lot)ine.iu's "Vies des Saints de dicti, et in Romano Ducis Altempsii. 

Bretap;ne," par M. L'Abbe TresY.iux, tome ^- See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

i., p. 82, and n. (2), p. 85. Ibid. i., Acta S. Brioci, Comnientarius Prxvius, 

'* He then bore for title Archbishop of sect. 2, p. 91. 

Trajanopolis. 33 According to Albert de Grand, who 


of France, as also in Anglo-Saxon Litanies of the seventh century. St. Brioc's 
festival was celebrated, likewise, on the 29th of April. 33 It has probably- 
happened, that Sausiajus has transferred his feast to the 30th of April. 3+ His 
office is recited, in the dioceses of Tours, Rennes, Nantes and Quimper. 
Heretofore, St. Brioc was equally honoured in those of Dol, Treguier, Saint- 
Pol de Leon and Saint-Malo. St. Brioc's whole ecclesiastical office,35 having 
a proper Prayer,3^ had been recited, and continued during the octave, in the 
diocese of St. Brieuc;37 while, the feast of St. Philip and St. James, Apostles 
— occurring also on the ist of May — was transferred to the first festival day, 
not pre-occupied by the recital of a Nine Lesson Office. But, since the year 
1804, St. Brioc's feast has been assigned to the second Sunday after Easter. 
The chief Celtic nations seem to have specially honoured this holy man. 
The anonymous calendar, and Henry Fitzsimon's List of Irish Saints,3S have 
classed the present holy bishop among them.39 There are two parish churches 
in St. Malo's ancient diocese, and these acknowledge our saint, as their 
patron, viz., that of St. Brieuc, near Montmuran, and that of St. Brieuc, at 
Mauron. The parish of St. Breock in Cornwall and on the River Camel, 
was dedicated to St. Brioc, and its fair was held, on the first day of May,-*" 
. said to have been the date for the translation of his relics.'*^ St. Brioc was 
venerated as a patron, in many places of Scotland.'^^ Thus, he was patron of 
Rothesay, where his name is preserved in St. Brock's Fair, on the first Wednes- 
day in May. 'IS At the i6th of November is Bryak — ? Brioc — fair, but it is 
assigned to no particular place.'*'^ The same dedication occurs in Inchbrayoch, 
an island in the South Esk, just below Montrosc^s Dunrod, in Kircud- 
brightshire, was dedicated to St. Mary and St. Brioc*^ A cliapel was dedica- 
ted to a St. Breagh,t7 in the barony of Forth, and county of Wexford, towards 
the close of the seventeenth century. No date is assigned for his feast. The 
church was pulled down, not very long ago, and a schoolhouse was erected on 
its site. Some time about 1680, or probably before it, certain miraculous 
accidents are said to have happened. The Almighty demonstrated his indig- 
nation with signal severity, against the contemners and scoffers of his beatified 
servants, to the confusion and immediate chastisement of the impious blas- 
phemers at this place. The incident is not mentioned, although in the neigh- 
bourhood, it seems to have been well known. The violators of things and 

cites the Breviary of Laon, a diocese in Ar- Anglia, Echard i., RTaii Mol. 

moric Britain. 39 See O'SulIevan Beare's Historic Catho- 

3-* According to Henschenn. licas Ibernise Compendium," tomus i., lib. 

35 It was published at St. Brieux, a.d. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 53. 

MDCXXi., by authority of Andrew le Pore, '•° See Smith's and Wace's *' Dictionary of 

Bishop of St. Brieuc. Christian Biography," vol. i., p. 338. 

3^ The following is the prayer: "Bea- ■♦'See Haddan's and Stubbs' "Councils 
tissimi Confessoris tui atque Pontificis and Ecclesiastical Documents relating to 
Brioci, quaesumus Domine, precibus adjuve- Great Britain and Ireland," Appendix B, 
mur in cujus meritis semper es gloriosus et vol. i., p. 31, and cf. ii., 'j'i,, 86. 
vehementer glorificandus." — " Acta Sancto- ''- See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 
rum," tomus i., Mail i., Acta S. Brioci, Com- tish Saints," p. 291. 
mentarius Preevius, sect, i., p. 91. ■'3 See " Origines Parochiales Scotias," vol. 

37 It is stated, that the Lessons were to be ii., pp. 223, 239. 

found in very old Breviaries. " Sed quo- "♦* The Aberdeen Ahnanack of 1665, in 

niam non ea sermonis erat puritas, quse the list of Faires of Fayre Scotland, 

legentes non offenderet, recitantibus que "•= See Preface to "Regisirum Vetus de 

fastidium non ingeneraret, quod erat inso- Aberbrothock," pp. 28, 339. 

lens et barbarum, germane Latinitati sic ''* See "Liber Sanctas Crucis, " p. 20. 

restituere conati sumus, ut et humilior non "^ Herbert F. Here asks, whether the pre- 

esset oratio, et ab Ecclesias lenitate non sent saint's name is meant for St. Brioc or St. 

abesset." Bridget? 

3* Thelatter notes, Briocus a quo S. Brieve in *^ See ' ' A Brief Description of the barony 


places dedicated to Divine service are specially rebuked/^ Moreover, Arnold 
Wion, Dorganius, Menard, and Bucelinus, in their Martyrologies, as also An- 
tonius Yepez, in his Benedictine Chronicle, at the year 556, state, that our saint 
and those monasteries he founded might be claimed by the Benedictines. If, 
as has been supposed, St. Brioc was initiated to the reHgious life, and had 
received his early education in Ireland ; or, if he founded monasteries in 
Ceretica, the same pious rule established by St. David of Menevia must have 
been followed, by this holy patron of Brieuc city. The Britons of Armorica and 
of Cambria seem to have followed the same religious order of life, in the time 
of Germanus of Auxerre, who is said to have been the master of St. Brioc. 
This being admitted, the latter must have been St. Benedict's senior by many 
years.43 The founder of the Benedictine order, first saw the light, in the year 
480. Wherefore, at the first Benedictine age, the learned Father John Mabillon5° 
prefers placing our saint, among those pretermitted ; because, as he had 
already observed, the monasteries in Armoric Britain were not subject univer- 
sally to his order, in the time of St. Brioc. Nor could he find anything cer- 
tain, from ancient documents, about his religious foundation, except the 
statement, that it was built in the sixth century.51 

Article III. — St. Ultan, Abbot of Fosse, in Belgium. [^Seventh 
Century.'] Already in a previous volume, we have given the Life of St. 
Fursey,' Abbot of Lagny, at some length ; and, as having a close relation 
with that remarkable saint's career, we must associate his brothers. Saints 
Foillan and Ultan. A distinct feast for the latter holy man belongs to this 
date. An ancient Manuscript copy * of St. Ado's Martyrology, preserved in 
the monastery of St. Laurence, at Liege, has this statement, with a lengthened 
eulogy of St. Ultan, embracing the particulars of his Life. This is found, 
also, transcribed into a Manuscript copy of Florarius, relating to the saints. 
It agrees with the generally received accounts. Allusion is made to St. Ultan, 
at an early period, in the work of Venerable Bede.3 Constantine Ghinius ^ 
notices St. Ultan, among the holy Canons. At the istof May, the Benedic- 
tines and Bollandists s have the Acts of St. Ultan, ^ Abbot at Fosse and Per- 
rone. While the former claim him, as a Benedictine Saint, Father Godefrid 
Henschen denies it, and asserts, that those celebrated brothers only followed 
the monastic rule,? which prevailed in Ireland, during th.eir period. Mirseus 
has a notice of him at this date.^ It would seem, that Colgan had prepared 

of Fort, in the county of Wexford, togetlier later writers. 

with a Relation of the Disposition and some ^ ,See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis An- 

peculiar Customs of the Ancient and Present glorum," lib. iii., cap. xix. 

Native Inhabitants thereof." — "Journal of ^ " In Natalibus Sanctorum Canonico- 

the Kilkenny and .South-ea.-t of Ireland rum." 

ArchKological Society." New Series, vol. s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

iv., part i., p. 69, and n. (6). Mali i. De S. Ultano Abbate Fossis et Pe- 

*9 See Father Hennschenn's remarks, in ronre, pp. 1 18, 119. 

" Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mali i. De S. *" Legend urn ejus Elogium historicum 

Brioco. Commenlarius Praevius, sect. 6, sreculosecuiulo Benedictino, et in Actis SS. 

p. 92. Boliandianis ad diem primam Mail." — Cri- 

5° In " Acta Sanctorum Ordinis S. Bene- tices pagii apud Baronius, " Annates Ecclesi- 

dicti." astici," tome xi., A. i). 654, sect. viii. 

s' See Mabillon's "Annales Ordinis S. ' Ilensciien sup["Osed this to be the rule 

Benedicti," tomus i., lib. vi., sect, xxv., established by St. Columbanus — we pre- 

p. 152. sunie to say, he meant St. Columba, Abbot 

Article III. — ' See his Life, in vol. i., of lona. 

of this work, at January xvi. * See " Festi Belgici et Burgundici," pp. 

' It has been interpolated, however, by 223, 224. 



materials to give the Life of this saint, for the ist of May ;9 and, at this date, 
Bishop Challenor '° has placed St. Uitan. He is also known by the name of 
Outain," the French rendering for Ultanus. The ancient Lives of St. Fursey 
throw most light on his history. The later Life of St. Fursey, written by John 
Desmay, has also allusion to this holy man. It may be observed, that Saints 
Foillan and Ultan were brothers to St. Fursey, and the name of the father 
was Fintan, dynast over one of the small principalities in Munster. Else- 
where, we have seen, that they were said to be sons to the King of Lein- 
ster," but this is incorrect. However, we are told, they were children to 
Hugh Bannin, King of Munster, according to the History of the Saints of 
Ireland.'3 Ultan was the eldest of the three brothers; and all received the 
benefit of a most excellent education. The brothers Ultan and Foillan 
remained with their parents, while St. Fursey was absent on the western isles 
of Ireland ; and, both continued to lead religious lives, notwithstanding the 
many dissipations of society, and the temptations, to which they were exposed. 
On the return of their brother, however, he persuaded them to embrace the 
monastic profession. Under his direction, they passed some time at Cno- 
bersburg,^4 now Burgh Castle,'^ in the shire of Suffolk, in England. Here, a 
religious establishment was formed, owing to the munificence of King Sige- 
frid, their patron and protector. St. Fullen was set over this house, while 
both his brothers sought a penitential retirement, in a neighbouring desert. 
There, for a whole year,'^ St. Fursey and St. Ultan lived as anchorites. This 
happened, during the reign of Sigebert over East Anglia.'? Afterwards, St. 
Fursey resolved on leaving England for France, in consequence of the dis- 
orders created by Penda, King of the Mercians. Taking with him Saints Ultan 
and Foillan, with other companions, according to some accounts, St. Fursey 
went over to Gaul, in the year 640, or perhaps somewhat later. There, he 
founded a monastery at Lagny. Other statements arrange it, that having been 
charged to look after the religious establishment in Britain,'^ his brothers did 
not accompany him to Gaul ; but, that they arrived there, only after his death. 
It is even said, that St. Fursey, after his arrival in Gaul, resolved to go back, 
in order to visit them in England, but his death occurred, before he could 
accomplish that purpose. After the demise of St. Fursey, in France, about 
the year 650, his brothers. Saints Ultan and Foillan, arc thought to have left 
England for the Continent. According to one account, St. Foillan, excited 
by the desire and intentions of his brother Fursey, went to Rome, in order to 
receive the Pontifical Benediction from Pope Martin I., who then sat in the 
Chair of Peter.^9 He is said to have been accompanied there, by his brother 

5 According to his " Catalogus Actuum '= gee an account of this place in Lewis' 

Sanctorum qu£e MS. habenter, ordine Men- "Topographical Dictionary of England," 

slum etDierum." vol. i., p. 436. 

'° See "Britannia Sancta," part i., p. '° The date has been variously ascribed to 

275. years, between 63340 639. 

'' See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des '^ According to Matthew of Westminster, 

Saints," tome v., Premier Jour de Mai, he ascended the throne of the East Angles, 

p. 144. A.D. 636. See " Flores Historiarum," p. 

" Such is Hanmer's account. See "Chro- 221. 

nicle of Ireland," p. 152. '^ See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- 

'^ See the Preface to Haliday's Transla- rum," tomus i.. Mail i. l)e S. Ultano Abbate 

tion of K eating's "History of Ireland," Fossis et Peronce, sect. 3, p. 118. 

vol. i. , p. Ixix. '9 " Foillianus Romam ivit, petiturus a 

'■• Here there had been a celebrated Roman Martino Pontifice Episcopalem benediction- 
encampment, and within its bounds, St. em ad infidelium conversionem ; quaaccepta, 
Fursey built his monastery. The place is ad Gallias venit." — Molanus, in " Natalibus 
supposed to have been the Roman Gariano- Sanctorum Belgii," die xxxi. Octobris. 
num. '■"' See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 


St. Ultan. However, Dr. Lanigan, seems to think, that Foillan in the interval 
between that period and his own death was so much occupied in 
Brabant, that he had no time to visit Rome.^° The Sovereign Pontiff is 
related to have consecrated St. Foillan as a Regionary Bishop, and to have 
given him permission to preach, on account of his great zeal and fervour. 
This journey to Rome and his consecration are denied by others ; yet, as we 
are assured, without good proof.^' Yet, if this journey to Rome took place, it 
must have been, as supposed, after St. Fursey's death. ^^ Having received 
power to preach the Gospel among the infidels, St. Foillan is said to have left 
Rome, and to have directed his journey towards Gaul, accompanied by his 
brother St. Ultan. They first went to Lagny, where St. Fursey had lived, and 
thence, they passed to Perrone, where his remains were deposed. ^^ On St. 
Foillan's return from Rome, he is stated to have rejoined his brother Ultan, 
who then lived in the diocese of Cambray. In company, they traversed the 
whole country around, spreading a knowledge of the Gospel, wherever they 
came.^+ As the Acts of St. Foillan often style him Praesul, we are led to con- 
clude, that he received episcopal consecration, at some period of his life. The 
Mayor of King Clovis, who is also called the Patrician Erchinoald, had 
erected two great religious establishments ; one of these was near his castle of 
Perrone, on the mountain of Cignes, and the other was at a place, called 
Mount St. Quintin. According to Desmay, St. Fursey ordered St. Ultan with 
some religious to occupy Perrone ; where, it is said, both of the brothers met ; 
while this statement is discredited, by most writers. St. Fursey was buried 
in the new church, which had been built at Perrone. St. Foillan was present 
at the translation of his brother Fursey's remains, in the year 654, according 
to some accounts. ^5 About this time, Ituberga, widow of Pepin de Landen, 
Mayor over the Palace of Austrasie, with her daughter, St. Gertrude,^^ Abbess, 
lived at Nivelle, between Mons and Brussels, in Brabant. A religious com- 
munity of men, as of women, had been established here; and, the two 
brothers, directing their steps towards this city, applied for admission among 
the brothers, and were received. Their virtues and talents so far recom- 
mended them to tlie notice of St. Gertrude, that they were appointed to in- 
struct the religious under her rule, in psalmody and in religious practices. 
Even those villages and hamlets, where the monastic tenants resided, received 
the benefit of their preaching, through her means. The charge of Pen-one 
monastery was confided to St. Foillan. St. Gertrude Avas a truly religious 
and munificent patroness of the saints, and she took care to provide every- 
thing necessary for them. It is said, that she founded a monastery at Fosse, 
or Fossas, where St. Foillan built a church, and established separate cells for 
the monks, who belonged to it. The direction of this Avas committed to St. 
Ultan.^7 She retained St. Foillan at Nivelles, to act as spiritual director over 
her nuns — to whom he expounded the Holy Scri])tures, and gave instruction 

land," vol. ii., chap, xvi., sect, xi., n. 107, the " Martyrologium Benedictinum," at 

p. 466. Vita Sancli Foillani, p. 900. 

^' .See Baillet's " Vies des Saints," tome "= in the church of St. John, at Perrone, 

vii., Oct. xxxi., sect, i . there is an old pictuie representing Louis XI. 

^^ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- assisting at the translation of St. Fursey's re- 
nin;," Februarii ix., Vita S. Furscei, Epis- mains. See Murray's Handbook for Tra- 
copi et Conftssoris, n. 23, p. 300. vellers in France," sect, x., Route 184, 

^'^ This is related, in an old "Vita S. Foil- p. 655. 

lani." -* Her feast occurs at the 17th of March, 

'*" Tempore Siegeberti Regis, Grimoaldi and she departed this life, a.d. 659. See 

maioris domus et Erchenaldi I'atricii cum Guillaume Descceuvres' " La Vie de S. Ger- 

senioreeorumfratre Ultanoin Galliam venit, trude, Abbesse de Nivelles," published at 

et una divcrsa loca peragranda (crat autem Paris. A.n. 1612, i2mo. 

Episcopus) ChristiEvangeliumlongo latcque ''.Such is a statement found, in an old 

divulgavit." — Menardus, in his Additions to Life of St. Foillan. 


and advice. In his chronicle,'^^ at a.d. 648, Sigebert places the gift of St. Ger- 
trude to the Irishman St. Foillan, According to some, St. Gertrude made a 
donation, in favour of St. Ultan, in the year 652, after the death of her 
mother.^9 She assigned him a tract of country, called Fosse, or rossas,3° west 
of Namur, between the Rivers Meuse and Sambre, then in the diocese of 
Maestricht, but now in that of Liege. She also furnished him with means, 
to build a hospital and a monastery. Of the latter, he became first abbot. 
With the means furnished by St. Gertrude, St. Ultan built a church, 3' which 
was dedicated to St. Agatha. Fosse — about three leagues from Namur — 
is called a Monastery of the Scots,3' by Eginhart ;33 and formerly many such 
houses were occupied by the Scots or Irish, throughout France and Germany. 
Peirone was regarded, also, as a monastery for Irishmen. About the year 
655,34 St. Foillan set out, with three of his companions, on a visit to the 
Monastery of Fosse. On their way, whilst passing through the forest of Sonef,3S 
or Charboniere — better known at present as Soigne or Soignies — in Hainaut, 
they were attacked by robbers 3^ and barbarously murdered, while they were 
engaged singing God's praises.37 From the account given, regarding the 
murder of St. Foillan, it would appear, that he was put to death, merely for 
the sake of plunder, and probably because he had in his possession rich 
vessels or other articles, which he was then bearing with him to the Monas- 
tery of Fosse. As all his companions were put to death, with St. Foillan him- 
self, no news of their fate reached their friends. 3^ When the bodies had been 
stripped of their garments, and dragged to a retired part of the wood for imme- 
diate concealment, the murderers, clothed with their dress, escaped, also, with 
their horses. Hearing no account of St. Foillan, at the time of his expected 
return, Gertrude sent a messenger to Ultan, that she might learn from him the 
cause for his brother's delay. As yet, unapprized of Foillan's departure from 
Nivelles, Ultan could give no information, regarding his missing brother. 
However, on the following night, he dreamed of having seen a white dove, 
with its wings dripping blood. He began to fear the death of his brother, 
from such information as he received, and from all other indications. Sending 
to St. Gertrude a relation of his dream and surmises, she was filled with the 
most gloomy apprehension. Immediately, she sent messengers in all direc- 
tions, to seek intelligence about the missing director and his companions ; 
but, although their martyrdom took place, on the 31st day of October, as was 
afterwards discovered, their remains were not found, until the i6th day of 
January, in the year following, and seventy-seven days, after this murder had 
been committed. The oratory of Rceux was built on the spot, where St. Foil- 
lan had suffered martyrdom ; and, this afterwards gave rise to the Abbey of 

** " Fossense monasterium S. Foillanus, Mirreus' "Codex Donationum Pianim," 

Hibernus, dono S. Gertiudis virginis Nivel- p. 89. 

lensis, fundavit, ubi et quiescit." '^^ In " Historia Translationis SS. Marcel- 

°9 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the lini et Petri." 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," 34 gee Rev. Alban Butler's "Lives of the 

vol. X., October xxxi. Fathers, Martyrs, and otherprincipal Saints," 

3° There is an excellent historical account vol. x., October xxxi. 

of Fosses, with charters, edicts, &c., relating 35 This forest was also called Sinesia. 

thereto, contained in a work, edited by M. 36 jjy some writers, these are called idola- 

Jules Borgnet, and intituled, " Documents, ters. 

inedits relatifs a I'Histoire de la Province de 37 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

Namur." This work has been published, at Saints," tome v., Mai i., p. 144. 

Namur, in 1867. 38 gge an account in the Manuscript Flora- 

3' See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des rius Sanctorum. The Bollandists' "Acta 

Saints," tome v., Mai i., p. 144. Sanctorum," toraus i., Mali i. De S. Ultano 

3' Thus do we read : " monasterium Scot- Abbate, sect. i. , p. 1 18. 

torum : qualia olim multa Scotti sive Hiber- 39 The religious of this place used to pay 

ni per Germaniam habuerunt." — Autbeatus each year to the Chapter of Canons at Fosse 


St. Foillan, called Feuillan-aux-Roeux.39 The bodies were removed to Nivel- 
les, where they were buried with much honour. The remains of St. Foillan 
were shortly after removed to Fosse, at the instance of the Abbot. Those of 
his martyred companions were preserved at Nivelles, and here, as at Fosse, 
the memory of all four is invoked. ■♦° The monks had charge of those relics, 
and the Secular Canons then succeeding in their place kept them with great 
care. After the death of his brother, St. Ultan was charged with the adminis- 
tration of Perrone Abbey. Ultan was thought, also, to have been Abbot over 
Mount Saint Quentin ; but, Mabillon could not find an earlier date than the 
tenth century, for a monastery, at that place.''' When St. Gertrude perceived 
her end about to close, she sent one of her nuns to St. Ultan, to learn from 
him the e.xact day of her death. The saint prophetically replied : " This day 
is the i6th of March ; Gertrude, the servant of the Lord, shall die to-morrow, 
during the celebration of tlie Holy Mass. Tell her not to fear the result ; 
St. Patrick and the angels are ready to receive her into glory."-'^ The 
event corresponded with his prediction.'*3 She is said to have departed happily 
from this life, on the 17th of March, a.d. 659. When St. Amatus,'** called 
in French Ame, had been banished from his See of Sion in the Valais, by 
Theodoric III. ,45 he fled for protection to St. Ultan, at Peronne, where the 
holy Abbot received him with every token of respect and veneration. Under 
the influence of Ebroiuj^^ the IMayor of his palace, and other evil counsellers, 
Thierry or Theodoric was abandoned to cruelty, irreligion and other vices, 
being a persecutor of the bishops and clergy, especially when not subservient 
to his unjust mode of ruling. The exact year of our saint's departure from 
this life has been disputed. Dr. Lanigan seems to think, that Ultan died in 
the year 676, or thereabouts, from the circumstance of Mabillon speaking 
about him, as living in the year 674, yet, as if he departed not long after such 
date.''^ About the year 680, the death of St. Ultan is said to have occurred, 
according to Pagius.'*^ This date is followed by Rev. S. Baring-Gould. '*9 
According to Le Cointe, St. Ultan survived his brother Foillan nearly thirty 
years, having departed this life, on the ist day of May, in the year 686.=° He 
was buried at Fosse or Fosses, s' in the church of St. Agatha. During the 
Norman inroads, this place suffered greatly from their devastions ; but, Not- 

a piece of gold, or twelve deniers of silver; ^4 His feast is kept at the 13th of Sep- 

and after his benediction, they were obliged tember. 

to present their Abbot, to take the abbatial ■'S He was son to Clovis II., King of 

cross, from the aUar of St. Foillan. Sec Austrasia, at first, and afterwards of all 

Les Petits Bollandisles, " Vies des Saints," France, 

tome v., Mai i., p. 144, n. 3. ■** He was assassinated in Neustrie. See 

'■° " On a bati depuis un monastere dans la L.-P. Anquetii's " Histoire de France," Pre- 

foret de Charbonicre au lieu de leur martyre, miere Race dite des Merovingiens, sect, v., 

ou plutot sur la place ou leurs corps furcnt p. 54. 

trouves, etjl'on en a fait dans la suite une *' See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

Abb.iye de Premontre pres de la petite ville land," vol. ii., chap, xvi., sect, xi., p. 465, 

de Reux a I'entree du Haynaut." — Baillct's and n. Ill, p. 666. 

"Vies des Saints," tome vii., Oct. xx.xi., *' Hesays : " Colitur Ultanus inrecentiori- 

sect. 2. busMartyrologiis IrelandisMaii, mortuus cir- 

^' See " Annales Ordinis S. Benedicti," ca annum scxcentessinium octogessimum,'' — 

tomus iii., lib. xlviii., sect, xlviii., p. 642. Baronius' "Annales Eccle^iaslici," tomus 

*" Longueval adds : " L'Auteur qui rap- xi., a.d. 654, sect, viii., Criiices. 

porte les circonstances de ceUe sainte niort, '"See "Lives of the Saints," vol. iv., 

est bien digne de foi, puisqu'il y etoit pre- May i., p. I. 

sent." — "liistoire de I'Englise Gallicane," 5° See, also, Les Petits Bollandistes, 

tome iv., liv. x., pp. 59, 60. "Vies des Saints," tome v., Mai i., p. 144. 

43 Seethe Bollandisis' " Acta Sanctorum," S" See Bishop Challoner's Britannia Sanc- 

tomus ii., Martii xvii., Vita Sanctte Ger- ta," part i., p. 275. 

trudis. 53 'I'hese Canons were the first, in 1246, to 


ger, Bishop of Liege, caused it to be surrounded by Avails, in 974, Then its 
ruined monastery was converted into a Chapter of Canons. s^ Towards the 
end of the last century, the relics of St. Ultan had been preserved, in the 
church of Fosse. 53 Under the name Altanus, Joannes Trithemius has noticed 
this saint, and his actions, in England, while classing him among the Bene- 
dictines. 54 So in like manner does Arnold Wion, Dorgan, Menard and 
Bucelin. The name of Ultan, without any further designauon, occurs in the 
published Martyrology of Tallagh,s5 at the ist of May. According to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, 5^ Ultan, son of Maolsneachta,57had veneration paid 
him, on this day. If — as seems to have been thought — he was brother to St. 
Faoillan and St. Fursey, their father's name was Fintan, and some error must 
have occurred, when calling him Maolsneachta, in the present instance. The 
name of St. Ultan is entered at this same date, in the anonymous Catalogue of 
Irish Saints, published by O'SuUevan Beare. This name and designation of his 
being abbot appear in Henry Fitzsimon's List of our National Saints, as belong- 
ing to May-day, the festival set apart for his commemoration. 5^ The general 
account of his conduct and example is the grand criterion, by which 
the world, unto the very end of time, should easily recognise the true Chris- 
tian man. 

Article IV. — St. Nathchaoimhe, or Machoemi, Abbot of Terry- 
glass, County of Tipperary. \_Sixth Ceniury.'] Authentic particulars 
of this holy person's Acts have not reached us ; but, popular traditions in Ire- 
land, especially when derived from time immemorial, and not drawn from the 
conjectural reveries of modern writers, often lead by some indirect and mys- 
terious clue to the elucidation of historic facts. In the Martyrology of Tallagh,' 
the feast of St. Mochoemi of Tir-da-glas is assigned to the ist of May. In the 
Feilire of St. ^ngus,^ at the ist of May, the festival of this holy man is cele- 
brated. The commentator identifies him, likewise, as Abbot of Tir-da-glas, 
and Caemgen's brother.3 In the Martyrology of Alarianus O'Gorman, he is 
also noticed. We deem it quite probable, that Nath, or Mo, are only prefixes 
to the original name of Choem, Chaoimhe, or Choemius, The Bollandists ^ 
have some remarks, in reference to Mochoemius of Tyrdeglass, at this date. 
This saint, as we have already seen, was brother to the illustrious St. Kevin,5 

celebrate the Fete Dieu, at the request of lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 57. 

Robert, Bishop of Liege. Article iv. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

53 See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des p. xxii. The Franciscan copy has mochoemi 

Saints," torne v., Mali., p. 144, and n. 3. CiiM'oogLA]'. 

s-t See " De Viris lUustribus Ordinis S. "^ In the " Leabhar Breac" copy we find 

Benedicti," lib. iii. the following entry : — 

55 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii In j.^_ ^^^ mochoemi 

the Franciscan copy we have snaiply entered ^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^^ 

cft"^*^'.. 11 T~v T- jj J -D AtTO ciiTorcj,n iruAirbu 

5° Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. p^ocepc l^U11l^ ihv,. 

116, 117. '^' ' 

57 Dr. Todd says, in a note, at this word, It is thus translated into English by Dr. 

Maoltsneachta. The more recent hand adds : Whitley Stokes : — " On May's Kalends my 

"OAi^iem A\Q •oeYvb]\AicAiYV -pAoiAin Acuf Coemi. (The) birth of Philip who is noblest. 

1pii|\1"A, <^ui ecoeni 'oie coLictiT\— perhaps Then began what is highest, Jesu's delight- 

weshould read colunter — VorrT' ®^ cece]\A. ful preaching." 

" I think he is tlie brother of Faelan and ^ See "Transactions of the Royal Irish 

Fursa, who are venerated on the same day Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 

at Fossae, &c." The man here set down for part i., pp. Ixxviii., Ixxxiii. 
his father is manifestly erroneous. * See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.. Mail 

s^See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historice Ca- i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 5. 
tholicse Iberniee Compendium," tomus i., s See his Life, at the 3rd of June.. 


founder of Glendalough f as also to St. Coeman ? of Annatrim. Caeniell,^ 
daughter to Cennfhionnan, son of Ceis, was mother to both of these holy 
personages f while their father was known as Coemlog.'° It is related, that 
they had a sister, variedly called Caemh, Coine, or Coemoca. Even yet, there 
is a local and very generally received belief," that Kevin, Keen (? Keem) " 
and Kine '3 were brothers. This opinion is perfectly accordant with our 
saint's memorials, as also with the genealogies and calendars. We may assume, 
as they belonged to a Dal-messincorb family,'-* that they were born in ancient 
Lagenia. It appears possible, that under his brother, St. Kevin, Abbot of 
Glendalough, Mochoem had been initiated to the profession of a religious 
life. Certain local traditions seem to have some such origin. This saint — 
the brother of St. Kevin — perhaps effected some foundation near the roman- 
tic " Meeting of the Waters," in the county of Wicklow, before he removed to 
Tir-da-glas. This may have been at Kilkine,'5 in the parish of Ballykine,'^ and 
it seems probable enough, both these places had been named from Mochoem ; 
although, we have already stated, that a sister, called Caemh, or Coine,'? may 
have lived there, and possibly may have given denomination to that place. 
The parish of Ballykine '^ is ecclesiastically treated as one of four denomina- 
tions, which constitute the parish of Rathdrum.'s What we are about to 
record is a story told by the Wicklow peasants, living in the valleys of the 
Avonmore and Avonbeg. Being placed by his brother St. Kevin at Glenda- 
lough to attend solely the sheep, St. Kine had scarcely begun his charge, when 
he was diverted from the care of the sheep by observing a deer, suckling a babe 
at the Deer Stone, now hollowed in the centre, and still to be seen at Glen- 
dalouc^h. Recollecting himself, and finding he had been disobedient, he ran 
back to crave the pardon of St. Kevin. This saint, as a penance, ordered him 
to march backwards with his face to Glendalough, and along the current of the 
Avonmore, holding a withered holly in his hand, and to continue his route, 
until the withered holly should grow green again. He came to a place, now 
called the May Hole, on the ist of May.^° It is situated, under the finely 
wooded banks on the river,'' and within a few yards of the " Meeting of the 

^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Kevin's brother — probably, he says, St. 

nise," xii. Martii. Vita S. Dagani, nn. 4, 5, Dagan — founded an abbey liere, where 

6 7 p. 586. Whaley Abbey has been erected on the for- 

'7 His feast occurs, at the 3rd of Novem- mer site. See " Monasticon Hibernicum," 

l)ef_ p. 760. However, St. Dagan was not the 

^ Others call her Coemgel. brother, but the nephew, of St. Kevin. 

9 See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' '^Allusion has been made to her already, at 

" Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 116, 117. the4th of April, and in a conjectural way, 

'° See " 1 ransactions of the Royal Irish as a sister to St. Kevin, founder of Glenda- 

Academy," Iiish Manuscript Series, vol. i., lough, 

part i., p. clxviii. '" Some curiously inscribed stones, at 

" In the southern part of the county of Ballykeen, with illustrations and descriii- 

Wicklow. tions, have been given by G. H. Kinahan, 

" See what is said, at notices of St. Caem- in " The Journal of ihe Royal and Archaeo- 

hog, for the 22nd of July, where in the logical Association of Ireland," vol. vi., part 

Martyrology of the O'Clerys, he is called ii., Fourth Series, No. 57, pp. 224 to 228, 

brother to Caoimhghin or Kevin, and to and p, 236. 

Naicaoimh, of Tir-da-glas. '5 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
's It is just possible, that the local tradi- land," vol. i., p. 175. 
tion may have been confused, and that this " The scenery is here illustrated, in a 
had been the name for a sister. drawing on the wood, by William F. Wake- 

'^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- man, and engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

niiE " xii. Martii. De S. Dagano Abbateet ^' This locality is described as embracing 

Episcopo, cnp. i., p. 584. tlie 

'S It is in the barony of Ballinacor south, "loved domains of peace, 

and county of Wicklow. The chosen haunt, of music's feathered 

'* Archdall has a statement, that St. throng." 

May I.] 



Waters," in the celebrated Vale of Ovoca. Then and there, the holly 
revived. To the present time, on May-day morning, many bathe in 
this deep part of the river, and hoping ro be cured from every kind 
of malady. Men and beasts wash or are washed in it. St. Kine's 
well is in tlie townland of Ballynacarrig Upper, a mile from Rathdrum, on 
the old mail-coach road. Near it is a remarkably-shaped stone, and about this 
a curious legend is told, connecting it with St. Kine.^^ The place, however, 
to which Nathchoemhe chiefly belonged is now known as Terryglass, a 
parish in the barony of Lower Ormond, county of Tipperary. The ruins of 

Meeting of the Waters, County of Wicklow. 

the former religious establishments here remain ; but, probably, few portions 
of the more early erection. The present holy man was born, as seems pro- 
bable, in the sixth century. At Tir-da-glas, near the Shannon, he is said to 
have been a disciple to St. Columba,^3 the son of Crimthann, and who was 
the founder of that monastery. Our saint is called Mochumin or Mochuma,^^ 
in the Life of St. Fintan,^5 Abbot of Clonenagh, who lived contemporaneously 

— " Original Poems and Lyrics," by Stephen 
Nolan Elrington. The Vale of Ovoca, 
p. III. 

^- On a certain occasion, near this well, St. 
Kine accosted a Hacketstown man, who was 
bathing his feet. He was wearied after his 
journey, in pursuit of a thief, who had stolen 
his cow. St. Kine intimated to the man, that 
he was on the right track after the thief, and 
that he should find the cow had calved on 
the stone quite near. The marks of the cow's 
feet, of the calfs feet, of the man's feet, and 
the feet of a boy he had with him, are to be 
seen on this stone, as also the staffs point. 

This was the tradition of a respectable and 
intelligent old woman over eighty, then 
living near the place, in June, 187 1. 

"^3 His feast occurs, at the 13th of De- 

'"' Colgan states, that this name differs not 
from Nathcaeme. See " Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernise," Febriiarii xvii. Vita S. Fintani, 
Abbatis Cluain-Ednech, cap. iii., p. 350, 
and No. 7, 8, pp. 353, 354. 

^5 See his Life, at the 17th of February, in 
vol. ii., of this work, chap. i. 

^^ See Ussher's " Index Chronologicus," 
at A.D., DL., p. 531. 


with him. St. Mocumin flourished in the year 550.'^ He is said so have 
succeeded St. Columba,^'' his master — whether immediately or otherwise — as 
Abbot over Tir-da-glas. The date for St. Nathcliaoimlie's death has been 
placed, at the ist of May, a.d. 584.^^ It is stated, that he was there interred.^9 
The festival of Nathcliaoimhe, was celebrated on this day, as we read in the 
Martyrology of Donegal. 3° 

Article V. — St. Brecan, or Bracan, Bishop of Ardbraccan, 
County of IvIeath, or of Arran Island, County of Galway, or of 
KiLBRECKAN, CouNTY OF Clare. On the I St of May, the Martyrology of 
Tallagh ' registers the name of Braccan, designated Bishop. A conjecture of 
Duald Mac Firbis makes him descend from the race of Corbmac Cas, son to 
Oilill Olum. We read, that veneration was given, on this day, according to 
the Martyrology of Donegal,^ to Brecan, Bishop. Some think, remarks the 
calendarist, that this A\as Brecan of Ara, and of Cill Brecain, in Thomond. 
This latter place is now known as Kilbreckan,^ barony of Upper Bunratty, 
and county of Clare. Such is William M. Hennessy's identification.* This 
holy man is said to have been son to Eochu Balderg,5 or " Eochy of the red 
spot."^ This latter deformity of his birth was removed by St. Patrick, 7 who 
baptized his father, Cairthend Blat, or Carthenn Blod, chief of the Ui-Toird- 
helbaigh, in the parish of Killaloe, county of Clare. It is stated, that he pre- 
sided at first over Ardbraccan, in the county of Meath.^ There is a Kill- 
brickan5 near Mountrath, Queen's County ; a Killbrickan,'°also, in the parish 
of Earlstown, county of Kilkenny ; there are two places so called, in the 
county of Carlow;" there is a Kilbrickan, also, in the county of Galway." 
At St. Brecan's village, Arranmore, beyond the Bay of Galway, the remains 
of two churches arc to be found. '3 There are nine ruined ones scattered 
through that island, and three more ancient churches are known to have 

=7 His death has been referred, by Arch- ^ See his Life, at the 17th of March, vol. 

dall, to a.d. 548, or rather to 552. See iii., chap, xix., of this work. 

"Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 676. ^See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of Meath, 

^* See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Ancient and Modern," vol. i., chap, %-ii.. 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 210, 211. pp. 48, 49. 

*9 See Ussher's " Britannicarum Eccksia- ' It is in the parish of Offerlane, barony 

rum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., p. 498. of Upperwoods, and it is noticed, on the 

3° Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the 

116, 117. Queen's County," sheets 17, 23. 

Article v. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. '" It is in the barony of Shi'llelogher, and 

Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy enters it is noted, on the " Ordnance Survey Town- 

bi\Acc<iin epi. land Maps for the County of Kilkenny," 

^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. sheets 26, 27. 

116, 117. " One in the parish of Fennagh, the other 

3 In the parish of Doora. It is noted, on is in the parish of Templepeler, both are in 

the "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the barony of Forth, and they are marked, 

the County of Clare," sheet 34. on the " Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 

■i See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish for the County of Carlow,'" sheet 13. 

Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part '' In the parish of Kilcummin, and barony 

i., pp. 86, 87, and n. 6. of Moycullen. It is shown,*onfthe "Ord- 

5 Tiie brother of this Eochy was Aengus, nance Survey Townland Maps for the 
the son of Caii thenn Finn, and he is said to County of Galway," sheet 65. 
have been father to St. Dimma Dabh, Bis- '^ See Mr. Hills' Article, in the "Gentle- 
hop of Connor, whose Life will be found, at man's Magazine," part i., for 1S64. It is 
the 6th of January. intituled, " Notes on the Architecture of Ire- 

* In the Irish Tripartite Life, this is stated land." 

to have been a clot of gore, formed on his '* The writer was shown, on the occasion 

body. of a visit there, a gori, or small garden, by a 

May I.] 



existed. It may have happened, that the St. Brecan, there venerated, had a fes- 
tival for tliis date. Aran, now having its simple, industrious, and fine race of peo- 
ple living on a soil, actually procured from the ocean, '•» in many cases, was once 
no better than a wild rock. It is strewed over with those ruins — which may 
still be seen — of the old hermitages; and, at their best, these could have been 
but such places as sheep would huddle under, in a storm, and shiver in the 
cold and wet.'s It seems probable, however, that more than one St. Brecan, 
or Braccan, must have been connected with the various localities already 
specified. An old church stood on a hill, to the south of Drumcondra, or 
Drumconrath/^ in the Deanery of Kells, and county of Meath, at a place 
called Loughbraccan.'? This old church has been demolished, audits ruins 
are now inconsiderable.'^ Whether the lake here mentioned took name from 
the present saint or not, is a matter for conjecture; wliile his time and exact 
place are yet involved in great obscurity. 

Article VI. — St. Ossen, or Oissene Fota, Abbot of Clonard, 
County of Meath. \SrcefUh Cejitury.^ On the ist of May, the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh ' registers, Ossen Mac Maillsnechta. The Bollandists quote 
the same authority, at this date, for Ossenus filius Moelsneachte ; and they 
remark, that nothing more occurs to distinguish him from various Irish saints, 
bearing the same name.^ St. Ossenius, surnamed the Long,3 probably on 
account of his uncommon stature, was Abbot of Clonard. We find the name of 
Oissen, likewise, occurring in the Martyrology of Donegal,"* on this day. The 
compiler adds, how the Cain Adhamnuain states, of the holy sureties, whom 
Adamnan s found to free the women from every captivity, and from every 
distress that fell upon them, was Oisin, son to Glas, Abbot of Cluain-ferta 
Molua.^ Yet, as the present Abbot of Clonard is called son to Maillsnechta, 
by the Tallagh Martyrology, it seems clear, that the O'Clerys fell into a mis- 
take, in their conjecture, regarding his father's name. Authorities unite in 
making this saint preside over the Abbey of Clonard. Yet, it could only have 
been duringavery brief term; for, his predecessor, St. Colman, bishop and abbot 
here, died on the 8th of February.? He was the son of Aiteldubh, and his 

peasant, who informed him, that his grand- 
father brought sea-sand and sea-weed in bas- 
kets from the sea-shore, which he laid on the 
naked rocks to form a soil of considerable 
depth. A good stone house was built by the 
tenant on that spot, and a wall enclosed the 
small tenement. For that poor homestead 
and plot — where not only were the improve- 
ments, but even the very soil created Ijy the 
peasant's unaided toil — one pound annually 
was exacted as a rent. No human ingenuity 
could procure much more than such a return, 
from the culture of that got; and, yet, this 
was only a solitary instance of similar hard 
cases, which fell under the writer's observa^ 

'S See Fronde's "Short Studies," vol. ii., 
p. 216. 

^^ As specified on William Larkin's " Map 
of the County of Meath," published in 

'7 There is a townland and parish so 
named, in the barony of Lower Slane. They 
are described, on the "Ordnance Survey 

Townland Maps for the County of Meath," 
sheets 3, 6. 

'^ See Rev. A. Cogan's " Diocese of 
Meath, Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., chap, 
xvi., p. 294. 

Article vi. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. The Fransciscan copy has 
it 0|'eiti niAc rUAeLfnechcAi. 

' See "Acta Sanctorum," toraus i. Maii i. 
Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

3 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nice," xxiii. Februarii, Vita S. Finniani, Ap- 
pendix, cap. v., p. 406. 

■* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
116, 117. 

5 See his Life, at the 23rd of September. 

* He continues, " I do not find any other 
Oissene, who is not named from some church, 
except this, and the Oissene, who is on the 
22nd of July." 

' See some notices regarding him, at that 

'^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 264, 265. 


death is stated to have occurred, in 65 2. ^ The present saint followed him to 
the tomb, within less than three months, as he died on the ist of May suc- 
ceeding.9 The Annals of Clonmacnoise state the year was 651 ; those of the 
Four Masters, a.d. 652 ; while, those of Ulster place his death under the 
year 653.'° Colgan conjectures, that the present St. Ossen might be con- 
founded with St. Ascicus, Bishop;" but, this is manifestly erroneous. From 
the Irish calendar, preserved in the Royal Irish Academy, we only find, at this 
date, the simple entry of Ossein,'^ without patronymic or place designated. 

Article VII. — St. Luaithrenn, Virgin or Widow. According to 
the Martyrology of Donegal,' there was veneration given on this day to 
Luaithrenn. In the table appended to tliis record, our saint is said to have 
been a Virgin, or a Widow.^ Again, in the Introduction to that work, it is 
stated, there can be no question of a Cill Luaithrenn having been in Lein- 
ster.3 Perhaps, we should connect the present saint, with such a locality ; 
for, she has a festival disiinct from that of her namesake, the Virgin Luaith- 
renn, who was venerated, on the 8th of June, and at a place, similarly de- 
nominated, in Corann, of Connaught. There is a townland and parish called 
Killurin,* in the barony of Shelmaliere West, county of Wexford, 5 and it pro- 
bably derived its denomination from a saint, bearing such a name. Yet, we 
only find two saints, called Luaithrenn, in our Irish calendars. There is also 
a place, formerly called Cill lurin, and now known as Killurin,^ a townland 
in the west of the parish of Geshill, in the King's County. Here stood a 
castle, which was taken by O'Carroll, and by the Earl of Kildare, in 1532. 
Nothing but the entrenchments around it now remain. 7 According to popu- 
lar tradition, three saints, who were sisters, lived near Millstreet,* in the 
county of Cork. One named Latierna is still venerated in the parish of Drom- 
tarriff 9 There is a holy well and " pattern," on some day in the month of 
May. The people suppose, that unless they make their rounds, on that 
occasion, no good luck will attend them during the rest of the year. Another of 
those sisters is venerated at Cullen,'° or as pronounced by the Irish-speaking 
population. Culling. There is a holy well, near tlie site of that old church, 
to which people come from great distances, to be cured of diseases. There 
is also an old whitethorn, growing outside the churchyard, and which, tradi- 
tion says, covers her grave." Nothing seems to be known, regarding the 
third sister ; nor does it appear, that the names Latierna and Luaithrenn may 
be assimilated. 

9 See Rev. A. Cogan's "Diocese of Meath, of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 157. 

Ancient and Modern," vol. i., chap, ii., * It is noted, on the "Ordnance Survey 

p. 14- Townland Maps for the King's County," 

"See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the sheets 24, 25. 

Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 264, 265, and n. ' This castle is shown on the old map of 

(u). Ibid. Leix and Ophaly, made in the reign of 

"See '"Trias Thaumaturga," Vita Sexta Philip and Maiy. See Dr. O'Donovan's 

S. Patricii, n. 122, p. 114. "Annals of the Four Masters," vol. v., pp. 

" Thus Offein, in Common Place Book 1410, 141 1, and n. (o). Ibid. 

F, at p. 43. * In the parish of Drishane, and barony of 

Article vii. — ' Edited by Drs. Todd and West Muskerry, shown on the " Ordnance 

Reeves, pp. 116, 117. Survey Townland Maps for the County of 

' See ii'id., pp. 434, 435. Cork," sheet 39. 

3 See tbid., p. xxxix. ' It is situated in the barony of Duhallow, 

*• Marked on the "Ordnance Survey Town- and it is described, on sheets 23, 30, 31, 39, 

land Maps for the County of Wexford," 40. Ibid. 

sheets 31, 32, 36, 37. "^ This is not far from Millstreet, county 

5 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary of Cork. 


Article VIII. — St. Aedhgein, or Aedgein, Bishop and Abbot of 
Fore, County of Westmeath. [Eii^/ith Cenlu/y.'] In the Martyrology 
of Tallagli,' at the ist of May, we have the simple entry Aedgein, Fobhair, 
without any other distinction. The Bohandists, aUuding to the same autho- 
rity, at this date, enter Aidgenus Fovariensis.^ The town of Fore is called 
Bailie Fob/iar, "the town of the books," by Ussher.3 But, Dr, O'Donovan 
says, the name is derived from the many springs, which flow from the hill 
into a mill-pond, at the village of Fore.* Except that St. Aidghenius is num- 
bered among the Abbots and Prelates of Fore, in the eighth century, 5 little 
more is known regarding him. Under the head of Fabhar, Duald Mac Firbis 
enters, Aedgin, bishop and abbot of Fabhar, and that he rested a.d, 766, on 
May ist.^ This, too, agrees with a statement, found in the Annals of the 
Four Masters. 7 It is quite likely, the present saint may have been one of 
those anchorites, who lived at Fore, from the earlier pait of the eighth cen- 
tury, and a representative of whom continued to reside ^ there in a cell, so 
late even as the last century. 9 The anchorite's cell has been used for 
years back, as a cemetery for the Nugent f.imily.'° This day, the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal " registers the name of Aedhgein, Bishop and Abbot of 

Article IX. — St. Goibnen, or Gobnenus. At the ist of May, the 
BoUandists' quote the Martyrology of I'allagh, for Colmanus, id est, Gobne- 
nus f but, no light is thrown on his history. In the published copy,3 there 
seems to be a transcriber's mistake, in the entry, Colman i Gaibnedhi. At 
Cranfield parish, in the county of Antrim, there is a well, long famed for its 
healing efficacy. A spring is said to have been produced by St. Patrick, in a 
miraculous manner, and at a locality, called Domhnacli Combuir. This place 
the saint received from one Colladius, or CoUa. As the fountain sprung up 
after the Irish Apostle's prayers, it was afterwards called in the native tongue 
Slaji, on account of its sanitary properties ; for many when afflicted with 
grievous distempers were restored to health, after drinking from its waters. ■♦ 

" The name of this saint is not known, but nite," xx. Januarii, Appendix ad Acta S. 

a popular legend states, that she went to Fechini, cap. iii., p. 143. 

fetch some fire from a smithy. The smith * See " Proceedings of tlie Royal Irish 

is said to have made some rude remark, re- Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i., 

garding the beauty of her feet. The saint is pp. 108, 109. 

said to have grown vain thereat ; but, soon ' See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 

feehng sorrow for her fault, she prayed, that pp. 368, 369. 

no smith should ever live again at Cullen. '^ See Sir Henry Piers' " Chonographical 

According to another version, in conse- Description of Westmeath," p. 65. 

quence of her bann, it is said, no fire can be ' See Harris' Ware, vol. ii., "Antiquities 

lighted there, for a smith's purpose. The of Ireland," chap, xvii., sect, i , p. 135. 

foregoing information was given to the '° See Rev. A. Cogan's "Diocese of Meath, 

writer, in a letter from Father Denis Murphy, Ancient and Modern," vol. iii., chap. Ixxiv., 

S.J., and headed, Presentation Convent, pp. 565, 556. 

Douglas-street, Cork, August the 15th, " Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

1878. 116, 117. 

Article viii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Article ix. — 'See "Acta Sanctorum," 

Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy tomus i., Maiii. Among the pretermitted 

has ^Xe'Djein ITobhAi^x. saints, p. 3. 

* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii " In the Franciscan copy, we read Cob- 
i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. niAni, and over this name the comment .1. 

3 See •' Primordin," cap. xvii., p. 966. Jobnmi. 

* See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the ^ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxii. 
Four Masters," vol. iii., n. (s), pp. 22, 23. ■♦ It was likewise called St. Patrick's Well, 

5 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- and Colgan says it appears to have been 



Whetlier tliis saint and locality can be connected with Cranfield parish, we 
have no means for discovering ; but, in the latter place, on May Eve, pil- 
grims were accustomed to resort, in 1727, to a running spring, said to have 
been consecrated by St. Colman, a famous Irish saint. These persons 
emptied and cleaned this well, in the twilight, and prayed around it during 
the night. The following May morning, small transparent amber stones were 
found, at the bottom. These were taken out, and carried by the people as 
preservatives from accidents by fire or water. They were in reality crystals 
of gypsum, or sulphate of lime, a salt sparingly soluble in water. They were 
chiefly sought, by those intending to emigrate. Stations were held here, 
also, on the 29th and 30th of June, and these were attended by a large num- 
ber of persons. Since 1828, the visitations have been discontinued. s As 
the stations were designed to honour a St. Colman, and as they were com- 
pleted on the 1st of May, there is no other saint of this name then venerated, 
although there are very many Colmans, in our calendars. It is also very remark- 
able, that in Ireland, the holy wells were frequented by the peasantry, on May 
Day, and that patterns were held, at various places, at the same date. Not far 
from tiie foot of the Paps' Mountains, and about a mile from Killarney, there 
is a large stone fort or Caher, called Caher Crubhdarrig.^ Near it, there is 
a holy well, at which a great pattern used to be held, on May ist. This pattern 
has been suppressed by the local clergy, for many years back. Rounds are 
still made at the Avell, on May ist.7 Goibnen was venerated on this day, as 
we find recorded, in the Martyrology of Donegal.^ Little do we know con- 
cerning this saint, his age. or his exact locality ; yet, we may rest assured, his 
thoughts were often employed on sacred subjects, like so many of the holy 
persons, who lived contemporaneously with him. These were accustomed 
to pious and penitential exercises, while they were always careful to attend 
morning and evening to special devotions. 

Article X. — St. Duicholl, of Cluain-Braoin. The name of this 
saint occurs, in the Martyrology ofTallagh,^ at the 1st of IMay, as Dicholla 
Cluana-brain. The BoUandists, quoting the same authority, have notices of 
St. Dichullus of Cluain-Brain, for the present day.^ There was a place, for- 
merly known as Cluain Bhriain, meaning Brian's Lawn or I^Ieadow,3 and now 
Anglicized Cloonbrien. This is now a townland, in the parish of Athlacca, 
near Bruff, in the county of Limerick. 4 But, whether or not it can be identified 
with the present locality is questionable. The ancient name for Castletown, in 
the county of Louth, is said to have been Cluain Braoin; and, with the 

that miraculous fountain, which in his time ' The foregoing information was commu- 

was near the church of Creamchoill, or near nicated by Mr. Michael Warren of Killarney, 

the church of Schire, as both lay within Dal- to Rev. James Graves, M.A., Rector of 

aradin, in the diocese and territory of Connor. Stoneyford, in May, 1884, wliile we were 

See " Trias Thaumalurga." Jocelyn's Vita S. at the meeting there of the Kilkenny Arch- 

Patricii, cap. cxxxvi., p. 183. And " Acta seol'ogical Society. 

Sanctorum Hiberni?e," xx. Februarii, Vita " Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

S. Olcani, p. 376, and nn. 14, 15, 16, p. 116, 117. 

378. Article x.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

5 See Rev. Dr. William Reeves' " Ecclesi- p. xxiii. The Frnnciscan copy has it 

astical Antiquities of Down, Connor and TOicollo cUiAin bpAin. 

Dromore,"n. (i), p. 88. ' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii i. 

' Not far from this Caher, there is another Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

but a smaller stone fort, called Cahereen. 3 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 

This is said to have been a Royal [resi- Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (c), p. 1035. 

dence. ^ See ' ' Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 


saints of this localit)', we find the present holy man classed. 5 Colgan alhides 
to various holy persons bearing this name ; but, he does not furnish, a clue 
for identification of the age, when the present saint flourished.^ The Tripar- 
tite Life of St. Patrick has a prophecy of the Apostle, concerning a certain 
Dichul. It calls him " abbas Ernatiensis,"? and he was afterwards abbot of 
Louth. ^ Who he was, otherwise, or at what time he lived, is not known ; at 
any rate, he lived long after St. Patrick's days, as Jocelyn relates. 9 Colgan 
conjectures, that he was the Dichul, revered in the church of Chuainbraoin, 
near Louth, and that this might have been, what the Tripartite Life calls 
Ernatiensis. But, he says nothing, as to the time of its erection, or by whom 
it had been founded, and whether or not, it had been an abbey. '° The place 
is thought to be unknown, byArchdall; and, yet, in his account of the abbey 
at Louth, that writer affords the proper clue to where Ernaidhe was, by printing 
the Inquisitions referring to Orney, alias Nurney, or le Urney." It seems pro- 
bable, that on Dichul's translation to Louth, the church at Urney had been 
annexed to that monastery. Uiucholl of Cluiin Braoin is entered, in the 
Martyrology of Donegal, ^^ as having a festival, ai the ist day of May. 

Article XI. — St. Cairbre, Bishop of Magh Bile, or Moville, 
Under the head of Magh-Bile, Duald Mac Firbis enters, Cairbre, Bishop of 
Magh Bile, at May ist.' His festival is entered, at the 3rd of this month, in 
other Martyrologies.^ 

Article XII. — St. Mainchein, or Monchenus. His record is found, 
in the Martyrology of Tallagh,^ for the ist of May. At this same date, and 
citing the same authority, the BoUandists have Monchenus.^ It is thought, 
he was a descendant of Conall Gulban.3 On this day, veneration was given 
to Mainchein, as we read it set down, in the Martyrology of Donegal. ■» But, 
his Acts do not appear to have been preserved. 

Article XIII. — St. Asaph, Bishop of St. Asaph, Wales. [Sixth 
Century.'] In the Roman Martyrology, at the ist of I\Iay, St. Asaph, bishop, 

for the County of Limerick," sheet 39. broain, near the town of Louth." — " Monas- 

s See " Louth Extracts for the Irish Ord- ticon tlibernicum, " p. 452. 

nance Survey," voL i., p. 142, now preserved " See ibid., pp. 476, 478. 

in the Royal Irish Academy. '- Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

* See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," 116, 117. 

Januarii xvi. Vita S. Eurssei Confessoris, n. Article xi. — ' See " Proceedings of the 

6, p. 92. Royal Irish Academy," Irish MSS. Series, 

7 The Irish word Ernaidhe, which signifies vol. i., part i., pp. 120, 121. 

"an oratory," is usually rendered Nurney or ° See the Martyrologies of Tallagh and of 

Urney, in our topographical designations. Donegal. 

See Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Acts of Archbishop Article xil. — ' Edited by the Rev. Dr. 

Colton in his Metropolitan Visitation of the Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy has 

Diocese of Derry, A.D. MCCCXCVll," &c., n. mAiicheni. 

(o), pp. 16, 17. ^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail 

* See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, lib. iii., cap. xciv., ^ If so, he was distantly related to the 
xcv., p. 166. great St. Columkille. See Colgan's "Trias 

9 See ibid. Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. Thaumaturga." Quarta Appendix ad Acta 

cxl., p. 96, and n. 148, p. 115. S. Columbre, cap. iii., p. 481. 

'° From these premises Archdall deduces "• Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

this notable statement: " We are told, that Il6, 117. 

St. Patrick founded an abbey at Cluaim- Article xill. — ' See "Apologia pro 


is commemorated. By Father Stephen White, he seems to be classed among 
the Irish Saints.' However this may be, the holy Bishop Asaph was com- 
memorated with special veneration in England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. 
At this date, the Bollandists have set together some few notices, referring to 
him.' Johnof Tinmouth's Life of St. Kentigern seems to be the chief authority 
known, to elucidate his Acts ;3 together with the Lections in the Breviary of 
Aberdeen, wiiich are chiefly legendary. He flourished in the sixth century ;■♦ 
but when or where he was born has not been ascertained. By some writers, it 
has been stated, that he was a native of North Wales. 5 It is supposed, that 
St. Kentigern,^ or Cyndeyrn,? was the founder of Llanelwy, or St. Asaph,^ 
when he had fled away from Scotland. In his place of refuge, it is stated, 
that he collected a community, consisting of nine hundred and sixty-five 
monks, who lived a life of great self-denial, under his rule ; of these, three 
hundred illiterate ones were employed in agriculture, three hundred more 
worked in the monastery, while three hundred and sixty-five kept up the 
Divine psalmody, day and night. 9 According to Camerarius, St. Asaph came 
from Scotland to Wales, in company with St. Kentigern. The latter settled, 
in that part of the present Flintshire, which was removed some few miles in- 
land from the town of Rhyl, on the shore of the Irish Sea. Caswallon, uncle 
of Maelgwyn Gwynedd, was then ruler over that district of North Wales. He 
assigned to St. Kentigern that pleasant tract of country, between the Rivers 
Elwy and Clwyd.'° To the year 543 " has been assigned the establish- 
ment of a See at that place, known at first as Llanelwy. Among St. Kenti- 
gern's disciples, St. Asaph, distinguished for his noble birth, was still more 
admirable for the virtues and miracles, which adorned his early years. About 
the year 560, it is thought, St. Asaph was consecrated bishop. On St. Ken- 
tigern's return to Glasgow and Strathclwyd, he left that place to his disciple 
St. Asaph, where so flourishing a community had been established. He then 
ruled with great sanctity, both the bishopric and monastery; and, so greatly 
was he venerated, both as bishop and abbot, that the former title of Llan-Elwy 
was exchanged for that of St. Asaph, which it retains to this day." The See of 
St. Asaph was intended for the principality of Powys.'^ To St. Asaph has been 
attributed a Life of St. Kentigern, his master ; but, for this statement, there is 
no great authority. '4 If we are to credit Dempster, he wrote, also, " Ordina- 
tiones Ecclesise Suae." It is said by some, that he died a. D. 596 ;'5 while 

Hibernia," cap. ii., p. 15, cap. iv., p. },•]. 9 See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 

* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii tish Saints," p. 272. 

i. De Sancto Asapho Episcopo in Wallia '° See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 

Boreali, pp. 82. 83. of Wales," vol. iv., p. 48. 

3 See Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the "See Father Michael Alford's "Fides 

Fathers, Martyrs and other principal Saints," RegiaAnglo-Saxonicasive Annales Ecclesiae 

vol. v., May i. Anglo-Saxonicae ubi ipotissimum Anglo- 

*• See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- Saxonum Catholica, Romana et Orthodoxa 

tish Saints," p. 271. Fides ah Anno Domini 500 ad 800," &c., 

s See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary tomus ii., sect, viii., p. 57. 

of Wales," vol. i., p. 48. '= See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

' See some notices of St. Kentigern, or St. Sancta," part i., p. 274. 

Mungo, Bishop of Glasgow, at the 13th of '3 See ILidden's (.Arthur West), B.D., and 

January, vol. i., Art., ii., of tliis woik ; but, Stubbs' (William), M.A., "Councils and 

a more detailed account will be found, at the ICcclesiastical Documents relating to Great 

13th of November, which is considered to Britain and Ireland," vol. i., Appendix C. 

be his chief festival. p. 144. 

7 lie died A.D. 612, according to the '* See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia 

" Annales Cambria:." Sancta," part i., p. 274. 

* According to Jocelyn's "Vita S. Kenli- 's According to Father Michael Alford, in 
gemi." his learned work already quoted. 


others prolong his existence, to the commencement of the seventh century. 
Thus, Adam King has recorded his demise, at a.d. 608, while Dempster im- 
putes to Baronius the date 615 ; however, Father Godefrid Henschenn could 
not find the latter statement in the work of Baronius.'^ The chief traces of his 
cultus in Scotland are in Asheg,^? in the parish of Strath,'^ in the Island of Skye ; 
in the Island of Berneray is the church of St. Asaph ;'9 also, in Killasaph ;^° 
and in Kilassie, or Kilhassie, an old burial place near Loch Rannoch.^^ In 
the Martyrology of the Church of Aberdeen, ^= St. Asaph is commemorated, at 
the ist of May. ^3 Also, John Molanus notes,^+ in his annotations to Usuard, 
that in Scotia, St. Asaph the bishop, from whose name the See of St. Asaph 
is derived, had veneration given to him on this day. 

Article XIV. — St. Banban, Bishop. The Martyrology of Tallagh ' 
merely enters the name Banban, at the ist of I\Iay. From the postfix to this 
proper name, the calendarist seems to regard him, as having been invested 
with episcopal prerogatives. Referring to the same authority, the Bollandists " 
notice Banbanus bishop, at this date. There is a Banbhan, or Banan, son of 
Donnghal, son of Donngalbach, son to Urclosac, son of Tersen, son to Cor- 
ban, son of Ende, son to Dubdunad, son of Angan or Eugene, son of Fiacha 
Suighdhe, son to Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar. He was therefore a saint of the 
Desies race,3 if this be the person. This day, the Martyrology of Donegal ^ 
registers the festival of Banban, priest. Such account agrees with the 
statement of Colgan, when enumerating many saints, called Bamban or 
Banban. 5 

Article XV. — Feast of St. Walburgis, or Walburge, Virgin and 
Abbess. \_Eighth Century.'] This holy Virgin is said to have been born among 
tlie West Saxons, in England, to have been daughter to the holy King, St. 
Richard, also a sister to Saints Willibald and Winebald, and to have been 
educated in Winburn monastery, in Dorsetshire, where she took the religious 
veil. At the request of her cousin, St. Boniface, she went with others into 
Germany. There she lived at Heidenheim, and passed away into everlast- 

'* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i,, Maii i. -■' In his first edition, printed A.D. 1568, 

De Sancto Asapho Episcopo in Wallia there is nothing stated regarding St. Asaph ; 

Boreah, num. 5, p. 83. but, his feast is inserted, in the second edi- 

'7 It is said to have been primarily dedi- tion, printed A.D. 15S3. 
Gated to St. Asaph. See " New Staiistical Article xiv. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Account of Scotland," vol. xxxi., p. 305. Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy has 

'* In it is Tobar Asheg, or St. Asaph's bAnbAn Cpf. 
Well, considered superior to all the other ^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

springs. Ibid. i. Among the pretermitted saints," p. 3. 

'9 It isrenderedCill Aisaim, in the "Origi- 3 See Colgan's "'Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

nes Parochiales Scutice,"vol.ii., parti.,p. 377. nije," xii. Januarii. Appendix ad Acta S. 

°° Otherwise Kilasine. Iti^, cap. ii., p. 73. 

^' See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of ■» Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Scottish Saints," pp. 271, 272. 116, 117. In the table postfixed to this 

"Edited by David Laing, Esq., F.S.A. Martyrology C/'^;rif///«) within brackets and 

Scot. See "Proceedings of the Society of Italicized thus occurs after his name. See 

Antiquaries of Scotland," vol. ii., p. 263. ibid., pp. 362, 363. 

^3Thus: "Kl. Maij. In Vallia Sancti s See "Trias Thaumaturga," Septima 

Aseph discipuli Sancti Kentigerni de quo Vita S.Patricii, num. 67. See, also, Colgan's 

ecclesia catliedralis in eadem prouincia cuins speculations, on a person named Barban, in 

pacientia et vite sanctitudo illius regionis " Acta Sanctorum Hibernite," Februarii vi. 

incolis viuendi normam egregiam et fidei De S. Mele, Episcopo Ardachadensi, cap. 

constanciam admonuit." iii., p. 259, and n. 8, p. 262. 


ing rest, on the 25th day of February, a.d. 779.^ This saint, who is named 
Walburges, has been set down, at the ist of May, among the saints connected 
with Ireland, in the anonymous calendar, published by O'Sullevan Beare.' 
The Bollandists make tiie present date a festival for the Elevation and Trans- 
lation of the body of St. Walburgis, at Eystad or Aichstadt,^ while they assign 
her Natalis, to the 25th of February.* Her relics were distributed to several 
places in Germany, Holland, France and England, where various churches 
were dedicated in her honour.s It may be, that Ireland had some share, in 
the possession of those sacred remains. 

Article XVI. — St. Suitbertus. Molanus and Henry Fitzsimon, at 
the I St of May, enter the festival of St. Suitbertus.' On this day, how^ever, 
the Bollandists do not notice him. 

Article XVII. — St. Ronan, or Roman. The name of this saint is 
found recorded, in the Mart) rology of Tallagh,' at the ist of May ; although, 
through an evident error, it is written Roman. Referring to the same autho- 
rity, the Bollandists ^ merely notice Romanus ; but, they afterwards observe, 
there are six different Ronans, in the Irish calendars, while, among them no 
attempt is made to distinguish the present holy man. There is a festival in 
honour of Ronan celebrated on this day, as is mentioned, in the Martyrology 
of Donegal.3 

Article XVIII. — Feast of St. Philip, the Apostle. In the Feilire 
of St. iEngus,' we find the festival of the Apostle Philip entered, at the ist 
of May. Although called the Feast of his Nativity, a commentator on this 
statement, in the " Leabhar Breac," takes care to observe, that it was not his 
birth in the flesh, which is here meant, but rather the day for his death, as 
read in the Passions of the Apostles.^ From another comment, it is stated, 
that for twenty years after the Ascension of our Lord Jesus Christ, he 
preached to the nations, and in the seventieth year of his age, he passed 
away to our Lord, in the city of Hieropolis.3 This Apostle had three daugh- 
ters, who were virgins,* one of these were buried with him, in the aforesaid 
city, on his right hand, and another on his left.^ The Acts of St. Philip, 
Apostle, are given by the Bollandists,^ with a previous learned commentary, 
at the ist day of May. 

Article xv. — ' See Rev. Alban Butler's flonAni. 

"Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other 'See " Acta Sanctoi-um," tomus i., Maii 

principal Saints," vol. v., May i. i. Among t!ie pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

* See "Hisloiiae Catholicse Ibernise ^Edited by Dri. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., Il6, 117. 

p. 50. Article xviii. — ' See " Transactions of 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii tlie Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 

i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 2. Series, vol. i., part i., p. Ixxviii. 

* At this date, Father Godefrid Ilenschena - See ibid., p. Ixxxiii. 

has published six different Lives of this ^The Commentator adds, "in regione 

Saint. Scitarum." 

sSee Rader's "Bavaria Sancta," tomus ■• 'I'he Commentator remarks : " Philipus 

iii., p. 4. hautem diaconus. uii. filias profetanles 

Ar 1 icLE XVI. — • See O'Sullevan Beare's habuit non Philipus Apostolus." 

"IIi^torice CatholiccelberniaiCompendium," ^'\'\\q Scholiast states, also, at this date : 

tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xii., \\ 57. " lacobus frater Domini et Mathias Aposto- 

Article xvii. — ' Ld;led by Rev. Dr. lus hie," 

Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy enters 'See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

May 2.] 



Article XIX. — Festival of the beginning of the Preaching of 
OUR Lord Jesus Christ. Such is the record we find, in the FeiUre ' of St. 
^ngus, at the ist of May. The BoUandists ^ also have entered tliis festival, 
at the same date, and on the authority of several ancient Martyrologies.3 
They refer the reader to Florentinius' notes on the Martyrology of St. Jerome, 
for a curious disquisition relating to this topic. 

^tronlj JBay of iWap, 



THIS holy pupil and near relation of St. Patrick had an early commemo- 
ration; for, his festival has been assigned to the 2nd of May, in the 
Feilire' of St. JEngus the Culdee. In the Martyrology of Tallagh,^ at this date, 
is also recorded, Neachtan of Cill Unchi, or Cell Funchi,3 in Conailibh, or 
Conaill,'* sometimes called Fidh Conaille. This latter place must have been 
situated, within the county of Louth ; over the greater part of which the terri- 
tory of Conaille Muirtheimhne extended. The BoUandists notice this holy 
man, at the present date.s St. Nechtain, or Nectan, was the son ofLiam- 
hain,^ or Liamain,7 sister to St. Patrick.^ For this reason, he was called Mac 
Leamhua, or Mac Lemnai, His father was probably Restitutus, the Lombard. 
He was consequently a nephew to the great Irish Apostle, on the mother's 
side. It would seem, that the latter had charge of his early education and 
ecclesiastical training ; for, it has been very generally stated, that St. Nectan, 

i. De S. Philippo Apostolo, Martyre, Hiera- 
poli in Phrygia, pp. 7 to 18. 

Article xix. — • ' See "Leabhar Breac " 
copy, in " Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
parti., p. Ixxviii. 

* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mali 
i. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

3 Among them are those of St. Jerome, of 
Corbie, ot Lucca, of Blumian, of Notlcer, of 
Wandelbert, of Tallagh, of Manuscripts, 
called the Barberinian, Augustan, and those 
belonging to the Monastery of St. Cyriacus 
and to the Queen of Sweden. 

Article i.— ' In the "Leabhar Breac 
copy we read : — 

efcomLAT) Sacu^mii 
Co CiM-pc iniAi\Anic 
LA'hec]'echu iAi\i'i]\c'hnCTo 
tleclicAin ■daLca Paci\aic 


It is thus rendered by Dr. Whitley Stokes : 
"Saturninus' departure, unto Christ nigh 

whom he went, with (the) death, after a 
long sigh, of Nechtan Patrick's pupil." — 
" On tiie Calendar of Oengus," " Transac- 
tions of the Royal Irish Academy," vol. i., 
part i., p. Ixxviii. 

^ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. In 
the Franciscan copy we find UeAchcAin o 
CibL imci 1 CotiAiLub. 

3 Tiie " Leabhar Breac " gloss. 

^ Tlie " Leabhar Breac " gloss. 

s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 
Maii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

P- ^^T- 

* This name is found Latinized as Liema- 

nia ; but, it seems not to have been dis- 
covered, that she had a feast in our Calen- 

7 She is so called, by the glossographer on 
the " Feilire," in tlie Lealjhar Breac copy, 
where lie asserts, that she was the daughter 
of Calpurn. 

^ See his Life, at the 17th of March, in 
vol. iii. of this work, cliap. iii., n. 64. 

9 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix 




the Bishop, was a disciple of St. Patrick .9 According to the accounts about St. 
Nectain, he belonged to a place, known as Cill-Uinche, in Conaille-Muir- 
theimlme. Also, Fioneabhair-Abba was a locality associated with his memory. 
Here, it seems probable, was the chief place of his residence, when he had 
embraced a religious life. According to a gloss on the Feilire-Aenguis, 
Fionuabhair-Abba, or Findabair,'° was on the margin of the River Boyne, in 
Bregia. It may be Anglicized " the bright field of the river." At present, it 
is known as Fennor," in a small parish," bearing the same name, in the 
barony of Lower Duleek.'3 Here, there is an ancient church, surrounded by 


Fennor Old Church, near Slane, County of Meath. 

a cemeter}','* which is still greatly frequented. Some massive blocks of a fine 
description of limestone have been inserted in the gable-wall best preserved, and 
over them is spread a luxurious growth of ivy. In passing along the Dublin 
road towards Slane,'5 the grey and ivied walls of Fennor cannot fail to impress 

Quinta ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. iv., num. 6, 
p. 266. 

"The " Leabhar Breac " copy. 

" In the Folio Volumes of G. V. Du 
Noyer's Sketches, vol. viii., R.I. A., there 
are drawings of this old church, with various 

" Containing 1,127 acres. See " Parlia- 
mentary Gazetteer of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 

'3 See the " Ordnance Survey Townland 
Maps for the County of Meath," sheets 19, 
26. The townland proper is shown, on the 
former sheet. 

"■ These are shown in a sketch, taken by 
the writer on the spot, in August, 1883, 
drawn afterwards on the wood by William 
F. Wakeman, and engraved by Mrs. Md- 

'5 At the age of seven years, Dagobert, 
King of Austrasia, was seized by Grimoald, 
Mayor of the Palace. He was shorn as a 
monk and banished to Ireland. Here his 
education was received in the Abbey of 
Slane. See "The Illustrated Dublin Jour- 
nal,'' vol. i.. No. 20, p. 312. 

''•' See Rev. .X. Ci gan's " Eccle>iastical 
History of the Diocese of Meatli, Ancient 


the beholder, and to awaken Catholic reminiscences.'^ The situation of the 
old church is one of great picturesqueness. This building measures fifty-five 
feet, by nineteen, and it had a chancel arch, twenty-two feet, from the east 
end. How long Nechtain lived here is not known. The Irish Apostle is 
stated to have been present, however, while he was dying. Nechtain then 
made his testament, it is said. '7 He called likewise for a drink. St. Patrick 
had a vision, manifesting his glory in Heaven, before he died.'^ If this account 
is to be received, St. Nechtain could not have reached a very advanced age, 
and he must have departed this life, about the middle of the fifth century. 
When his demise took place, his remains were deposited in Fennor. During 
the ninth and tenth centuries, some references to it are found in our Annals. 'y 
After the Anglo-Norman invasion, we find this place to have been converted 
into a parish church."'"^ The present saint is patron, where his festival had 
been kept, on the 2nd of May •^'^ and here, too, we are told, his remains 
lie.^^ On this day was venerated Neachtain, as we find set down, in the 
Martyrology of Donegal.^3 

Article II. — St. Germanus, Bishop and Martyr, in the Country 
OF the Ambiani, France. \_Fifth Century^ It is the fate of most subject 
countries — and Ireland forms no exception to the rule — to have not alone 
their material products appropriated by the dominant country, but even to 
have their men of sanctity and fair renown absorbed among the rank and file 
of the conquerors, although having a distinctive national existence. Thus it 
happens, that the present holy man has been set down as an Anglus, by 
comparatively modern writers ;' although his father is stated to have been a 
prince of the nation of the Scots, in his more ancient Acts. These the BoUan- 

and Modern," vol. i., chap, xxiii., pp. 136, tivitas consignata in lihro qui Fasti Sancto- 

137. mm inscribitur." In the second edition of 

'? By a Commentator on tlie Feilire of St. his Martyrology, Wilson somewhat variedly 

^ngus. inserts liis commemoration: " Eodem die 

'^ See " Transactions of the Royal Irish in inferior! Germania depositio S. Germani 

Academy," vol. i., part i. Dr. Whitley Episcopi et Martyris, natione Angli, qui cum 

Stokes' version, p. Ixxxiii. in Brabantiam trajecisset ; inde in Frisiam, 

'9 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Chrisii tidem prxdicaturus, in mercedem 

Four Masters," at A.D. 804, 827, 833, 837, gloriam martyrii adeptus est circiter annum 

843, 847, 882, 902, 1024. Christi DCCL." This account, Philip Alex- 

^° See Rev. Anthony Cogan's "Ecclesias- ander Ferrari seems to have copied, in his 

tical History of the Diocese of Meath, "Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum ;" and, 

Ancient and Modern," vol. i., chap, xxiii., he adds another mistake, at this date, " In 

p. 137. Anglia S. Germani Episcopi et Martyris ;" 

^' See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the as if, indeed, St. Germanus either had been 

Four Masters," vol. i., n. (a), p. 414. Bishop in England, or had there died. He 

=^ Such is a statement of a commentator also cites Heribert Rosweyde for his autho- 

on the Feilire, in the " Leabhar Breac." rity, when writing' about the British Saints. 

=3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. However, Rosweyde treated in general on 

118, 119. all those saints, whose Manuscript Lives 

Article 11. — 'Thus, John Wilson has were to be found in the Belgian Libraries. It 

it in the first edition of his "Martyrologium is true, at the 2nd of May, he enters, " Ger- 

Anglicanum," at the 2nd of May: " In in- manus Anglus Episcopus et Martyr ;" not- 

feriore Germania Festivitas S. Germani withstanding. Father John Bolland declares, 

Episcopi et Martyris : hie Anglus natione, by the expression Anglus, Rosweyde only 

in inferiores illas provincias trajecit, Christi meant, one of the different nations, that were 

fidem prasdicaturus, ulsi tandem suam mer- then subject to the English monarchy, 
cedem, martyrii scilicet coronam, adeptus est. ^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

Ejus Vita copiose manu exarata in quopiam Mail ii. De S. Germano Episcopo Mart. 

Belgii monasterio extat, ut e Societate vene- apud Anibianos in Gallia, pp. 259 to 270. 
rabilis Sacerdos testatur, atque hoc die Fes- ^ A Prorogue introduces the Life of St. 



[May 2. 

dists have published,^ at the 2nd of May, from various Manuscripts,? with 
annotations, and having a commentary * by Fatlier John BoUand prefixed.' 
The Benedictines barely notice this Tract — supposed to have been written 
after the tenth century — and, as a tissue of prodigies, which have no other 
warrant than popular tradition.^ It was printed, at first, by Pere Jean Cau- 
chie.7 At the end of twenty years, in 1665, it was re-issued, with some 
changes.^ Colgan appears to have prepared a Life of St. Germanus for pub- 
lication, at the 2nd of May ; and, the name is so entered, in his list of unpub- 
lished Manuscripts. 9 His Life is pubHshed, likewise, in thePetits BoUandistes' 
collection. '° In the lately published English " Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 
phy,"" there are some notices of this saint. In the times of the Emperor Jovian 
or Jovinian,'^ who became a protector of the Church, when he succeeded the 
impious Julian the apostate, '^ it is stated, in the Acts of our saint, that Ger- 
manusi'-^ who was bishop of Auxerre lived ; however, it may well be ques- 
tioned, if the latter were even born, at that early period. On more than one 
occasion, we have alluded to the mission of this holy bishop to Britain, 'S 
whither he went in order to combat the Pelagian heresy, which there began 
to spread, as also to confirm the British Christians in the faith. We seem to 
have no means left for discovering the original name of the present saint. All 
we learn from his Acts is, that he was the son of a noble father of the Scots' na- 
tion, while this man was named Audin'^ — probably Aedan '7 — andofamother, 
called Aquila. Tiieir son was distinguished for his beautiful features and mein. 
He was yet very young, at that time, when St. Germanus of Auxcne visited 
Britain.'^ This latter holy bishop was about to leave for his own country,'? 

Germanus, given in seven chapters, com- 
prising twenty-five paragraphs. 

^ Tliis is given, in thirleeii paragraphs. 

5 The Acts proper are ended with Historia 
Translationuii), aactore D. Joanne Cauchio 
nupcr composita, ut in Officio Ecclesiastico 

* See " Ilistoire Literaire de la France," 
&c., tomevii., Siecle xi., p. 191. 

7 Premonstrant and Cure of St, Germain, 
at Amiens. 

* See ibid. 

9 According to " Catalogus Actuum Sanc- 
torum quK MS. habenlur, ordine Mensium 
et Dierum. 

•"See "Vies des Saints," tome v., Se- 
conde Jour de Mai, pp. 259 to 264. 

" Edited by William Smilii, D.C.L., 
LL.D., and Henry Wace, M.A. See vol. ii., 
p. 656. 

'^ He was a commander in the Imperial 
Guaid, and he was proclaimed Emperor on 
the fifth of the July Kalends, A.D. 363. He 
only retained the dignity for eight months, 
and he died on the eleventh of the March 
Kalends, A.D. 364, while journeying to Con- 
stantinople. The most common opinion is, 
that he inhaled the fumes of charcoal in his 
room, \vhere the body was found lifeless. See 
the Christian Brothers' "Historical Class- 
Book," Roman Empire from Coiistaiilinc to 
Theodosius, A.D. 337-379, sect. 12, p. 223. 

'^ He began to lule A.D. 361, but he was 
mortally wounded in a battle fought against 
the Persians, on the 27th of June, A.D. 363, 

and he expired in great agony on the follow- 
ing night, in the thirty-first year of his age. 
See Berti's " Ecclesiastics Histori.e Brevia- 
rium," soec. iv., cap. v., p. 124. 

'^ His Life is given, among the " Lives of 
the English Saiuts," by the Tractarian 
writers, and there, it is stated, that he was 
born, probably about the year 378. See p. 
15. He departed this life, on the 31st of 
July, A.D. 448, having been a bishop for 
thirty years and twenty-five days. About 
forty years after his death, his Acts were 
written by Constantius, a presbyter of 
Lyons. See " Gallia Christiana," tonius xii., 
p. 262. 

'5 His first mission thither is usually as- 
signed to A.D. 429, in company with St. 
Loup, Bishop of Troyes. See his Acts, in 
L'Abbe Rohrbacher's '"Vies des Saints, pour 
tous les jours de I'Annee," tome iv., p. 

"Latinized Audinus, called "Anglus na- 
tione," by Rosweyd, on the authority of Bel- 
gian Manuscripts, while "other accounts 
make him Scotch (i.e. Irish) by birth." — 
"Dictionary of Christian Biography," 
edited by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D., 
and Henry Wace, M.A., vol. ii., p. 656. 

'? 'I'his was a very common name, among 
the ancient Irish. 

'*It must be remarked, that in company 
with St. .Severus, bishop of Treves, he 
visited Britain a second time, A.D. 446, See 
Dr. John Lingard's "History of England," 
vol. i., chap, i., p. 58. 


when he happened to make the acquaintance of that Scotian family, yet buried 
in the darkness of Gentile error. His charitable sympathies were deeply 
moved, and he prayed most earnestly to God for their conversion. These 
prayers were found to be effective ; while, the strangers were supernaturally 
moved to visit St. Gerraanus, and to invite him to their house. This invitation 
he graciously accepted. When he arrived there, he expounded to them, at 
great length, the principles and practices of Christianity. Audin and Aquila, 
with their whole family, believed, and they were accordingly baptized. So 
greatly interested was St. Germanus with their angelic and beautiful son, that 
he insisted on becoming godfather, and on giving his own name to tlie youth, 
at the sacred font.^° After the holy bishop's departure for France, the 
parents took care, that their son should be trained in the practice of every 
virtue, while no pains were spared, in giving him a most finished education. 
Soon, he excelled most other students in learning and wisdom ; while giving 
himself entirely to the Almighty's service, he became remarkable for the elo- 
quence and unction, with which he gained over other souls to love the great 
Creator. So distinguished was he for works of cuarity, that in every poor 
person he seemed to recognise the Father of the poor, Christ our Redeemer. 
He bestowed meat and drink — even what was necessary for his own support — 
on all necessitous persons. Every class, that came in contact with him, 
received religious instruction, and became convinced of Christian obligations, 
which they joyfully laboured to discharge. The persuasiveness of his dis- 
course and the sweetness of his disposition were incentives to imitate his 
glorious example. To guard against evil temptations, the saint was constantly 
engaged, in watching and prayer ; but, his patience, meekness and charity were 
specially admired. His holy conversation charmed all, who were privileged 
to hear him. Modesty and reservegave him a mastery, overhis actions and over 
his spiritual enemies. It seemed evident to all, that he was destined for a high 
sphere of usefulness, in the Church. Guided by Divine Grace, heresolvedto 
abandon a worldly course of living, and to embrace the clerical state. Where 
his ordination took place is not recorded. But, he had no sooner been called 
to labour in the ministry, than he possessed the gift of miracles, giving sight 
to the blind, and hearing to the deaf, restoring the lame, and cleansing lepers ; 
he healed the paralysed and sick, he dispossessed demons, while he even raised 
the dead to life. His miracles in converting souls to God were still more 
admirable, while preaching the Gospel of Christ. Thus, the fame of blessed 
Germanus was happily diffused, in his own country. There, the Angel of the 
Lord appeared to hun, after he had become a priest, urging him to leave 
his parents and natal soil, and to seek Gaul, as the scene for his future labours.'^' 
His chief object was to rejoin his godflither, Germanus, whose wisdom and 
piety he had so greatly reverenced. When, like another Abraham, he had 
resolved on taking this course, coming to the sea-shore, he found no vessel, 
or crew, to bear him over the deep ocean. Then he prayed, that God might 
furnish him with some means, to visit St. Germanus, and immediately a 
chariot was seen, into which the pilgrim of great fliith entered. He poured 

'9 About this time, the Romans, under the rum," tomus i., Maii ii. Vita S. Germani, 

Patrician Aetiiis, were engaged in an effort ex variis Codicibus MSS., cap. i., with notes, 

to subdue the people of Armorica. St. Ger- pp. 261 to 263. 

manus laboured to procure peace for Gaul ; -' While Rosweyd believes our saint, to 

but, at the time of his death, a great part of have been identical with Eloquius, others 

Armorica remained independent. See Henri suppose him, to have been a companion of 

Martin's "Historic de France," tome i., St. Bouiiace, in the eighth century. See 

liv. vii. Gaule Roniaine, pp. 363, 364. " Dictionary of Christian Biography," edited 

="> See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- by William Smith, D.C.L., LL.D., and 


forth this aspiration : " Thy way, O Lord, is in the sea, and thy paths in many 
waters. Lead me, O Lord, as tliou hast led thy people, the children of Israel, 
through the Red Seaj^"^ with thy faithful servants, Moyses and Aaron ; for, it 
is thine to will, and to be able to help me, thou, who alone reignest world 
without end." Having said these words, a great miracle was wrought ; for, 
the chariot began to sail like a well-appointed ship, over the waves. ^3 On the 
shore to which the saint was wafted, it happened, that a great number of 
people were in company with a judge, at a place, called Flammenville,^+ near 
Dieppe, and all were astonished on seemg Germanus approach, in that manner, 
through the waves. They were greatly divided in opinion ; some thought 
him to be Neptune, the pagan deity of the seas, while others pronounced him 
to be a magician. ^5 The holy servant of God assured them, that he had been 
brought among them, in that miraculous manner, through tlie Almighty power, 
and he exhorted the multitude to believe in God. The judge alone obstin- 
ately entreated the people, to distrust the advice given by a magician, but in 
vain. All declared their willingness, to accept the doctrine which Germanus 
taught, and they promised him obedience. The incredulous judge was 
punislied for his impiety. Having suffered great agony, soon afterwards he 
died.''^ There can hardly by any question, but that many legendary accounts 
have been introduced, while stating the Acts of Germanus ; and among these 
may be reckoned his encounter with a dragon or great serpent, which he 
destroyed in that part of the country he visited. "^7 It is said, he also brought 
to life a boy, that had been killed by the monster. The prefect of that pro- 
vince, wlio was called Maximinian, became a convert to the faith, with more 
than six hundred otlier pagans, who were baptized by St. Germanus, as a con- 
sequence of those miracles. There he remained, for three months and some 
days, performing various miracles, in favour of afflicted persons, while in- 
structing his neophytes in the principles of the Cliristian religion. Then, 
greatly to their regret, he signified to his converts, that the work of the Lord 
must be prosecuted in other regions. He yet ])romised to return, when he saw 
how they bewailed his departure. Frequently, he travelled by sea, to gain 
souls to Christ. His exalted virtues and great labours soon caused his ele- 
vation to the episcopal state ; and, especially, did he resolve to employ his 
talents, and to devote himself, in spreading among the people of Gaul a 
knowledge of the true God, while withdrawing them from the blighting influ- 
ences of paganism. Engaging on such labours, the zealous servant ot Christ 
met with great opposition and persecution, while visiting various towns and 
villages. He resolutely went among a ferocious people, then living on the 

Henry Wace, M.A., vol. ii., p. 656. Gauloise, p. 90. 

="= See Exodus xiv. ''^ See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- 

'3 This may be regarded as one of the idle rum," tomus i., Maii ii. Vita S. Germani, 

Legends, handed down by popular tradi- ex variis Codicibus MSS., cap. ii., iii., with 

tion. Even the c^irly Breton writers of his- notes, pp. 163 to 165. 

tory "ont tour-a-tour mis a contribution la "7 It seems most probable, that this legend 

fable, les livres sacres, I'histoire, et, dans les gave rise to his representation in works of 

temps plus modernes, les romans de la table art, as clothed in episcopal dress, while 

ronde, et les legendes, autre espece de ro- holding his stole as a leash over a hydra, 

mans." — M. Dam's " Ilistoire de Bretagne," having seven heads. 

tome i., liv. i., pp. 19, 20. Paris, 1826, =^ this River rises on the western face of 

8vo. the Vosges, and passing Treves or Trier, it 

^•i See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des joins the Rhine at Coblenz. See William 

Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, p. Smith's "Dictionary of Greek and Roman 

260. Geography," vol. ii., pp. 373, 374. 

'5 Armorica and Bretagne were remark- '' During the domination of the Roman=; in 

able for being addicted to magic. See Gaul, this city was the chief seat of their Pre- 

Amedce Thierry's " ili.sioire des Gaulois, " feet, and it became very celebrated for its 

&c,, tome ii., Partic ii., chap. i. Famille schools and civilization. During the fourth 


Mosella, or Moselle f^ and, he travelled on to Treves,^'? where already so 
vast a number of Christian Martyrs had been slain, that the river had been 
made red with their blood. Passing through those parts, it is stated, that St. 
Severinus,3° Arclibishop of Cologne — having already heard of his wonderful 
labours and fortitude — received him with open arms, and insisted on his con- 
secration as bishop, to share in spreading the Gospel, in building cluirches, 
and in superintending the efforts of other ]uiests. However, it is thought,3' 
that the real consecrator of our saint was the St. Severius, Bishop of Treves, 
who was in Britain, with St. Germanus of Auxerre.3^ Severinus is said to have 
obliged Germanus to remain with him, for some days, and then to have pro- 
moted him to the episcopal dignity. Afterwards, this holy man applied him- 
self most sedulously to Apostolic labours of every kind. Healing afflictions 
of mind and of body, ordaining priests and founding congregations, he gained 
all hearts to Christ. Germanus is said to have preached the Gospel in Frisia, 
and in the provinces of Lower Germany, while he wrought many miracles. 33 
The holy man felt a great desire, according to his legend, to visit the tomb of 
the Apostles, Saints Peter and Paul, at Rome.34 There, he prayed with intense 
fervour, and he was favoured with a vision. Those holy Apostles appeared 
to him and said : " Courage, Germanus, brother in our Apostolate, labour and 
be comforted, nor cease to spread the seed of the Divine Word and of the Faith 
among the people, that you may be a partaker of the eternal reward. A grand 
return for your works is reserved ; but, for your confirmation in the Faith, a 
great trial awaits you, while the point of the hostile sword shall be turned 
against you to draw your blood." For a time, Germanus remained in Rome, 
and during several days spent there, he visited the churches. One night, he 
returned to the Church of St. Peter, and with warm devotion, he saw and kissed 
it? sacred places. He then prepared to leave Rome. He sought Spain as 
that country, where he expected the crown of martyrdom. There, paganism 
and Arianism were both at work, to ravage the fold; but, the holy bishop 
preached the Gospel, in season and out of season, with superabounding fruit. 
He wrought numberless miracles ; he baptized many persons ; he built vari- 
ous churches ; he overturned idols and their temples. Especially in Tolosa,3S 
he is said to have left behind him a distinguished fame. Finding the Faith 
to be greatly increased among the people of Spain, owing to his own and the 
preaching of other pious men, he resolved on departure. He passed by ship, 
to the British seas. Wishing to conceal his great actions and merits from the 
knowledge of the inhabitants, who had already received him, he found this, 
however, to be impossible. Among his countrymen, he spent a year and 

century, its Bishops occupied a distinguished This latter is supposed to have lived too late, 
station in the Church. It is situated on the after the time of St. Germain, to have con- 
River Moselle, and under the name of secrated him bishop. 
Augusta Trevirorum, it became the Roman ^i gy the Bollandists. 
capital of Gallia Belgica. See "Gazetteer s^ £)ui-ing the time of his second visit. This 
of the World," vol. xiii., pp. i6i, 162. St. Germanus was a disciple to St. Loup, 
3° The feast of a holy man, bearing this Bishop of Troyes. See " Histoire Literaire 
name, has been assigned to the 23rd of Octo- de la France," tome ii. Siecle v., sect, i., 
ber. He died about the beginning of the fifth p. 490. 

century — as the Bollandists remark, be- 33 gee " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 

fore the present St. Germanus of Auxerre had Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, pp. 

been baptized, or probably had been born. 260, 261. 

There was another St. Severinus, a bishop of 34 See " Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 

Treves, who was martyred in the beginning phy," edited by William Smith, D.C.L., 

of the fourth century, venerated on the 24th LL.D., and Henry Wace, M.A., vol. ii., 

of October ; while, about A.D. 600, there p. 656. 

was another bishop of Treves, so called, and ^s 'f he Bollandists are unable to fix upon 

who is venerated, on the 21st of December. its exact locality. 


a-half, while he converted numbers of tliem from Gentile errors. He ordained 
priests to second those efforts made for the reign of Christ in all hearts.s^ 
Poinding the period destined for his martyrdom to be deferred, and knowing 
that France was still addicted to idolatry, he resolved to embark for that 
country, the scene of his former labours. During his voyage by sea, his 
vessel with the crew was miraculously saved from shipwreck. After a prayer 
poured fortli to the Almighty, Germanus and his companions landed safely 
at the port of La Hougue,37 between Barfleur 3^ and Carentan,39in Cotentin,''° 
a part of Lower Normandy.'*' At this time, the daughter of a nobleman, who 
was a native of Montebourg, lived near ; she happened to be blind from her 
birth, and a paralytic. Yet, seven years before his arrival she had an appa- 
rition during sleep, that Germanus should arrive and deliver her from afflic- 
tion. Anxiously she besought her domestics, to bring her in presence of the 
long-expected visitor. Having professed the true faith, she was conducted 
to the sacred font ot Baptism, and when there immersed, in the name of the 
Most Holy Trinity, she obtained the use of her hmbs and of her sight. 
According to certain accounts, she was named Petronilla,''^ in honour of St. 
Peter.43 She became a most pure virgin. The fame of this wonderful mi- 
racle was soon diffused among the people ; and, as a consequence, they 
renounced idolatry, and built churches, in honour of the true and living God. 
Germanus spread the Gospel greatly throughout Normandyj-'-^and the people 
there very generally believed. He travelled on one occasion towards the 
city of Bayeux,45 where a certain avaricious Count refused hospitality to him, 
and to those in his company ; but, it was otherwise with a noble, named 
Gantius, who was both generous and courteous. A blessing fell on his family. 
On entering Bayeux, Germanus sought the release of certain captives. At 
first, his request was refused ; but, a miracle which he wrought there caused 
the magistrate to relent. Afterwards, to the number of twenty-four, the incar- 
cerated were released from their prison.*^ Leaving Normandy, St. Germanus 
had a great desire to visit a certain village, inhabited by the Ambiani.'*? 
These Ambiani or Ambienes, mentioned by Julius Caesar,-*^ were inhabitants 
of that country, about Amiens. St. Germanus travelled along the coast, so 

3* See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," ^^ AccorJing to many of the ancient 

tomus i., Maii ii. Vita S. Germani, ex variis Kalendars, he had a daughter so named. 

Codicibus MSS., with notes, cap. v., pp. ■♦■♦ Normandia was formerly a province of 

226, 227. Celtic Gaul. When brought over to the 

3'" " Pres du cap de la Hougue, se trou- Cliristian Faith, it had seven principal cities 
vent la pointe^'i fansede Saint-Germain. II over which bisliops presided, and the Arch- 
est probable que c'est la quele Saint Eveque bishop of Rheims was the metropolitan pre- 
debarqua pour la seconde fois dans les Gau- late. See Bavdrand's " Novum Le.\icon 
les." — "Les Petits Bollandistes' Vies des Geographicon," tomus i., pp. 526, 527. 
Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, *^ Its Latin name is Baioca. See ibid., 
p. 263. p. 526. 

3^ In 1346, it was ruined, and its harbour ** See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- 

was filled up by the English. See " Ency- rum," tomus i., Maii ii. Vita S. Germani, ex 

clopedia Britannica," vol. iii., p. 12. Dublin variis Codicibus MSS., cap. vi., with notes, 

ediiion. pp. 267, 268. 

39 In thearrondissementof St. L6, and the ^^'phe Ambiani are classed with the 

chief city of La Manche. See Elisee Rectus' Amiennois, Vimeux, Ponthieu and Santerre 

" Nouvelle Geographie Universelle," tome people, in Ernest Desjardin's " Geographic 

ii., chap. X., p. 661. Historique et Administrative de la Gaule 

*° See/i'/i/., p. 652. Romaine," tome ii., chap, iv., sect. 3, p. 

*' See "Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 436. Their position is marked, also, on the 

Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, p. Map, intituled Gallia Comata, plate VI., at 

261 . P- 369. Ibid. 

^^ There are various female saints of *^ See " De Bello Gallico," lib. ii., 

France, bearing the name of Petronille, or cap. xv. 

Petronilla. ■♦' See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 


far as Mortemar, a village on the River Eaulne, in the district of Caux.'t9 
There, while near Dieppe,5° he had a revelation during sleep, that the day 
following should be that for his martyrdom. The holy bisliop was well 
pleased to learn, that the time for his happy translation had come. At an 
early hour, he arose, and waking up his companions, they recited Lauds 
together ; he then set out, to continue his journey, by the Commune of 
Essarts. There he baptized neophytes, in a pond, bearing still the name 
Mare-Saint-Germain. He then continued his journey, and he passed the 
River Auda, now called the Bresle.s' near the town of Eu.s^ That stream 
formed the boundary line, between Normandy and France, in former times. 
A wicked pagan, named Hebald, or Hubald, lived in a castle, afterwards 
called by tradition the House of Hebald. This wretch collected a number 
of his satellites, to follow the holy propagandist of Christianity, and to take 
away his life. Towards the close of day, St. Germanus had reached the decli- 
vity of a high hill, known as Vieux Rouen, between Aumale S3 and Senarpont. 
Near it was a chapel, dedicated to the Holy Virgin Mary. Here, the cruel 
Hebald and his gang lay in wait for the bishop. No sooner did the latter 
perceive these preparations for his destruction, than he cried out : " Holy, 
holy, holy, invisible, incomprehensible, Trinity, complex and simple, now the 
time approaches : if it please thee, take from me this earthly form of body, 
nor suffer me to remain longer, in this life of sorrow. I commend to thee 
those whom I have gained to God, and I pray that whosoever shall remember 
me, or shall supplicate thee in my name, shall obtain thy assistance, in all his 
affairs." Scarcely had he ended these words, when the barbarous tyrant thrust 
his sword into the throat of St. Germanus. Through fear of meeting a similar 
fate, wiiich was threatened to them, the people assembled there fled away in 
fear, before that chief and his band of satellites. The head of Germanus 
was severed from his body,5+ as we are told, on the sixth of the May 
Nones. At the same moment, a dove of snowy whiteness seemed to ascend 
from that place, and poised on light wings, to direct its course towards 
Heaven. The exact year when his martyrdom occurred is not known ; but, 
as he had been baptized by St. Germain of Auxerre, and had died towards the 
close of the fifth century, the date 480 is thought nearly to indicate that 
event.s5 The people of the place, through fear of the tyrant, allowed his body 
to remain in the open air, until the day following. It was preserved from 
desecration, however, until next morning, when a young girl, about to offer 
her prayers at the Blessed Virgin's chapel, heard a voice miraculously direct- 
ing her to notify the chief of Senarpont, 5^ to take measures for a decent inter- 
ment of the remains. This nobleman, named Senard, assembled a considerable 
number of the clergy, religious and people, to assist at the obsequies. Mean- 
time, the remains were not to be found at the spot, where his martyrdom 
occurred ; for. Angels had removed them to some distance. Aromatic em- 
balment of the body took place, and Senard 57 had it deposited, in a new 

Saints," tome V, Seconde Jour de Mai, p. 53 Anciently called Albemarle. See 

262. Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle Geographic Uni- 

5° See an engraved plan and a description verselle," tome ii., chap, xi., p. 764. 

of this maritime port, in Elisee Reclus' 54 ^ slight mistake has been made, by M. 

"Nouvelle Geographie Universelle," tome Semichoii, that the tyrant llebault cut off 

ii., chap, xi., pp. 762 to 764. our saint's head " au lieu meme ou s'eleve 

S' As the Bollandists incorrectly spell it adjourd' hui I'eglise de Sainf-Germain-sur- 

Gresle ; we may presume this must be a Brelse." — " Histoire d'Aumale," tome i., 

typographical error. p. 239. 

5^ See an account of this place, in Murray's 55 See " Les Petits Eollandistes, Vies des 

"Hand-book for Travellers in France," sect. Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, p. 

i., Route 18, pp. 74, 75. 262. 


sarcophagus. It was buried, on that spot, where it had been found. Over 
his tomb, a chapel, and then a church,58 had been built.59 This gave rise to 
the future village, called from the holy martyr Saint-Germain-SLir-Bresle.^° 
There, a number of pilgrims resorted, during the middle ages, and great mira- 
cles were wrought.^' Over three hundred years had lapsed after his death, 
when a religious community of Benedictines, who had been established at 
that place, were obliged to fly with his relics, from the ravages of the Danes, 
or Northmen. After the middle of the ninth century, two of the religious were 
charc^ed, to bring those remains to the Vermandois. Arriving one evening, 
on a 13th of November, at Ribemont,^^ the doors of a chapel,^^ in tlie suburbs 
of Suzencourt,^-* suddenly opened, and the relics were placed there, for that 
night. Nor could they be removed, on the day following. So it was found to 
be the Divine will, that there they should remain. Some time afterwards, the 
Count of Ribemont built a collegiate church, near his fortified chateau, and 
it was dedicated to St. (jermanus.^5 To it, his relics were transferred, in due 
course ; and, he became chief patron of Ribemont, ^^ where many miracles 
were wrought. When this town was besieged by the army of Turenne, in the 
year 1650, the shrine of our saint then in the church was broken by marauding 
soldiers. These afterwards were seized with fear, on account of the sacrilege 
they had committed, so that they dared not carry any of its treasures away. 
The church-warden took care to remove the relics to La Fere. Some years 
later, these were brought back to Ribemont. At Amiens, ^7 there was a church, 
also dedicated to St. Germanus.^^ Jean Cauchie, who was cure of this 
church, in 1659, obtained some portion of his patron's relics,^? from the cure 
of Ribemont, while these were still kept in trust at La Fere.7° They were 
verified by Frangois Faure, Bishop of Amiens, on the 3rd of April, 1660. 
They are yet preserved there, in the parish church of St. Germanus.?' In 

s* It is observed, that he was a formerfriend They desired greatly to spread their own 

of Germanus. devotion for the holy martyr, in the city of 

57 To honour his memory, the clergy of Amiens. 
Saint-Germain-sur-Biesle go in procession, *- This town is situated on the River Oise, 
each year, and on the Sunday which follows about three French leagues from St. Quin- 
the 2nd of Mav, with the relics of their holy tin, and more than six from Laon. 
patron. This brings a great number of the '^ It was dedicated to St. Anne. 
Senarpont people to the church of St. Ger- ^* This place was afterwards specially de- 
main. At the time of the Ofifertoiy, an dicated to our saint. 

ofiicial pronounces these words: " S'il y a "s ,See " Les Petits Bollandistes, Vies des 

ici quelque habitant de Senarpont, quels que Saints," tome v. Seconde Jour de Mai, p. 

soient son age, son sexe et sa condition, qu'il 263. 

approche le premier, quand meme le seigneur °^ Here not only is the day of his death 

du lieu serait present." commemorated, but also that of his Transla- 

58 It was served by Benedictines from the tion. 

Abbey of Saint-Fuscien-au-Bois, soon after *? A plan of Amiens and its environs — to- 

the foundation of this monastery. When gether with a view of its magnificent cathe- 

Enguerrand de Bovcs, Count of Amiens, drals — will be found, in Elisee Reclus' 

raised that Abbey from the ruins, he united " Nouvelle Geographic Universelle," tome 

the priory of Saint-Germain-sur-BresIe ii., chap, xii., sect, iv., p. 7S8. 

^jtjjit, '^ No less than three streets, in this city, 

59 See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- are called after St. Germanus, as also one of 
rum " tomus i., Maii ii. Vita S. Germani, the islands there, on the River Somme. 

ex variis Codicibus MSS., cap. vii., with '' These are certified as " os d'une cuisse, 

notes, pp. 268, 269. "ne coste, un os des vertebres, un morceau 

^ Within this church, there is a statue of de la machoire dans laquelle il y avoit une 

the saint, wrought in the fifteenth century. dent." — " Archives de la Paroisse Saint- 

" Guy, Count of Amiens, and his wife Germain d'Amiens." 

Matilda, had such a veneration for St. Ger- ^° On the River Oise. 

main, that they desired to possess the domain, ?' Within it is a statue of the patron, and 

on which the Scottish missionary had shed it is the work of M. Duthoit. 

his blood. Not far from the ancient chateau, '" Here there was a stained glass window 

they erected a church, to replace this chapel. representing the Legend of St. Germanus. 




Normandy and in Picardy, he is greatly venerated. Especially in Amiens,?* 
in Ribemont, in Abbeville,73 in Argoules, in Carteret, in Flamanville, in 
Saint-Germain-sur-Bresle,74 in Senarpont, and in Mesnil-David, the people en- 
tertain a great devotion towards this Apostolic man. 75 The Breviaries of 
Amiens '^ commemorate hmi. Various relics are yet kept in the places already 
mentioned, while several religious foundations, dedicated in honour of St. 
Germanus, are still preserved, in the northern parts of France. 

Article III. — St. Fiachra, Abbot, of Ullard, County of Kil- 
kenny. The Martyrology of Donegal ' registers, on this day, Fiachra, Abbot 
of Erard, in Ui-Drona. That place, with which he had been connected, is 
now called Ullard,^ in the county of Kilkenny ;3 while, it is the head of a 
parish, which extends, likewise, into the adjoining county of Carlow.'* In 
the Life of St. Comgall,5 Abbot of Bangor, there is an account of a certain 
St. Fiachra, who came to the monastery at Bangor, and who raised from their 
place of sepulture, in an honourable manner, the relics of the patron, and brought 
them to the bounds of Leinster, which was his own province.^ Whether or 
not, that St. Fiachra had been identical with the present holy abbot may be 
questioned. The place, where our St. Fiachra's establishment stood, is situated 
on the Barrow's western bank.? Its sub-soil is a granite formation.^ Here, 
there is a remarkable old church, having a highly ornamented and recessed 
doorway of the Irish Romanesque pattern.9 There is an ornamented 
cross, besides the odier interesting remains illustrating a past period, 

Simon Martin, who wrote " Nouvelles Vies 
des Saints," in 1649, states, that it was then 
valued at one thousand crowns — about three 
thousand francs. Only a single pane now 
exists in the Museum, and this represents the 
Apostolic man overcoming the monster with 
seven heads. Another stained glass window, 
representing him, is to be seen in a chapel, 
belonging to St. Germanus' convent. 

'3 At the porch of St. Wulfran's church is 
a statue to our saint. 

'■* The old coffin of St. Germanus is yet 
preserved, under the altar of this church. It 
is covered by a sharply raised roof, and there 
are two lateral holes, through which pilgrims 
pass their arms, and take earth, which they 
apply to persons in fever. Above there is a 
large stone, elevated on six pillars, and on it 
is represented a figure of St. Germain recum- 
bent, and clothed in episcopal dress, with a 
dragon writhing beneath the feet. This is 
a work of the thirteenth century, and the 
tomb is classed among the French historic 
monuments. It is lithographed, in Baron 
Taylor's "Voyage Pittoiesque." 

''S See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Mail ii. Vita S. Germani, ex variis 
Codicibus MSS. Historia Translationum, 
auctore D. Joanne Cauchio nuper composita, 
ut in Officio Ecclesiastico recitaretur, with 
notes, pp. 269, 270. 

1^ As published in 1746, and 1840. See 
Les Petits BoUandistes, '* Vies des Saints," 
tome V. Seconde Jour de Mai, pp. 263, 

Vol. v.— No, 2. 

Article hi. — ' Edited by Drs. Todd 
and Reeves, pp. 118, 119. 

^ Among the Irish Ordnance Survey 
sketches, preserved in the Royal Irish Aca- 
demy, the doorway of the old church, and an 
ancient stone cross, will be found pictorially 

3 There are 3,186a. 3r. i8p. of land in the 
Barony of Gowran, and in this division of 
the parish shown, on the "Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of Kilkenny," 
sheets 25, 29. The townland proper is on 
the former sheet. 

■* There are 72a. 2r. in the Barony of 
Idrone East, and 2,5S8a. or. 5p. in the 
Barony of St. MuUin's Lower. These are 
marked, on the " Ordnance Survey Town- 
land Maps for the County of Carlo vv," sheets 
22, 24. 

s His Life will befound, at the loth of May. 

* See Father Flemming's " Collectanea 
Sacra," Vita S. Comgelli, cap. 1., p. 313. 

7 "Erard ua n Drona," is a Manuscript 
annotation of William M. Hennessey, in his 
copy of the Martyrology of Donegal. 

** See the Map, prefixed to William 
Tighe's "Statistical Observations relative to 
the County of Kilkenny, made in the year 
1800 and 1801," at p. I. 

9 The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the spot by William F. Wakeman, and 
transferred to the wood by him, is here pre- 
sented, as engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

"See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 670. 




in the cemetery.'° The Ui Drona, or descendants of Drona, possessed not 
only the Idrone baronies, east and west, in the county of Carlow, but also 
that portion of Kildare and Leighlin diocese, lying on the west side of the 

Doorway of Ullard Old Church, County of Kilkenny. 

River Barrow, and near the town of Graiguenamanagh." The church of Erard, 
or Urard — now called Ullard — west of the Barrow, likewise, and in the county 
of Kilkenny, belonged formerly to that district." 

Article IV. — St, Piran, of Padstow and Piran-Sanz, Cornwall, 
England. We meet the name of St. Piranus, at the 2nd of May, in the 
Anonymous Calendar of Irish Saints, published by O'Sullevan Beare.' The 
Bollandists ^ insert, at this same date, brief notices of St. Piran ; but, they 
defer, to the 6th of June,^ any further information that might transpire, in 
addition to them. Some have thought, that St. Kyran,< Patron of Ossory, 
was not a distinct person from St. Piran. However, this latter holy man is 
stated, to have derived his origin, from different parents, 5 called Domuel and 

" This parish, in the barony of Gowran, 
is shown, on the " Ordnance Survey Town- 
land Maps for the County of Kilkenny," 
sheets 25, 29, 33. The town and townland 
are on sheet 29. 

" See Dr. O'Donovan's " Leabhar na 
g-Ceart, or Book of Rights," n. (k), p. 212. 

Article iv. — ' See " Historic Catho- 
licas Iliernire Compendium," tomus i., lib. 
iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 56. 

' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

Maii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 168. 

3 This was a festival day for St. Petroc, 
one of the British saints, whose Life has been 
written by John of Tynemouih, about the 
year 1360. 

•• See his Life, at the 5th of March, in vol. 
iii. of this work. 

s The parents of St. Kyran, Patron of 
Ossory, are named Lugneus and Lia- 


Wingella ; while, he was from the province of Ossory, in Ireland.'^ Then, he 
is said to have Hved a holy life in Cornubia, a province of Anglia. In the 
first edition of John Wilson's English Martyrology, St. Piran is placed at the 
2nd of May ; but, in the second, his feast has been assigned to the 5th day 
of March. The English antiquary, William Camden, alludes to this Irish 
saint and to his chapel, when treating about the Danmonii, and he also 
records a local legend of a fabulous character, having reference to the holy 
missioner Piran.? Father Henry Fitzsimon's list also commemorates him. 
Piran is related to have passed his life in Cornwall, and at Padstow, a con- 
traction for Parrockstow. In ancient records, it has been commonly called 
Petrocstowe,** or Patrickstowe f and, perhaps, the continued influx of Irish 
at the port from earliest times may have had some influence on the change of 
name.'° There is also a parish of Piran-sand, in Cornwall, where a singular 
ancient monument, known as Piran Round, is to be seen. It is in the shape 
of an amphitheatre, having high mounds and ramparts, fossed on the out- 
side." Ferrarius and the English Martyrology a-e referred to, for some par- 
ticulars of St. Piran's life, said to have been illustrated with many miracles. 
After the people of Cornwall had been fully converted to the Christian reli- 
gion, they were for a time under the jurisdiction of Bishops, who ruled among 
the West Saxons." 

Article V. — St. Aedan Mac Cuamsie. At this date, it is recorded 
in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,^ that Aedan Mac Cuamsie, had a 
festival ; and, this notification is also in the Franciscan copy f but, a little 
different, in spelling his name and patronymic. The BoUandists refer,3 at 
the 2nd of May, to Aidamus — probably a typographical error for Aidanus — 
called the son of Cuamse, or Cuaimse, and they quote the foregoing authority. 
In the list of St. Aidans given by Colgan, at the 31st of January, we find the 

* See Rev. William Borlase's " Antiqui- wall, sect, xxiii. Edition by Rev. James 

ties. Historical and Monumental, of the Nasmith, M.A., Cambridge, a.d. 1787, fol. 

County of Cornwall, consisting of several ' According to Rev. William Borlase, St. 

Essays on the first Inhabitants, Druid Patrick here established a religious house, 

Superstition, Customs, and Remains of the called Laffenack, in the year 432. See 

most remote Antiquity in Britain and the " Antiquities, Historical and Monumental, 

British Isles," &c., book iv., chap, xi., sect. of the County of Cornwall," book iv., chap. 

ix., p. 388. Second edition, London, xi., sect, i., p. 379. 

1769, fol. _ '° See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 

7 Camden writes: " Hinc utrinque spa- of England," vol. iii., p. 528. 

tiosior procurrit in ortum regio,et obliquiore " See "The Natural History of Cornwall," 

flexu Septentriouale littus in Aquilonem &c., by William Borlase, A.M., F.R.S., chap, 

tendit ad Fadstozu usque, nee aliud antiquce xxvi., sect, viii., pp. 297, 298, with plate 

notas tota via habet, quam in sabulo positum xxix., illustrating the description. Oxford, 

S. Pirano sacellum, qui sanctus etiam 1758, fol. 

Hibernicus hie requiescit, cujus sanctitati in- " See Godwin's " De Pra;sulibus Anglise 

fantia vani scriptoris afifinxit quod decern Commentarius, Omnium Episcoporum nec- 

Hibernise reges et eorum exercitus tribus nou et Cardinalium ejusdem Gentis Nomina, 

vaccis suis octo diebus akierit, et porcellos Tempora, Seriem, atque Actiones maxime 

mortuos, nee non homines suscitaverit." — memorabiles ab ultima Antiquitate repetita 

" Britannia," p. 142. See Joannes Jansson's complexus." De Episcopus Exoniensibus, 

fine folio edition, published at Amsterdam, p. 395. Rev. Canon William Richardson's 

a.d. 1659. edition, Cambridge, A.D. 1743, fol. 

^ About the year 520, St. Petrock, coming Article v. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

from Ireland, is said to have founded a Kelly, p. xxiii. 

monastery here. See Bishop Tanner's " No- ^ Thus : ^Xetxiin ITlAc CuAnpe. 

titia Monastica ; or an Account of all the 3 gee "Acta Sanc*:orum," tomus i., Maii 

Abbies, Priories, and Houses of Friers, for ii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 167. 

merly in England and Wales," &c. Corn- ■♦See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 


name of a St. Aidan, son to Cuaimsecha, whose feast occurs, on the 2nd of 

Article VI. — St, Enan. The name of this saint is recorded in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 2nd of May. The Bollandists^ quote the 
same authority for his festival, at this same date, but erroneously enter his 
name Enarius, for Enanius. Veneration was given, on this day, to Enan, as 
we read, in the INIartyrology of Donegal. 3 

Article VII. — St. Colman, the Holy. The name Colman, without 
any other designation, appears in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 2nd of 
May. Quoting the same authority, the Bollandists == notice him, at this same 
date, as Colmanus, without attempting to designate him, among the many 
Irish saints, who bore a similar name. The INIartyrology of Donegal 3 men- 
tions, likewise, as having been venerated, and on this day, Colman, siurnaraed 
the Holy. 

Article VIII. — Feast of St. Brieux, First Bishop, and Patron 
OF the Diocese of Brieux. Albertus le Grand quotes the Cornuaille " Bre- 
viary, in which the festival of St. Brioc is set down, at the 2nd of May. His 
Life has been given alread)', on the day preceding. 

Article IX. — St. Ultan, Abbot of Fosse. Although the istdayof 
this month has been generally assigned for the festival of St. Ultan, Con- 
fessor,' and brother to St. Fursey f yet, a feast, in honour of that Abbot over 
Fosse, was kept at Perrone,3 on the 2nd of May."* At this date, too, the 
Bollandists s just notice his festival. It was probably transferred from the 
1st, which was observed as a holiday, in commemoration of the Apostles 
St. Philip and St. James. 

Article X.— Festival of St. Saturninus. In the Feilire of St. 
^ngus, this holy man is commemorated, on the 2nd of May, which is termed 

nise," xxxi. Januarii. Appendix, cap. i., Article ix. — ' In his calendar, Adam 

p. 221. King calls him a " Scotisman vnder done- 

Article VI. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr ualde." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

Kelly, p.xxiii. The Franciscan copy enters Scottish Saints," p. 151. 

eriAiri. = See his Life, at the i6th of January. 

' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 3 According to Desmay. 

ii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. * At this day, also, Dempster enters in his 

167. " Menologium Scoticum," the following no- 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. tice, "Dierae Ultani Eremitas." — Bishop 

118,119. Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 

Article vii. — ■ Edited by Rev. Dr. p. 198. 

Kelly, p. xxiii. Tlie Franciscan copy has s gee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 

CobniAin. Maii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., p. 167. 

Maii ii. Among the pretermitted saints. Article X. — ' See "Transactions of 

p. 167. the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- 

3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. script Series, vol. i., part i. Dr. Wliitley 

n8, 119. Stokes, "On the Calendar of Oengus," 

Article viii, — « This is a town in p. Ixxviii. 

Lower Brittany. "See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., 


the day for his departure to Clirist.' He is also recorded with Zefanus, Quin- 
tinus, Transilla, and six others, in the Martyrology of Tallagh. The Bollan- 
dists,^ who quote from it the foregoing notices, acknowledge, that they could 
find nothing more to add from other sources. 

Article XI.— Candidus, an Irish Monk. \_Sixteejith and Seventecjith 
Centuries.\ The Bollandists ' refer to various writers for notices, at this date, 
regarding Candidus, an Irish monk; those authors are Henriquez,^ Chale- 
mot, Bucelin, and Franciscus Bivarius.3 We have no means, however, for 
obtaining access, to the works of these writers. Perhaps, we might be allowed, 
in the absence of clearer evidence, to conjecture, that Candidus might be 
rendered, by White, a well-known Anglicized name in Ireland. With a 
popular opinion of his great sanctity,4 the present holy man died, probably 
on the 2nd of May, and as we are credibly informed, a.d. 16 16. 

Article XII.— St. Columbanus, Bishop. At the 2nd of May, David 
Camerarius, in the Scottish entries of his calendar, has notice of St. Colum- 
banus, a Bishop, celebrated among the Scots.' 

Article XIII. — Reputed Elevation of St, Bertin's Relics. We 
have the feast for an elevation of St. Bertin's relics, at Sithiu, set down by 
Dempster, >= at this date.^ 

CI)irlr iBap of JflaLn 




AS the northern hordes of barbarians were moving onward towards the 
gates of Pagan Rome, and were threatening to sweep away, as by the 
impulse of successive waves, all landmarks of former civilization, from amid 

Maii ii. Among the pretermitted saints, ^ In Fasciculo, lib. ii., Dist. 33. 

p. 167. 3 He is said to have written the Life of 

Article xi. — ' See "Acta Sancto- this Candidus. 

rum,," tomusi., Maii ii. Among the prater- '^ One Stephen Sartal has celebrated this 

mitted saints, p. 168. holy man's virtues, and iii metre. 


.the wreck of human hopes, Divine Providence had preserved the Church, to 
emerge from her darkest days of persecution, and to enlarge her spiritual con- 
quests in distant lands. To Christianity was due our preservation from the 
shades and blighting influences of an effete and a degrading heathenism. Ire- 
land had her own internal and calamitous storms of anti-social and convulsive 
throes, although laws, arts, sciences, and imperfect philosophy, seem to have 
received some cultivation and a rude development, even during pre-Cliristian 
times. While our glorious Apostle, St. Patrick, aroused our Island from her 
torpor, and transmiued the glad tidings of Redemption to her people, every- 
where does he seem to have planted fructifying seed, which, during his life- 
time, ripened into a harvest of souls. From every quarter of the Island were 
its fruits gathered. Soon were heathen superstitions and rites abandoned for 
the life and vigour of a spirit, which guided our people into the true fold, and 
which gave them peace and security within the Universal Church. Numbers 
of holy persons grew up in the strength of wisdom, goodness, and faith, hav- 
m^ received from our earlier Missionaries those truths of religion, which could 
alone sanctify their works, and make these contribute to the lasting benefit of 
their souls. 

It had been Father John Colgan's intention, to publish the Acts of St. 
Conlaeth, at this day. In nearly all our Irish Ecclesiastical Histories and 
Biographies, some space is devoted to this holy man, in connexion with the 
early church of Ireland.' At the date for St. Conlaeth's Feast— the 3rd of 
I^Iay — he is found included with the Sancti Prcetermissi -^ nor do his Acts 
appear, in the great collection of the Bollandist writers. Yet, references are 
given to those dissertations on, and to their various lives of, St. Brigid, which 
had been published, at the 1st day of February.3 These notices, indeed, 
serve partially to illustrate the present holy bishop's incomplete biography. 
To such incidental observations are we mainly indebted, for a few particulars 
relating to him.-* The exact time of this saint's birth has not been recorded, 
nor do we know whether he was born of Christian parents. His first name 
is said to have been Roincenn ; in the Acts of St. Brigid, 5 Patroness of Ire- 
land, he is variously called Conlath, Conlaeth, Conlaith,^ Conlaid,? and Con- 

Article XII. — ' See Bishop Forbes' Vita Secunda S. Brigidce, cap. xxix., xxxv., 

"Kalendarsof Scottish Saints," p. 237. pp. 522, 523. 

Article xiii. — ' See " Menologium ' Ibid. Vita Prima S. Brigidae, sect. 41, 

Scoticum," at 2nd of May. p. 517- Also, Vita Sexta S. Brigidse, sect. 

^ See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- xliii., p. 591. In a note, affixed to the oc- 

tish Saints," p. 198. currence of his name in the latter published 

Article i. — Chapter i. — ' See an metrical Acts, Colgan says, that in the ori- 
account of him, in Rev. Michael Comer- ginal MS. Conleth's name was written Gel- 
ford's " Collections relating to the Diocese lanus, "sod quod Conlaidus sit legendum 
of Kildare and Leighlin," Bishops of Kildare, constat, ex vita prima, cap. 40. Secunda, 
p. I to 4. cap. 29." Ibid., n. 14, p. 598. 

^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i. Tertia * Ibid. Vita Teitia S. Brigidn?, cap. li., p. 

Dies Mail, p. 359. 532. Also, Vita Quarta S. Biigidre, lil). ii., 

3 See ibid.. Prima Dies Februarii, pp. 99 cap. xix., p. 552. In the " Third Life of 

to 185. This renowned Father John Bol- .St. Brigid," it would appear that he had 

landus, himself, was the Editor of St. b^'cn also called Coelianus. This appellation 

Brigid's Acts. h'ld been corrected by Colgan, who adds in a 

*A considerable portion of the present note, "Rectius ergo Conlaidus, velConlrethus 

Bio"raphy appeared in the Carlow College legendus, ut alii authores habent." He then 

Magazine, in successive Numbers of the Se- refers to the 3rd of May, where he intended 

cond Volume. A few emendations — chiefly to treat about St. Conleth, n. 24, p. 543. It 

in form — are here introduced. need scarcely be observed, Culgan did not 

s See her Life, already published, in live to treat of St. Conleath. at the 3rd of 

vol. ii. of this work, at the ist of Feb- May, his "Acts of the Irish Saints" not hav- 

ruary. ing I'cen yet published, beyond the close of 

'See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," the month of March. 


lian.s These names are also Latinized under various forms. The Martyrology 
of Donegal 9 informs us, that Roincenn was his first name, and it states, that he 
descended from the race of Laeghaire Lore, son to Ugaine Mor. From this 
Laeghaire Lore, who was. monarch of Erin, the Leinster men are also 

The earliest notices we can find regarding him gives us to understand, 
that St. Conleth lived the life of a recluse, and continued the occupant of a 
cell. This was situated, in a southern part of its plain, on the right bank of 
the River Liffey.'° We are informed, that besides his distinctive reputation 
for extraordinary sanctity, Conleth was also gifted with a prophetic spirit." 
From those terms applied to him, in the Fourth Life of St. Brigid, it might 
seem, that this holy man had been a bishop, before his appointment to the See 
of Kildare, or perhaps, even before the time of his first introduction to St. 
Brigid. Yet, the text may be understood as conferring such a title on him, 
in anticipation of a dignity subsequently assumed, and, as the usual one, by 
which he was distinguished, in after times." 

Tradition has yet faithfully preserved that exact spot, Avhere St. Conlath 
lived.'3 It is known, now, as Old Connell, near the present town of New- 
bridge, and it is located in the county of Kildare. His former chantry lay 
less than a quarter of a mile from the River Liffey, on its southern and right 
bank. It presents every appearance — even in its dismantled and neglected 
state — of dating back to the most remote period of our ecclesiastical history. 
At present, nothing can be seen there like a church, but we find an overcrowded 
graveyard, filled with human remains, and covered with elder trees, nettles and 
rank weeds. A rather modern stone enclosure may be observed, just over the 
burial-ground surface. This, however, was built only to protect the remains 
of some priests and other persons there inhumed.'* Old Connell graveyard 
is now surrounded by close fences, and it is covered over with several trees of 
large growth. Foundations of the old building are partly disclosed, when in- 
terments take place.'5 They lie at some depth, under the present mounds 
of earth, formed in a great measure by the dust of many successive human 
generations here interred. No very ancient monuments can be seen, after a 
long lapse of ages, within this churchyard.'^ It has always been a favourite 
place for burial ; yet, history has recorded little regarding its past.'? Old 
Connell would seem to have been in a state of total decay, when Great Con- 

9 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. now far^buried under earth, were obligingly 

ri8, 119. traced out for the writer, by the very intelli- 

" 111 the "Third Life of St. Brigid" it gent lady ah-eady mentioned. 
is said, that he dwelt "in dextra Liffi '* In Great Connell, however, portions of 

Campi," &c. See Colgan's "Trias Thau- the east gable are visible, together with some 

maturga," Vita Tertia S. Brigidse, cap. li., old sculptures, built into the walls or de- 

p. 532. tached in adjoining situations. One of these 

" /i^/^., Vita Quarta S. Brigid^e, lib. ii., formed the tomb ol Walter Wellesley, Bishop 

cap. xix., p. 552. Also, Vita Tertia S. Bri- of Kildare, and Prior of this house, de- 

gidse, cap. li., p. 532, ibid. scribed in Harris' Ware as having died 

" See Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical His- in 1539. See vol. i., " Bishops of Kildare," 

tory of Irelanii," vol. i., chap, viii., sect. pp. 389, 390. 
xi., and nn. 130, 131, 132, pp. 409, 411. '? The accompanying illustration of this 

'3 Such was the information conveyed to cemetery, drawn on the spot, by the writer, 

the writer, in the month of September, i860, in August, 1S83, has been transferred tothe 

by Mrs. Hurley, a lady whose beautiful resi- wood, by William F. Wakeman, and it was 

dence immediately adjoins the oldgiaveyard, engraved by Mrs. Millard. 
to which an ancient road leads. "^ In Clyn's "Annals," we find the follow- 

•*By order of Government Commissioners, ing entry, at A.D. 1202, " Eundatur domus 

the cemetery has been lately closed for de Conale per Meylerum filium Henrici." 

general interments. See Very Rev. Richard Butler's " Annals of 

'5 But the exact lines of these foundations, Ireland," by John Clyn and Thady Dow- 



[May 3. 

nell — a mile or two higher up and on the same side of the Liffey River — had 
been founded, at the commencement of the thirteenth century.'^ 

It is no easy matter to determine that exact spot, where the first inter- 
view between St. Conlaeth and St. Brigid took place. The most minute 
account of this meeting, remaining on record, is substantially as follows. A 
certain saint, whose proper name was Conlaidus, came to visit St. Brigid, 
from among a people, dwelling not far away from her ; as he had a great 







_. ^ . 




Old Connell Graveyard, County Kildare. 

desire, to have an interview with this holy and renowned Virgin. Having 
such a purpose in view, Conlaid set out in his chariot, and accompanied by 
a boy. On his arrival at St. Brigid's nunnery, all her sisters received this 
pious recluse, with the greatest possible respect and attention. According 
to the custom of those times, a warm bath had been prepared for their guest ; 
then a banquet was served up, with all the accessories of a simple, yet hos- 
pitable, entertainment. When these offices of charity and courtesy had been 

ling, p. 7. The history of this foundation 
has been very well set forth in Archdall's 
" Monasticon Hibernicum,'' pp. 317-321. In 
this work, we find no account whatever re- 
specting Old Conncll. 

'9 Having narrated the foregoing occur- 
rences, the author of St. Brigi^i's Sixth or 
Metrical Life concludes tliis account with 
these lines : — 

" O manifesta Dei virtus, o magna po- 
testas ! 
O benedicta manus, signisque stupen- 
da puellae I 

Talibus auditis animusque ardescit 

Pascitur interius cordisque intentio 

Dulcibus in verbis, tendit fere ad alta 

Effugit ad superos, sordent terrestria 

Virginis hrec sanctce dum nunc an- 

nuncio facta." 

— Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta 
Vita S. Brigidx, sect, xliii., p. 591. 
*° By these roscht, the writers seem to have 


duly performed, St. Brigid received her pious visitor, and then brought her 
nuns, introducing them to their holy guest. All her sisterhood welcomed St. 
Conlaeth, with a kindly and cordial greeting. He remained with the reli- 
gious community for some days. He piously instructed the nuns, through 
his edifying counsels, and he planted in their hearts those germs of Christian 
virtues, Avhich were destined to bear fruit in abundance, when the Lord of the 
vineyard proposed to gallier His harvest. Then, St. Conlaeth bade them 
adieu, and desired his chariot to be prepared, for a return to his own habita- 
tion. A boy in attendance was ordered to ])ut their yokes on the necks of 
his horses. Before starting on this journey, however, the chariot-wheel became 
loose on its axle ; yet, no danger was apprehended, for Conlaeth appears to 
have been unaware of this fact, at the time of parting from St. Brigid. This 
illustrious abbess came out from her nunnery, to take leave of him, when he 
had ascended the vehicle. Conlaeth then asked her to extend her holy hand, 
and to bestow her blessing on him, that so he might felicitously prosecute his 
journey. The sainted Abbess gave both himself ind companion her blessing, 
with a sign of the cross. The pious recluse discovered, afterwards, how for- 
tunately he had escaped from accident. Although a wheel was loose on its 
axle, the chariot nevertheless bore himself and his attendant safely to the end 
of their journey. On alighting from the vehicle, St. Conlaeth gave heartfelt 
thanks to God. He likewise extolled the merits of St. Brigid, to whose bles- 
sing he attributed this almost miraculous preservation. ^9 These incidents are 
briefly related, in the Third and Fourth Lives of St. Brigid. In these Acts, 
it is said, that the attendant of Conlaeth, when yoking the chariot, forgot to 
place the roset(Z,^° as a security against the movement of the wheels. Thus, 
it may be seen, how the holy eremite had been enabled to return home, under 
circumstances of more than ordinary difficulty and danger.^^ The route of St. 
Conlaeth homewards lay probably across that well-known plain, denominated 
the Curragh of Kildare, now deemed the finest common in Europe, and con- 
taining three thousand acres of land. Nothing can exceed the softness and 
elasticity of its surface, diversified, as it is, by gentle swells or irregularities, 
and on which some scattered vestiges of circular entrenchments yet remain. 
The soil is a fine loam, resting on a gravelly bottom. ^^ 

In the Life of St. Tighernach,23 it is related, that a certain nobleman, of 
Leinster origin, who was named Corrnoc,^* had adopted him for a foster-son. 
Soon afterwards, taking his youthful charge, as the companion of his journey, 
that chief prepared for a return towards his home ; but, on their way, both 
entered Kildare, the city of St. Brigid. Tliis holy virgin intimated to her 
nuns, as distinguished guests were about to visit their house, that they should 
cordially and hospitably receive those visitors. St. Brigid met them, and 
taking the infant gently into her arms, she called him by the name of Tyger- 
nach, at the same time, declaring him to have descended from a royal pedi- 
gree. She asked St. Conlaid, or Collaid, the bishop, to baptize him. After 

meant certain iron fastenings or bosses, ^^ See "The Traveller's New Guide 

attached to the chariot's axle, in order to through Ireland," &c. County of Kildare, 

prevent the wheels from falling off. See p. 1 1 7. Published at Dublin, by John Cum- 

ibid., Vita Tertia S. Brigidas, cap. ii., p. 532, ming, A.D. 1S15. 

and n. 25, p. 543. Also, Vita Quarta ^3 gee his Life, given in vol. iv. of this 

S. Brigidaa, lib. ii., cap. xix.. xx., p. 552, work, and at the 4th of April. 

ibid. -•• He was a warrior or chief of a king 

^' The foregoing incidents are briefly nar- called Echad, and a grandson, likewise, as 

rated in the Fourth Life of St. Brigid, as pub- the daughter of this prince had been his 

lished by Bollandus. See "Acta Sancto- mother. 

rum," tomus i., Vita Quarta S. BrigidK, cap. -5 See ' ' Acta Sanctorum," tomus i. Prima 

iii., n. 15, p. 162, Dies Februarii. Vita S. Brigid^. Com- 


this event, the foster-father with his adopted son went to his own place, 
where he carefully tended the child.'s From the foregoing narrative, Bollan- 
dus infers, that as Conlaid had been a bishop, when he baptized St. Tigher- 
nach, his elevation to the episcopal rank must have been accomplished 
previous to a.d. 480. For, St. Maccarthen ^^ died in the year 506; and, he 
was immediately succeeded in the See of Clogher by St. Tighernach.^? Sup- 
posing correctness in the foregoing account, it is conjectured, ^'^ his baptism 
must have taken place, at least thirty years before the latter date, and during 
the younger days of his godmotlier, St. Brigid.^^ The reputation of Conleth, 
this pious servant of God, for great sanctity daily increased, and his virtues 
were a subject of admiration, to all living within that extent of country imme- 
diately surrounding him. We cannot doubt, but he infused the light of a 
good example, and impressed a right spirit throughout the district blessed by 
his ministrations. We find it difficult to obtain any very correct notions, re- 
garding the real state of society, at that remote period ; but, there appears to 
have been a new awakening to the dawn of a happier epoch, and a steady 
perseverance in the doctrines and teaching of St, Patrick, 3° who had early 
visited Naas, the royal city of Leinster, and of Auxilius,3^ who dwelt near the 
Liffey's banks. 

It is expressly stated, in the Fourth Life of St. Brigid, that this 
holy virgin selected St. Conlaeth to be the first bishop over her newly- 
established city of Kildare. It is probable, this pious man lived in retirement, 
not far from the place. This circumstance, connected with his first introduc- 
tion to St. Brigid, her influence with other Irish bishops, as likewise his own 
great virtues and merits, may have contributed to point him out, as one 
eminently suited to fill the position to which he was elevated. There can 
hardly be a doubt, regarding St. Conlaeth having been the first prelate over 
that See, notwithstanding some statements of certain writers, that other per- 
sons had there preceded him, in such an office. 3^ According to these, Lon, 

mentarius Prsevius, sect, xiii., n, 102, p. advanced to the episcopacy. See Harris' 

116. Ware, vol. i., " Archhisliops of Armagh," 

-^ His feast has been assigned, to the pp. 36, y], and 38 ; also Dr. O'Donovan's 

24th of March, and to the 15th of August. " Annal, of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 

^7 See "Acta Sanctorum," ibid., n. 104, 168, 169, and pp. 184, 185, withn. (p). Ibid. 

p. 116. BoUandus considers, that Colgan ^^ By Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 

allows him not less than twenty-four years *' See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 

in the episcopate, and he argues that Tigher- vol. i., chap, ix., sect, li., p. 434, and n. 16, 

nach could not have been baptized after A.D. pp. 436, 437. St. Tighernach, Bishop of 

500. Now St. Duach, or Dubtach, Arch- Clones and Cloglier, is said to have died 

bishop of Armagh, is said by Colgan to have A.D. 549. See ibid., vol. ii., chap, x., sect, 

died A.D. 512 ; or as Ussher states, from an- xiii., p. 70. 

cient annals, a.d. 514. Bollandus says, this ^o g^g hjg Life in vol. iii. of this work, and 

latter saw Tighernach invested with the at the 17th of March. 

episcopal dignity, and afterwards he adds : 3' His festival has been assigned to the 

" Ut nondum lumc solveret Colganus, dum l6th of September. 

quae de S. Tigernaco narraviuius, ex nostro 3= In Harris' Ware, vol. i., we read : " I 

Salmanticensi codice recitat, consulto S. do not know upon what authority it is 

Conlaidi nomen dissimulavit ; ab Episcopo, grounded ; but the Red Book of the Earl of 

inquiens, baptizaricum fecit. At MS. habet ; Kiidaie saith that one Lonius was the first 

ab Episcopo Conlatheo baptizari eum fecit. bishop of Kildare ; Ivorius the next ; and 

Nos alio usi exemplari sumus, in quo Collai- thai Conlius or Conlaeth succeeded Ivorius. 

dus, pro Coidaido, scriptum erat." Bollan- And out of that book, Richard Stanihurst, in 

dus, however, seems to have forgotten, that his English description of Ireland (which is 

there might have been a later l3ubtach, as cxt.un in the printed lIoling>hed), gives the 

Archbishop of Armagh, tlian he who died same account ; but, in my opinion, they are 

A.u. 512, 513, or 514. Dubtach, the second both in error." "Bishops of Kildare," p. 

of this name, in the See of Armagh, died 3S1. 

A.D. 547 or 548. Now, this latter might have 33 jn commenting on this statement, Col- 
been the prelate, who saw St. Tighernach gan declares himself to be completely igno- 

May 3.] 



or Lonius, had been the first bishop there ;33 Ivor,34 or Ibhar,35 was the second 
prelate ; and then Conlius or Conlaeth succeeded as the third. Cogitosus 
represents the latter as a holy ascetic, who lived in retirement, until he had 
attracted the notice of St. Brigid. It is thought, likewise, that he was a skilled 
artificer in gold and silver, and that he wrought the ancient crozier, which 
afiierwards belonged to St. Finnbharr 36 of Termon Barry in Connaught, and 
which is now preserved in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy.37 

By most of our early ecclesiastical writers, we are told, that Conlaeth was an 
illustrious man, adorned with every virtue, and that the Almighty had been 
pleased to effect great wonders through him. He appears to have been called 
from his solitude, almost immediately after his first interview with St. Brigid, 
to receive episcopal unction and jurisdiction over the newly-established See 
of Kildare. A great increase in the number of applicants for admission to 
St. Brigid's religious institute, at this venerable spot, as also the increasing 
size and population of a rising city, required the presence and ministrations 
of a bishop, in the opinion of its renowned AbLess. So long as Conlaeth 
lived in Kildare with her, most cordial relations oi'holy friendship and mutual 
esteem prevailed between them. Cogitosus also seems to say, that the ap- 
pointment of St. Conlaeth to his episcopal dignity was effected by St. Brigid. 3^ 
But, it cannot be supposed, that the holy and humble Abbess could have 
arrogated to herself a privilege opposed to the ecclesiastical canons, nor is it 
probable such assumptions, if they were made, should have commanded the 
approval of the Irish bishops.39 That her influence to procure Conlaeth's 

rant of any grounds on which it may rest, for 
in the Irish Marlyrologies there is only one 
St. Lonius, surnamed Garadh, known. 
Marianus O'Gormau and Charles Magmre 
tell us, that on the 24th of June, Lonius was 
venerated in the church ot Killgaura, and 
they also, together with St. yEngus and the 
Calentlar of Cashel, declare that, on the 3rd 
of September, he was especially honoured in 
the churches of Killagaura, in Slievemarigue, 
in Magtuathad, and in Garadh, a desert place 
in the northern part of Ossory. This Lonius, 
however, lived in the lime of St. Columkille 
— that is, about the year 550, or afterwards, 
as Charles Maguire and the scholiast of 
.(Engus state. Wherefore, he could not have 
been a bishop of Kildare before St. Con- 
laeth, who died in the year 515, or before 
St. Ibar, who is said to have departed this 
life A.D. 506. Colgan thinks it probable, 
that the supposed affinity of these words, 
Garadh, Killgaradh, or Kilguara, with Kil- 
dara, gave occasion to Ware and other 
writers, for placing Lon over the See of Kil- 
dare. Notwithstanding, Colgan seems to 
have overlooked Sir James Ware's avowal of 
his disbelief, in these statements, made by 
previous writers. 

■''■• Colgan's own opinion was, that St. 
Conlaeth had been first bishop over Kildare, 
St. Ivorius or Ibar was bishop, and he 
flourished before St. Conlaeth, as will ap- 
pear from the Lives of St. Declan, chap. 14, 
of St. Albeus, chap. 23, of St. Moninne, 
chap. 2. This St. Ibar, as would seem Irom 
the latter Acts, chap. 2, and from 21, 23, 
and 24 chapters of St. Brigid's Third Life, 
was on intimate terms with the holy Abbess 

of Kildare. However, in no ancient record 
is he called Bishop of Kildare. The fact of 
his having lived in the plain of Geashill, in 
Kildare diocese, and before the church of 
this city had been built by St. Brigid, as ap- 
pears from her life, attributed to St. Ultan 
(cap. 54), may account for his having been 
called a bishop of the diocese, afterwards 
known as Kildare. Perhaps, for the same 
reason, Lonius was called Bishop of Kildare. 
See what is laid down in "Trias Thauma- 
tuiga," Vita Quarta S. Brigidae, n. 12, 
P- 565- 

3= Dr. Lanigan remarks, from the circum- 
stances of St. Ibar having had some com- 
munications with St. Brigid, and owing to 
tlie friendship existing between both saints, 
some mistaken writer must have supposed 
Ibar to have been St. Brigid's ordinary, and 
therefore living at Kildare. See " Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, viii., 
sect, xi., n. 134, p. 412. 

3^ We may qut;stion, if this be not a mis- 
take for St. Fintan,' also called St. Berach, 
whose Life has been set forth already, at 
the I Sth of February, in the Second Volume 
of this work. There is some reference to the 
Bachal Gearr, in chap, ii., and nn. 2, 3. 

37 See Professor Eugene O'Cuiry's "Lec- 
tures on the Manuscript Materials of Ancient 
Irish History," Lect. xv., p. 338. 

3^ See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga." 
Vita Secunda S. Brigidae. Prologus, p 

■"See Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. i., chap, viii., sect. 
X., n. 129, p. 409. 

^° See Rev. Michael Comerford's " Col- 


appointment was zealously exerted, may be assumed, and that her recom- 
mendation, coupled with his own deserts and established character, deter- 
mined his election to the See of Kildare, are also highly probable. The time 
of St. Conlatth's consecration, which must have been nearly contempo- 
raneous with the erection of Kildare See, is not recorded. Conlaeth is ex- 
pressly called first bishop of Kildare, by Cogitosus ; and, it is evident, from 
this same writer's words, there neither was, nor could have been, a bishop in 
that place before his time.t° Until the period of Conlaeth's appointment, or 
a short interval before, it is probable, there had hardly been a house on the 
present site of Kildare; nor was a bishop required, until the formation of a 
new town, and the establishment of a local religious institute, required his 
supervision and residence. It is probable, the new See had not been erected, 
for at least a few years after the foundation of St. Brigid's nunnery, and not 
earlier than a.d. 49o.t' The Cathedral of Kildare is said to have been first 
founded by St. Coiilian, in the year of Christ 503, and to have been dedicated 
to St. Brigid.-t^ Tiiis is an assumption, however, for which no certain data 
can be fixed. It is likely enough, St. Brigid exerted herself with a corre- 
sponding zeal and energy, in the erection of its first church ; but, this had not 
been dedicated to her memory, at least during the lifetime of St. Conleth. 
We know, that St. Brigid survived him for a few years. Over the convents 
of St. Brigid, which were established throughout Ireland, St. Conleth and his 
successors in the See of Kildare, are said to have exercised a special jurisdic- 
tion. Yet, regarding this matter, our historians seem to have supplied no 
conclusive evidence.43 In the opinion of some writers, before this bishop's 
appointment to Kildare, its religious institution had been attended, in mani- 
fold capacities, by a priest named Natfroich,''4 also called her charioteer. ^s 
This priest remained with St. Brigid all his lifetime, as a spiritual companion 
or chaplain to the holy Abbess, which office he is thought to have discharged, 
under the episcopacy of St. Conlaeth. Whilst at their meals, it was apart of 
Natfroich's duty, to read for St, Brigid and her nuns, in their refectory.''^ He 
probably attended her, moreover, on many of those important journeys under- 
taken to serve the interests of her religious order. 47 

lections relating to the Dioceses of Kildare he was constituted her spiritual director, 

and Leighlin," Bishops of Kildare, p. i. when she was very young, Seelib. i.,cap.xliii. 

''' See Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical ^^ Xhe author of the "Third Life" has 

History of Ireland," vol. i., rhap. viii., sect. thoughtlessly changed, at cap. 41, the at- 

xi , n. 134, pp. 410, 411, 412. tendant on St. Brigid into that of o^naitri^a, 

'•"See "The Complete Irish Traveller,'' and hence the denomination o{ chaiioteer, 

vol. i., p. 90, published in London, 1788, 8vo. added to his title of prie-t. 

Here we have a copperplate engraving of "t^ Colgan thinks, that Natfroich became a 

the round tower at Kildare, with a portion bishop. He is called a " presbyter," as 

of the Cathedral nuns, as standing at that likewise a charioteer and reader at the table 

time. These, however, were not the oldest of St. Brigid, as may be collected from St. 

structures erected at Kildare. Ultan, in his Life of St. Brigid, cap. xli., 

^3 "Fromthestatementswhichtheyadvance, as also from an Irish life of this saint, cap. 

this inference can only be deduced, that the xvii. His feast was celebrated at the lith 

Bishop of Kildare, in virtue of his dignity of day of December, according to M. Gorman, 

Metropolitan, was charged, in a particular who calls him bisliop. Colgan adds :" Fuisse 

manner, with the care of tlie Rrigitine Con- ergo videtur Episcopus Killdariensis floruit, 

vents, which were established in different anno 520." See " Trias Th.iumaturga." 

parts of the Province of Leinster." See Rev. Appendix Quinta ad Acta S. BrigidiE, chap. 

P. J. Carew's "Ecclesiastical History of ii., p. 629. 

Ireland," chap, vi., p. 240. -t? "Poor Archdall tells us (at Kildare) that 

"< The Fourth Life of St. Brigid, prior to Natfroich is said to have been coachman to 

the foundation of Kildare, has the appoint- St. Brigid ! Pray, where were coaches to be 

ment of Natfroich to the duty of attending found in those days ? When St. Brigid and 

St. Brigid which it erroneously attributes to Natfroich happened to travel together, we 

St. Patrick, unless we should suppose, that may easily suppose that he drove the curri- 


The pious Conlaeth has been represented, as officiating in the double 
capacity both of Abbot and Bishop -f" this is probably to be explained, 
by regarding him as having charge — at least for some time — over a 
community of monks at Old Connell, after he had been appointed to 
preside over the See of Kildare. We are not informed, by whom he 
had been consecrated bishop ; but, it is probable, that a sufficiently numer- 
ous attendance of bishops honoured the occasion of his investiture by 
their presence.49 St. Fiach of Sletty, the principal bishop of Leinster, 
with Ibar and Ere, and perhaps Maccalleus — all friends of St, Brigid — 
were then living. It is supposed, also, that St. Bronus, of Cassel-Irra, 
mentioned in some of her Lives, and who seems to have paid her a visit 
while she was in Connaught, might have come to Leinster, at this time. As 
he is said to have owed the exculpation of his character, from a charge 
brought against him in the presence of many bishops, and before a great 
assembly, to the kind interposition and miraculous powers of St. Brigid ; no 
doubt, he would have wished to manifest his attention and gratitude towards 
her, if time and opportunity allowed him to assist at this consecration of St. 
Conlaeth. 5° In the Acts of St. Brigid, it is related, that certain poor persons 
came to the holy Abbess asking for alms, at a tune when she had nothing to 
bestow, except vestments, used by St. Conlaeth, for celebration of the holy 
sacrifice of Mass. 5' These vestments, which were in her custody, she gave 
them ; and, when the holy bishop approached to offer up the sacrifice of propi- 
tiation at the usual time, he declared it would not be practicable to consecrate 
the body and blood of Christ without his vestments, which were missing.s^ 
St. Brigid prayed to God with great fervour. The Almighty was pleased to 
reward her charity, by the performance of a wonderful miracle. As a special 
gift of heaven, vestments, exactly resembling those given away, appeared im- 
mediately, and these the bishop assumed. All, who were cognizant of the 
circumstance, gave thanks to God.S3 We are told, in the two first Lives of 
St. Brigid, that those vestments were of various colours, and that they had 
been procured from Italy.54 They were generally worn by St. Conlaeth, on 
Sundays and on festivals of the It is also said, that those vest- 

cle ; but this is very different from the me- sio ad 3 Maii legitur, ad quern diem fusius 
nial office of a charioteer." — Dr. Lanigan's de eo agemus. Fuit Episcopus Kildariensis 
"Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i., de quo supra inPrologo." — " Trias Thau- 
chap, viii., sect, xi., and n. 135, pp. 410, maturga." Vita Secunda S. Brigidse, n. 14, 
412. p. 526. 

"•^ See Rev. Michael Comerford's " Col- 5= This incident is also related in the First 

lections relating to the Diocese of Kildare Life of St. Brigid, as published by Bollan- 

and Leighlin," Bishops of Kildare, p. 2. dus. See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i. 

"•9 See Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History Vita Prima S. Brigidce, cap. xvi., n. 104, p. 

of Ireland," vol. i., chap, viii., sect. xi. p. 133. It is more circumstantially inserted, in 

410, and n. 137, p. 412, where he says-- the Second Life of this holy virgin. — Ibid., 

"Perhaps it was to the assemblage of bish- Vita Secunda S. Brigidre, cap. iv., n. 31 p. 

ops for the consecration ol' Conlaith, that 139. And again, it is mentioned in her 

Cogitosus alluded, when he writes (cap. 6), Fourth Life. — Ibid., Vita QuartaS. Brigidae, 

* Advenientibus enim episcopis, et cum ea cap. x., n. 68, p, 170. 

hospitantibus,' " &c. s^ggg Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga." 

s° See ibid.., sect, xi., p. 410. Vita Quarta S. Brigidse, lib. ii., cap. Ixxx., 

5' In the Second Life of St. Brigid, by p. 561. And Vita Tertia S. Brigidas, cap. 

Cogitosus, these vestments are called "ves- cxiv., p. 543, ibid. 

timenta transmarina et peregiina Episcopi 54 Conlaeth is called " summus populo- 

Conlaith decorati luminis," &c. In a note, rum Pontifex," in the Second Life of St. 

postfixed to this passage, Colgan writes : Brigid, cap. xxix., p. 522. 
" In MS. Amandi et in libris editis legitur, 55 The words, " mutatoriis vestibus," are 

Conleach : sed rectius Conlaidii, ut in MS. applied to his vestments. These terms have 

S. Huberti, in Annalibus nostris ad an. 519, reference to changes of colour, necessary for 

qua obiit, et aliis Codicibus Hibernicis legi- various festivals. 
tur : vel Conlaedh ut in Mariano et .^Engus- 


ments used — after the former ones had been bestowed on the poor — were 
brought to Bishop Conlaeth, in a two-wheeled chariot. s^ Such accounts as the 
foregoing, taken from the acts of our ancient saints, frequently serve to illustrate 
former social usages and habits of life, at least during and before the period 
when the biographer wrote. From his allusion to the chariot having two 
wheels, perhaps, without any strained inference, we might assert, such a 
description implies, that chariots having more than two wheels were then 
known, although they may not have been ordinarily used. Indeed, it may be 
regarded as probable, our kings and superior chiefs travelled on state occa- 
sions, in highly ornate vehicles, with four wheels ; although the harness and 
appointments greatly differed from the materials and workmanship exhibited, 
at the present day. 



It has been stated by our genealogists, that a remote family affinity existed 
between St. Brigid and St. Conleth : for writers on Irish pedigrees trace both of 
them, from a common ancestor, called Ugaine Mdr, whose name has been 
Latinized, Hugonius Magnus. He was King of Ireland, from a.m. 3619 to 
3649.' It must be acknowledged, however, that some serious chronological 
and genealogical difficulties seem to interpose, in connecting St. Brigid ^ as 
a collateral relation and contemporary of St. Conleth. We find this latter 
saint the twenty-fifth in descent from Ugaine Mor, if indeed — according to 
Irish Manuscripts quoted — he be not even the thirty-sixth in a line-genera- 
tion ; while, St. Brigid's branch of pedigree was the thirty-first, according to 
O'Flaherty's reduction, or the thirty-filth, according to Colgan,3 from the 
same common ancestor. This uncertainity of calculation is set forth by our 
writers, who have specially dealt with the intricacies of old Irish pedigrees.'* 
It has been very satisfactorily shown, that the goldsmith's and lapidary's 
art had been brought to great perfection, at a very early period, in Ireland.^ 
Indua, St. Conleth, had probably been a worker in metals before his religious 

5* Speaking of St. Brigid, the First Life ^ From the scholiast on the Feihre of St. 

says ; — /Engus, the late learned Irisli scholar, J. 

O'Beirne Crowe, A. B., has furnished tlie 

Quot patravit miracula following translation of his pedigree : " That 

Non est qui plene possit referre : is Candla, son of Cormac, son of Aengus, 

Benedixit paramenia sacra Conlaido son of Echa, son of Setne, son of Fotha, son 

QuK ex Italia attulit. of Echa Lam-Derg, son of Mesincorb." 

Quando erant ei necessaria ^ See her family descent in "Trias Thau- 

Ejus filius ate earn fecit rem perfaus- maturga." Appendix Quarta ad Acta S. 

tam Brigitix," cap. 2, p. 613. 

Attulit ilia paramenia varicolari ^ See Very Rev. James Henthorn Todd's 

QuK posuit in curru duarum rotarum. " Life of St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland." 

Appendix A., Tables iv., v., pp. 252, 253. 

— Ibid., Vita Prima S. Brigidse, sect. 40, 41, = At the earliest period, St. Patrick is said 

p. 517. to have had no less than three artis's, belong- 

Chapter II. — ' See O'Flaherty's " Ogy- ing to his household, besides embroiderers 

gia," pars, iii., cap. xxxviii., pp. 260, 261. and smiths. See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals 


retirement, for he was distinguished as St. Brigid's " chief artificer,"^ accord- 
ing to a gloss on the FeiHre-^ngus. The word Indua denotes an artist in gold, 
silver, and other metals. In Irish ecclesiastical records, another famous 
artist, named Conln, is also mentioned. 7 But he is not to be confounded with 
St. Conleth of Kildare. We may probably infer, that the latter lashioned 
many useful and ornamental objects for ecclesiastical purposes. Among 
these, chalices of gold, or silver, church vessels, and shrines for holy relics, 
may probably be included. In fictile as in pictorial art, a high degree of ex- 
cellence our early Christian artists must have attained; not alone from 
acquaintance with works of art on the Continent, but even from actual recorded 
accounts and surviving specimens of iheir proficiency reached at home.*^ 
Ancient Irish ecclesiastics of the highest rank considered it a suitable occu- 
pation, to work as artificers in the manufacture of reliquaries, shrines, pastoral 
staffs or croziers, bells, covers for sacred books, and other ornaments, suit- 
able for churches and for their minsters. Several beautiful specimens of art are 
still preserved, and many of these are the works of ecclesiastics, belonging 
to centuries preceding the English invasion of Ireland. Many other speci- 
mens appear to have been destroyed, and melted down by the Danes, who re- 
morselessly plundered churches and monasteries of their valuables. 9 Especially, 
they seized altar ornaments and vessels, formed from the precious metals. '° 
It is likely, St. Conlaeth's chief place of residence was at Old Con- 
nellj" and thence, his reputation for sanctity became so widely diffused, 
that he had not only the approbation of St. Brigid, but even the petitions of 
the people, concurring in his election to the episcopal dignity.'^ Were we to 
admit his relationship with the holy abbess, it seems probable enough, he 
was known to her from early youth. His near residence also warrants the 
assumption, that he had visited Brigid, long before the incidental relation to 
be met with in her Acts had originated. Still there are vestiges of a very 
remote period, near the spot he had selected for a home, which formerly had 
been called Condail of the Kings. '3 Not far removed from the site of Old 

of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 134 to 141, Great Connell, on which are some interest- 

and nn., ibid. ing ruins of the monastery — which had been 

* In a table, subjoined to the " Martyr- founded by Lord Meyler Fitz Henry, who 

ology of Donegal," he is termed, "brazier died a.d. 1220, and who was there buried, 

of Jirigid, first bishop of Cilldara, and See Jacobi Grace, Kilkenniensis, " Annales 

archbishop also." See, also, /^/if., pp.388, 389. Hibernice," pp. 28, 29. Edition by Rev. 

7 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," Richard Butler, M.R.I. A. 

Prince O'Donnell, in the Vita Quinta S. '- This the Italian " Breviarium Gienen- 

Columbre, hb. i., cap. xcix., p. 405. sis" states, in its Second Lection. See 

^ The Rev. Dr. C. O'Conor's dissertations Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix 

on the mechanical and liberal arts, as prac- Prima ad Acta S. Brigidas, p. 601. 

tised in Ireland, are not the least interesting, All of the foregoing townlands are now 

among the valuable comments annexed to included within Great Connell parish. Several 

his edited works. See " Rerum Hibernica- years ago, while Mr. Flood, ofNewhall, and 

rum Scriptores,"voliv. Annales Ultonienses, Mr. Duggan, of Ladytown, were engaged in 

Annotationes, ad ssec. viii., i^p. 134 to 172. walling in the cemetery at their own ex- 

9 Here there is a mine of information to pense, several fragments of sculptured figures 

be developed, and worthy the most accom- were exhumed, and piously re-erected. After- 

plished antiquary's serious and fuller inves- wards, brick and stone were taken from it, 

ligation. while Colonel Gray was engaged in building 

'° See Dr. Todd's "Life of St. Patrick, Conall-More Lodge. These exhibited here 

Apostle of Ireland." Introductory Disserta- and there specimens of tesselated tihng, 

tion, p. 26. almost unknown in modern architecture. 

" On the right bank of the Liffey are See The Leinster Independatt, of Satur- 

these various townlands: first, that of Old day, February 24th, 1872. 

Connell, on which was the site of the oldest '3 xhus identified, at n. (k), by Dr. 

church, near Old Connell house; secondly, O'Donovan, in the "Three Fragments of 

Little Connell, in which nothing of antiqua- Annals," p. 44. 
rian interest can be met with ; and thirdly, 



[May 3. 

Connell burial ground, an ancient artificial mound, and rising to considerable 

altitude, may yet be seen ; some large trees grow on its sides and summit.''* 
It is rather remarkable, that many similar elevations may still be found, near 
the site of our most ancient religious establishments ; nor are instances want- 
ing, in that extent of country, not far removed from theplace.'s However, 
it seems possible enough, that many, if not most, of those ancient tumuli are 

In the time, and with the approval of St. Brigid herself, as Colgan 
supposes, there v.'ere tlnee distinct ecclesiastical jurisdictions estab- 
lished within the city of Kildare — viz., those of Bishop, of Abbot, and of 

Moat at Old Connell, County of Kiklaie. 

Abbess. He thinks, that this can be proved, from an architectural descrip- 
tion,'^ regarding the church of Kildare, pointing out its divisions, and the 
uses for which each compartment had been destined. It would seem, that 
while there was but one monastery tliere, monks and nuns lived in it, although 
effectually separated by a wall or an enclosure, as well in the church, as in the 
house. '7 To the former, it is noticed, that thebisliop, with liisbaud of regu- 
lars, entered from the east, and through a door at tiie right. The abbess, 
with her nuns, approached by another door, at the left side of the cathedral.'^ 

'♦ The accompanying representation was 
sketched on the spot, by the writer, in 
August, 1883. It has been transferred to 
the wood, by William F. Wakeman, and it 
was engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

'5 It is sufficient to mention Clonenagh, 
and At^haboe. 

'" Wiiich is given by Cogitosus. 

'' Colgan imagined that both habitations 
were separated merely by a wall ; but the 
church — and a very large one it was — 

formed a much wider line of separation. 
See Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland," vol. i., chap, xvi., n. 141, 
p. 414. 

'* Colgan add : " Pr?eterea quia utrumque 
sexum ordinis S. Brigidse, seu Biigittse, 
Suecic in codem Cxnobio commorari vide- 
mus : non est enim vero absimile hanc sanc- 
tam feminam ordinem suum instituisse ad 
imitationem S. Brigida; noslnr, cujus et no- 
men prsetulit et virtutes in multis aliis imi- 


It has been remarked,'? that a question may be raised — if the abbot witli liis 
monks Avere subject to the Abbess of Kildare, from the time of St. Brigid's 
death, and for many subsequent years ? The affirmative, Colgan deems pro- 
bable, because St. Conlaeth, whom he supposes first superior over a com- 
munity of monks at Kildare, ^° had been subject to St. Brigid, the first abbess ; 
and because, in the order of St. Brigid of Sweden, which he imagines to have 
been framed on the rules of St. Brigid of Kildare's religious institute, the 
abbess had jurisdiction over the abbot, governing communities of men. Col- 
gan adduces various reasons, to establish his supposition, that the Bishop 
of Kildare united episcopal and abbatial functions in his own person, during 
the primitive times of that See. He says, first, from Cogitosus and from other 
writers of St. Brigid's Acts, it can be shown, that St. Conlaeth, first Arch- 
bishop of Kildare, presided over a community of monks ; secondly, there 
seem to have been both bishops and abbots of Kildare, within the same city 
and monastery ; and, thirdly, he states, our ancient writers call the bishops of 
the place abbots. These reasons, however, he submits under doubt. In 
pursuance of this train of argument, he remarks, that the Abbot of Armagh, 
or in other words, the Archbishop of that See, is placed foremost among all 
persons,^' whether ecclesiastical or secular, who were exempt from royal exac- 
tions, contributions, and other burthens, according to the constitutions of the 
kingdom of Ireland. If he were only simply an abbot, there would be no 
reason, argues Colgan, why he should have precedence over many kings, all 
the bishops and abbots of the kingdom, and, in fine, over the Archbishop of 
Armagh himself.^^ 

Although it is said, that a body of inferior clergy or of regular 
canons served the church, and under direction of St. Conlaeth -p there 
is no just reason for supposing, that this bishop presided over a com- 
munity of monks at Kildare. Nor is there any allusion to a monastic estab- 
lishment being at Kildare, until long after the time of St. Brigid and of St. 
Conlaeth, when St. Aidus, or Aid Dubh,^4 officiated in the double capacity of 
Bishop and of Abbot. ^s Besides, it has been observed, that no monks are 
mentioned, as having been there governed by St. Conlaeth. Nor is he called 
abbot,=^ nor by any title except one, and that strictly referring to his episcopal 
dignity. There is still less reason for admitting the strange assertion of Col- 
gan, that Bishop Conlaeth was subject to St. Brigid. Whence, he would con- 
clude, moreover, that abbesses, after her time, and for a long period, had 
been invested with jurisdiction over the abbots, or what should amount to nearly 

tata est." — " Trias Thaumaturga," Appen- Acts, that Conlaeth presided over monks 

dix Quinta ad Acta S. Brigid^, cap. i., when Bishop of Kildare. See " Trias Thau- 

p. 627. maturga," Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. 

'9 By Colgan. Brigidse, cap. i., p. 627. But, he refers to 

^° Perhaps, however, this community had no particular passage, for proof of such 

been established at Old Connell. statements. 

^' Even before the kings of Meath and of '^'- His death is recorded, at a.d. 638. See 

Munster. Dr. O' Donovan's " Annals of the Four Mas- 

^'^ With regard to those assertions of ters," vol. i., pp. 256, 257. 
Colgan, it inay be asked, if the archiepisco- =^5 The college called of monks, over which 
pal and abbatial dignities had not been Aidus presided, was in reality the chapter of 
united in the same person, in some instances the catliedral, as plainly appears from Cogito- 
referred to, or if the Abbot of Armagh did not sus, who, describing the church, tells us, 
enjoy some special privilege in those cases that the bishop used to enter the sane- 
cited ? In any event, his arguments are tuary by a door, in the right side of the 
quite inconclusive to establish an inference, church, together with the collegiate body 
that Conlaeth was both bishop and abbot, and clerical assistants. See Colgan's "Trias 
while at Kildare. Thaumaturga," Secunda Vita S. Brigidce, 

^^ Colgan says, it appears from Cogi- cap. xxxv., pp. 523, 524. 

tosus and from other writers of St. Brigid's ^^ Notwithstanding, this term is frequently 




[May 3. 

the same thing, over the bishops of Kildare.^7 There is no just foundation 
for such a statement ; while, it is certain, that the bisliops of Kildare differed 
not — so far as independent jurisdiction was concerned — from other Irish pre- 
lates. It may be admitted, perhaps, that its church expenses had been 
defrayed from the monastic funds, while its furniture and ornaments were 
probably derived from the same source, in the time of St. Brigid.^^ It is pro- 
bable, also, her successors claimed a right to the church at Kildare, in virtue 
of that original foundation, by the first abbess of the place ; but, while 
abbesses presided over their peculiar institute, bishops certainly governed the 
diocese. As a matter of mutual agreement and convenience, the church or 
cathedral might have remained under the joint management of both parties. '9 
St. Brigid appears to have founded that beautiful church at Kildare, and 
which served the uses of her community, as also for die faithful at large. It 
existed to the time of Cogitosu?, who flourished before the ninth century, 5° 
and who gives a faithful description, regarding its architectural peculiarities in 
his day. We are informed, that it covered a considerable area, and that it was 
high in proportion. This church was decorated with paintings on wood, of 
which material it appears to have been altogether built, in the opinion of 
of many,3' while others maintain, it was a stone-built church. It contained 
three oratories or chapels, divided by wooden compartments, however, 
under the large roof. This covered the whole. One of its walls was deco- 
rated and painted with various images, besides being covered with tapestry ; 
and along the breadth, in the eastern side of the church, it extended from one 
partition wall to the other. There were two doors, at either extremity 
of this wall. Through that door on the right hand side, the 
bishop, 3^ with his canons, and those who assisted at ecclesiastical rites, 
entered the sanctuary, when approaching to offer the Dominical sacrifice 33 on 
the altar; while the abbess, with her nuns and postulants, entered through a 
door towards the left, whenever they prepared, to receive the Body and 
Blood of our Lord and Saviour.34 Another wall divided the ground floor of 
the church into two equal parts, and it extended from the eastern 35 side to 

employed in Irish histoiy, wherever bishops 
had monasteries annexed to their cathe- 

'^ In alluding to " this whimsical and truly 
uncanonical position " of Colgan, Rev. Dr. 
Lanigan, in continuation, remarks : "Colgan 
took it into his head that as there was an 
affinity between the names Brigid and Birget, 
their monastic institutions were likewise 
formed on a similar plan. What has a like- 
ness of names to do in this matter ? Besides, 
in the institution of St. Brigitta there was 
no such thing as jurisdiction over bishops. 
Colgan ought to have reflected, that this 
Swedish princess, most probably, knew little 
or nothing concerning the system of St. 
Brigid ; for at the time of her forming her 
establishment — viz., not long before A.D. 
1370, the nunnery of Kildare was in a state 
of great insignificance. Archdall has given 
to his readers in a positive manner what 
Colgan had proposed as a matter of doubt, 
and tells them that the abbots of Kildare 
were for several years subject to the abbess." 
— " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. 
i., chap, viii., sect, xi., n. 142, pp. 414, 

*' These conjectures may receive confirma- 

tion, from an anecdote already related, when 
St. Brigid, assuming the ownership of some 
sacerdotal vestments, undertook their distri- 
bution in favour of the poor, having no 
other alms to offer. 

''See ibid., nn. I43, I44, 145, pp. 411, 


3° We are even told, Cogitosus is supposed 
to have written his Life of St. Brigid before 
A.D. 594. See Wills' " Lives of Illustrious 
and Distinguished Irishmen," vol. i., part I, 
First Period, p. 103. 

3' In his usual pleasing style, the late 
venerable Archbishop of Calcutta has 
furnished us with a description of this church, 
from passages in Cogitosus ; while he seems 
inclined to believe, that the church itself 
had been entirely constructed of wood. See 
Carew's " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," chap, vi., pp. 233, 234. 

3- The words of Cogitosus are, that the 
bishop entered " eum sua regular! schola, et 
his qui sacris sunt deputaii ministerii^." 

33 Til e words are "sacra ct Dominica 
immolare sacrificia." 

3« The words are " ut convivio corporis et 
sanguinis fruantur Jesu Chrisli." 

35 RicU " western." 


the opposite wall, lying across the breadth. There was one door, highly 
ornamented, on the riglit hand side of this church. Through it, the priests and 
male portion of the congregation entered ; while another was on the left hand 
side, through which the religious of the nunnery and the female contingent 
of the congregation passed.3° There were many windows in the walls, to 
admit light within the church. Various divisions of the faithful, according to 
rank, station, and sex, afforded to all an opportunity for assisting at the 
Divine mysteries and various ceremonies carried out in the church, accord- 
ing to an established order, and the requireiiients of ecclesiastical discipline. 37 

A miracle, which occurred in repairing this church, and which, Cogitosus 
thinks should not be passed over in silence, has been placed on record. 3^ When 
the old door of the left side passage, through which St. Brigid used to enter 
the church, had been altered, repaired, and placed on its former hinges, by 
artisans, it could not exactly cover the opening as required. A fourth part 
of this space appeared exposed, without anything left to fill it ; and, if a fourth 
more were added and joined to the height of ^he gate, then it might fill up 
the entire altitude of this reconstructed and lo^ty passage. The workmen 
held a consultation, about making another new and larger door to fill up this 
entrance, or to prepare a panel for an addition to the old door, so as to 
make it the required size. A principal artisan among the Irish then spoke : 
" On this night, we should fervently implore the Lord, before St. Brigid, that 
before morning she may counsel us what course we ought to pursue, in refer- 
ence to this matter," After these words, he passed a whole night in prayer, 
beside St. Brigid's tomb. On the morning he arose. He then found, on 
forcing and settling the old door on its hinge, the whole passage was filled, 
so that a single chink was not left uncovered, nor in its height was any, even 
the least, excess discovered. Thus, it happened, as the whole aperture was 
filled, that St. Brigid — as was generally believed — had miraculously extended 
that door in height. Nor did any part appear open, except when the door 
was moved on entering her church. This miracle, accomplished by Divine 
omnipotence, was evidently manifested to the eyes of all, who looked upon 
the door and the passage. 39 

It is but fair to state, moreover, that not only the antiquity of St. 
Brigid's Acts, by Cogitosus, has been doubted by some writers, but even 
their authenticity has been denied by others, in consequence, chiefly — if not 
altogether — of details given in the preceding description, regarding the church 
at Kildare.t° A very presumptuous and an exceedingly incompetent writer ■*' 
on our country's antiquities asserts, that what evinces the work of Cogitosus to 
be suppositious, is his description, concerning the monuments of St. Bridget 
and of St. Conlaeth, on the right and left sides of the altar, at Kildare. They 
were not only highly finished with gold and silver ornaments, with gems and 

3* Thus, the great aisle of it outside the 39 The foregoing description in the text 

sanctuary was divided by a partition separa- substantially agrees with the thirty-fifth 

ting the males from the females, and chapter of Cogitosus, the Latin of which, 

each division had a door peculiar to itself. witli a faithful literal translation, will be 

From what has been now observed, we see found in Mr. I'etrie's splendid work, "The 

that the nuns had not a separate church for Ecclesiastical Architecture and Round 

themselves, although their habitation ad- Towers of Ireland," part ii. subs, i., pp. 

joined it on one side, while that of the bis- 197 to 199. 

hop and chapter seems to have been close to *° Basnage, the editor of Canisius, thinks 

it on the other. See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's that Cogitosus' supposed description of the 

" Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i., church of Kildare, "smelt strongly of later 

chap, xvi., n. 141, p. 414. ages," than those when he flourished. See 

37 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," "Antique Lectiones," tomus v., p. 625. 

Secunda Vita S. Brigidas, cap. xxxv., pp. -t' The Rev. Edward Ledwich. 

523, 524. *- Therefore, the superficial writer Led- 

3* See ibid., p. 524. wich, when treating about Irish Literature 


precious stones, suspended gold and silver crowns, but the wall of the chan- 
cel was painted with portraits.'*^ This church architecture, he deems to be 
the work of fancy, and that it could not have existence earlier than the twelfth 
century. The Irish, in his opinion, had no stone edifices, in the sixth century; 
and, this statement, he thinks, had been conclusively proved by himself. 
To these groundless assertions, the learned Dr. Petrie replies, that such objec- 
tions betray a great want of antiquarian research, and are of very little 
weight.'*^ Even Dr. Lanigan — who considered the work of Cogitosus as an- 
terior, at least, to the ninth century, while arguing in support of its antiquity 
— need not have supposed, that the early church at Kildare was a wooden 
structure. This supposition — wholly improbable and gratuitous — the text 
will by no means authorize. Various evidences have been adduced, relative 
to the antiquity of stone churches in Ireland. Numberless illustrations are avail- 
able to prove, that the plan and general form of this church, which consisted 
of a nave and chancel, were designs exactly and commonly adopted in the 
abbey or cathedral stone churches throughout Ireland.''* Its having two lateral 
doorways, instead of a single western portal, is pointed out as a peculiarity 
quite necessary, owing to the circumstances of the structure having been de- 
signed for the use of two religious communities and belonging to different 
sexes. 45 These had distinct and separate places assigned them, according to 
an almost universal practice of ancient times.'^^ A necessity for this separa- 
tion of the sexes possibly led to a division of the nave, by a wooden partition, 
and into two equal portions. These were entered by the lateral doorways, already 
mentioned ; and this arrangement led again, perhaps, to a piercing offthe wall, 
or partition, which separated the nave from the chancel. A doorway was on 
either side of the chancel arch. It was opened there, in order to admit an en- 
trance into the chancel for the bishop with his chapter, on the right or south 
side, and for the abbess with her nuns, on the left or north side. Another 
peculiar feature is noticeable, in the description of this church. It had a 
number of windows, although the Irish churches were remarkable for the few- 
ness of such apertures ; yet, in the notice of such peculiarity, there is as little 
to excite a suspicion, regarding the truth of the general description, as in the 
other instance. The very arrangement of the church into a double nave ne- 
cessarily required a double number of windows in order to light \\.^^ 

It does not appear from our records, wiien the use of glass had been intro- 

in the Middle Ages, has pronounced the book Conleth. Even, in later times, and near our 
of Cogito-sus tobe suppositious. See "Anti- own epocli, these have undergone considera- 
quities of Ireland," p. 352. Yet, there is ble mutilation, repairs and unmeaning 
nothing therein described inconsistent with alterations. See "Official Illustrated Guide 
historic truth ; nay more, capable of being to the Great Southern and Western Rail- 
sustained by demonstrative proof. way, " by George S. Measom, pp. 8, 9. 

'"Although he not only freely acknow- ''5 See Bingham's "Origines Ecclesiasticae; 

ledges, there is great reason to doubt, that Antiquities of the Christian Church," book 

the work of Cogitosus, as had been supposed viii., cap. iii., with plans and illustrations, 

by Colgan, Vossius, Dr. O'Conor, and others '•^ See ihid.^ cap. v., sect. 6. 

— even by the judicious Ware — belonged to "^ The Rev. Dr. O'Conor has well re- 

the sixth century ; and, he had even under- marked, that if the writer had described 

taken to prove, that its real age was some these windows as having been glazed, it 

early part of the ninth century ; yet. Dr. might have afforded some historical argu- 

Petrie by no means concurred in Dr. Led- ment against supposing that he lived in the 

wich's sweeping scepticism, as to the truth of sixth or seventh century, inasmuch as glass 

that description, relating to the church, and was not usually found in the windows of 

which tiie latter regarded as altogether fan- English churches, until the close of the latter ; 

ciful, and posterior to the twelfth century. but, even that would be noevidence to prove, 

See ibid. that the writer did not flourish previously to 

** It is not to be inferred, that any of the the twelfth centur)', because the use of glass 

existing antiquarian remains at Kildare are mighthave been introduced into Ireland long 

referable to the time of St. Brigid or St. before that age, through intercourse of the 

May 3.] 



duced from abroad ;'^^ however, there are vitreous specimens found in Ireland, 
and of a very remote age."*? We know, that St. Bennet, bishop and abbot of 
Weremouth in England, after the year 674, went over to France, and thence 
invited glaziers, to make glass windows for his churcli and to light its 
upper galleries. 5° There is no reason for supposing, that the Irish 
ecclesiastics could have lagged behind, in the adoption of glazed windows 
for their churches jSi on the contrary, it is quite possible, they had antici- 
pated the British, in the art of glass making,52 by very many years. A prac- 
tice of ornamenting saints' shrines, in the manner described by Cogitosus, 
was derived from the most primitive ages of the Church, the early Chris- 
tians being accustomed to decorate their martyrs' tombs. S3 Hence, it 
is more ancient, than even the time of St. Brigid. Nor can it be fairly 
supposed, such art was then unknown or unpractised in Ireland. We 
have abundant proofs afforded, that from the first introduction of Christianity 
into this island, our artificers and ecclesiastics were distinguished for taste and 
skill, in designing and in executing sacred vessels and shrines. 54 In these 
respects, they were not surpassed, even by their contemporaries on the Con- 
tinent. ss Even, the present subject of our biography has the reputation 
of having been a skilled artist, and of working the precious metals. 
With perfect dispositions and sentiments of complete worldly abandonment, 
St. Conleth devoted his life to God, serving him, moreover, in public minis- 
trations, as in quiet and retirement. He had many interviews and counsels 
with St. Brigid, while he lived ; and, he most zealously aided or directed her 
efforts, for the progress of religion, during the infancy of our Irish Church. 

Irish with Italy and Gaul. We also know 
that a constant influx of English and other 
illustrious foreigners visited Ireland for their 
education. However, as Cogitosus makes 
no mention, concerning glass in the windows 
of the churcli at Kildare, it affords evidence, 
not only regarding the truth of his descrip- 
tion, but also of its antiquity, although that 
antiquity may not be so great as many have 
imagined. At all events, if he had been 
fabricating any fanciful description of this 
church, while glazed windows were still of 
rare occurrence, probably he would not have 
neglected to have added so important a fea- 
ture, to heighten his description of the gene- 
ral effect produced. See Dr. Petrie's 
" Ecclesiastical Architecture of Ireland and 
Round Towers of Ireland," part ii., subs, i., 
pp. 199 to 201. 

''^ At Paris, in 1 800, appeared a very 
beautiful work, in which this subject is well 
treated. It was writted by Lenoir, and in- 
tituled " Musee des Monumens Fran9ais, ou 
Description historique et chronologique des 
Statues, Bas-Reliefs, et Tombeaux, pour 
servir a I'Histoire de France, et a celle de 
I'Art, avec I'Histoire de la Peinture sur 
Verre, et Description des Vitraux anciens et 
modernes." It appeared, in six octavo 
volumes, and it contains nearly 300 beau- 
tiful plates. 

■"s There is a very learned and an interest- 
ingdissertationonthe invention and antiquity 
of glass as used in windows, when the author 
comes to the conclusion, that it had not been 

used in the windows belonging to Solomon's 
temple, although made in many ancient 
countries. See Samuel Lee's " Orbis Mira- 
culum, or the Tem]ile of Solomon, por- 
trayed by Scripture-Light," chap. ii. pp, 
23, 24. 

s° See Bishop Challoner's " Britannia 
Sancta," part i., pp. 25, 26. 

5' Lenoir's work, already noted, includes 
many fine Monuments and objects of the 
Celtic period. 

5- The reader is referred for further infor- 
mation, on this subject, to an interesting 
French work, intituled, " Alusee des Monu- 
mens Franfais, dessines par M. J. E. Biet, 
avec un texte explicatif," par J. Bres. It is 
a folio, and it contains 40 most beautiful 
plates of Tombs, Monuments, Stained 
Glass, etc., of the Middle Ages. This book 
was published, in Paris, A.D. 1821. 

55 See Buonarotti's " Osservazioni sopra 
alcuni Frammenti di Vetro," pp. 133, 134. 

3-* A visit to the Royal Irish Academy's 
Museum — open to the general public, in 
Dawson-street, Dublin — must completely 
remove any doubt yet existing on this sub- 
ject. See, also. Sir William Wilde's admir- 
ably prepared catalogue of its antiquities. 

55 See various evidences accumulated on 
this subject, and referring to the earliest 
periods of our ecclesiastical history, by Mr. 
Petiie, in his work already cited, "The 
Ecclesiastical Architecture and Round 
Towers of Ireland, "part ii., subs, i., pp. 202 
to 204. 




The authority of a Scholiast on the FeiUre of St. ^ngus makesRonchend the 
first name of Chondlaeid ' or Candlaj^" and he was called Mochonda of Daire, 
according to the same writer. It seems very probable, that the Daire alluded 
to must be identified with the present Kildare. From the foregoing state- 
ments, it would appear, that Machonda, Rondchend, Condlaed, or Candla, is 
one and the same person. It is 'stated, also, that this bishop of Kildare's 
name stands for Cundail Aedh, rendered " Aedh the Wise."3 Classed among 
St. Patrick's disciples — perhaps it should be more accurate to say cotem- 
poraries — is Coeltan, or Conlaid, Bishop of Kildare.-* Without suificient 
evidence, it has been asserted,^ that St. Conleth had previously visited either 
Italy or Brittany, and had brought therefrom those ecclesiastical variegated 
vestments, to which allusion has been already made. That success attend- 
ing the first attempts of St. Conlath, in diffusing a knowledge of the Gospel, 
must have been as gratifying to St. Brigid's heart, as it was profitable to the 
eternal well-being of our pagan progenitors, in the district where he desired to 
labour. However, he chose rather to live and serve God in retirement. 

In his Life of St. Brigid, Cogitosus does not expressly name the anchorite, 
who was selected^ by the abbess of Kildare, to undertake as bishop the spiritual 
care of her church. 7 It seems evident, that Conleth was the prelate here 
alluded to,^ for he was contemporary with the holy virgin. The subsequent 
part of the narrative, however, removes any doubt on the subject. St. Con- 
leth is not only styled a bishop, but a prophet of God, by two other writers 
of her Acts -p and, he is expressly named Conlianus, who was chosen by her, 
as the first bishop, for her city at Kildare. '° In keeping with a very unsup- 

Chapter III. — ' On this his first note is ".St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," Intro- 

ofiferedthefolIowingcommentinIri-h,Cont)- ductory Dissertation, p. 20. 

tde-o .1. cunnAil^Xet). .1. <\e-o cunii<iiL, thus "* See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

translated by Dr. Whitley Stokes, LL.D. Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. 

"Condlaed .i. Ciinnail AeJ, i.e. 'friendly xxiii., p. 269. 

Aed.' " That passage and a clause succeed- s By Rev. Dr. Todd, in " St. Patrick, Apos- 

ingithave been rendered into English, for tie of Ireland," Introductory Dissertation, 

the writer, by J. O'Beirne Crowe, A. B., in p. 23. 

the manner succeeding : " Condlaed that is, * He is only called " illustrem virum et 

' Prudence Fire,' that is, Fire of Prudence, solitaiium omnibus moribus ornatum, per 

is his name, and he is bishop of Cell Dara." quern Deus virtutes operatus est plurimas, 

(Kildare). convocans cum de eremo, et de sua vita 

" The writer has received the following solitaria, et sibi obviam pergens, ut Eccle- 

philological note from the Irish Professor in siam in Episcopal! dignitate cum ea guber- 

thc Queen's College, Galway, J. O'Beirne naret, atque ut nihil de ordine Sacerdotali in 

Crowe: "The oldest form of the name is suis deesset Ecclesiis, accersi\-it." 

nom.Ca.nd\:i, gen. Condlad, dat. Conlied, 7 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

&c., a ^-stem : a later form is m/w. Cond- Secuntla Vita S. Brigidce, Prologus, p. 

laed, an a-steni." 5"^' 

3 " If this be so," remarks Dr. Todd, ^ See ibid., n. 6, p. 525. 

" the bishop's original name must have been ' See her life attributed to St. Ultan, Ter- 

Aedh or Hugh, and the title of Cundail, tia Vita S. Brigidoe, cap. li.,p. 532, and 

'the wise,' was given him as expressing his assigned to Animosus, Qiiarta Vita S. Bri- 

ecclesiastical learning and eminence." See gidoc, lib. ii., cap. xix., p.552. 


ported and unwarrantable theory, having reference to early Irish episcopal 
jurisdiction, it has been asserted," that St. Conleth had not been appointed 
bishop over a See or a territorial district, called Kildare j" insomuch as this 
city belonged not to him, but to St. Brigid. It has been assumed, that from 
her, the election or nomination of St. Conlaeth to his episcopal office had been 
obtained ; and, therefore, it is argued, he was bound to exercise tliat office, 
subject to her jurisdiction, as bishop in her city of Kildare ; since that name, 
signifying the " Church of the Oak," was then given, not to a diocese, but 
only to the monastic establishment of St. Brigid. ^3 However, the foregoing 
conclusions are not warranted by any logical and researchful analysis of evi- 
dence, as drawn from the existing records or documents of Irish history. 

From certain biographical or traditional statements, the Rev. Dr. Todd draws 
a conclusion, that the normal state of episcopacy in Ireland had been non-dio- 
cesan, and that each bishop acted independently, without recognising any 
archiepiscopal jurisdiction. He thinks, moreover, each bishop in Ireland had 
either been entirely independent, or only subject to the abbot of his monastery, 
or in the spirit of clanship to his chieftain.'^ But, this is a very groundless 
assumption ; since sufficient documentary evidence — and of unquestionable 
genuineness — remains, to manifest general subordination to the primatial See 
of Armagh, at an early period. When other archiepiscopal sees had been 
erected in Ireland, their privileges or respective jurisdictions were likewise 
very accurately and canonically defined or determined. The premises, on 
which certain writers build their favourite speculations on this subject, are too 
partial and restricted in their application, or too unauthenticated in all their 
circumstances and bearings, to furnish reliable evidence for any such conclu- 
sion. In some cases, the assumed facts are quite legendary, or at least un- 
proved. Therefore, it would be hazardous to form a theory, at variance with 
received customs and traditions, not alone in the Irish Church, but in other 
Churches on the Continent. The most which can be assumed is, that the 
canon law had not in the earlier ages received its full development ; and, pro- 
bably, some apparent anomalies of monastic and church government, at the 
time, could be explained in a very satisfactory way, were we only in possession 
of all the circumstances, which produced or accompanied decrees or practices, 
regulating the actions of our primitive clergy and laity. The great principles 
of ecclesiastical government and jurisdiction, since the establishment of 
Christianity, have had invariably a uniform, practical, and universal applica- 
tion or order, for regulating the various concerns or wants of the whole Church, 
in every age and nation. Admitting the doubt of abbatial and episcopal dig- 
nity being united in the same person, with the bishop's qualihed subjection to 
the abbess at Kildare ; Colgan says, it is quite certain, that for many ages, pre- 
vious to his own time, the bishop of that place was distinct from the abbot. 
Nor had either personage been subject to the abbess, while there had been, 
in that place, separate churches or chapels. '5 The college or house of 

'* See ibid. the diocese, church, and district of Kildare, 
" By the Rev. James Henthorn Todd. with a catalogue of its churches — as they 
" It is true, indeed, that the Rev. Dr. stood — in his time. This statement was 
Todd cites the authority of Animosus, to sus- furnished by the Most Rev. Ross Mageo- 
tain his position. He adds : " This language chagan, belonging to the Order of Preachers, 
clearly indicates the power claimed by the and the bishop over Kildare. He is charac- 
monastic superior, although in this case a terized as a man of great piety and zeal, an 
female, over the bishop." ornament to his order, and to the Church. 
'3 See " St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," The following is a translation of this corn- 
Introductory Dissertation, p. 22. munication, from the Latin, as furnished by 
'* See ibid., p. 27. Colgan : — " The church of Kildare was 
'5 Colgan received an account concerning founded soon after the arrival of St. Patrick 



[May 3. 

canons was near the cathedral, in which it is thought '^ the abbot '7 formerly 
resided. Not far from the same house was a nunnery for women, belonging 
to the order of Regular Canonesses.'^ At this distance in point of time, 
however, and from the want of ancient records, to elucidate the past religious 
institutes existing at Kildare, it cannot be possible to solve the various his- 
toric problems preceding, with a sufficient degree of accuracy and complete- 

We have now traced St. Conleth's imperfectly known Acts, through some 
changing years of his venerable life. Let us next consider the mysterious 
workings of Providence, at the close of his existence. Virtuous labours and 
a useful missionary career were brought to a term, by a doleful and violent — 
yet not by an unprovided or untimely — death, if we are to credit somewhat 
remote accounts. The most reliable record we have been able to meet with, 
regarding St. Conleth's death, is given in the celebrated Feilire Tract of St. 
.^ngus the Culdee, and which is contained in the old Manuscript, called the 
Leabhar Breac.'9 There only the most simple allusion is made to his death, 
at the 3rd of May, with a eulogium, that he was " a fair pillar."2° A scholiast 
on this passage, however, undertakes to explain more particularly the cause 
and manner, as also the exact locality, of Conlaid's end. He mentions a 
journey Conleth was about making to Rome,^' against the persuasion of St. 
Brigit,^^ who was presumed to have a prophetic forecast of its failure and fatal 

in Ireland ; its first bishop was Lonius, and 
after him Ivorius. St. Brigid is its patron. 
The city of Kildare is situated in the pro- 
vince of Leinster, about twenty English miles 
from the city of Dublin, and westward from 
the same metropolis. It is not only the head 
of Kildare diocese, but of the whole county 
of Kildare, which takes name from it. In 
that chuich of Kildare, there were formerly 
four or five dignities, viz., the Archdeaconate, 
Deaconate, Chancellar}', Treasurership, and 
Chantorship. There were also four canons, 
and eight prebendaries, with a canonical col- 
lege, built near the church. The greatest 
length of Kildare Diocese extends from the 
town (Keonen^is ?) — Clane is probably 
meant — within seven English miles of 
Dublin, to a road, called Bealach-Garbhain, 
in the Slieve Bloom mountains, being about 
twenty-four miles. The road of Bealach- 
Garbhain divides Leinster from Munster, on 
that part. The breadth of this diocese does 
not extend beyond twelve or fourteen miles ; 
from the limits of the towns of Bally-Sonain 
and Kilruith, with Narrachmore and 
Buaile-bhcg on the southern side, to the 
River Boyne on the northern part, and 
which there divides the diocese from that of 
Meath. Throughout its whole northern 
limits, the diocese of Kildare is bounded by 
that of Meath, on the east ; and, partly on 
the southern side, it is bounded by the Dub- 
lin diocese ; the diocese of Leighlin also ex- 
tends on its southern confines ; while, on the 
west, it is bounded by the dioceses of Killa- 
loe and of Meath. This diocese of Kildare 
is divided into the four forane deaneries, or 
vicarages of Kildare, Naas, Killeigh, and 
Clane. The deanery of Kildare is situated 
in the middle of this diocese, and it sur- 

rounds the town on every side. The deaneiy 
of Naas extends to the south and west, from 
the Deanery of Kildare. The deanery of 
Killeigh extends, partly to the west, and 
north, of Kildare ; while, that of Clane lies 
partly to the east, and nonh, of the city, 
already named. In former times, through 
each of these deaneries, there were many 
Parish Churches, Religious Houses, many 
Chapels, Hermitages, Hospitals for the Sick, 
and Consecrated Cemeteries, without any 
Churches or Chapels in connection. Several 
of these were entirely destroyed, and many 
others are hastening to decay." See " Trias 
Thaumaturga," Appendix Quinta ad Acta 
S. Brigidre, cap. i., pp. 627, 628. There 
were also four Vicars foreign in the dio- 

'« By Colgan. 

'7 The aforesaid abbot and his monks 
seemingly belonged to the corresponding 
canonical institute for men. 

'^ This same writer supposes the abbot and 
abbess of Kildare belonged ab initio to a 
similar religious institute. 

'9 Now preserved in the Royal Irish Aca- 

-" The following is the text : — 

P|MmAi|\ee chjAAinx) c]\uiche 
C]\ifc conibti|\ buAixie 
b>.\r ConbAit) CAiiiAige 
Veil nu\]\ niun\e UAi^e. 

Thus translated, by Dr. WTiitley Stokes : — 
" The first finding of the wood of the Christ's 
Cross with many virtues. (The) death of 
Condlad, a fair pillar. Marj' (the) Virgin's 
great feast. 

" Dr. Todd remarks, that this passage 

May 3.] 



termination. He would not be dissuaded from his purpose, however, and this 
act of disobedience towards the holy Brigid is said to have been the cause of an 
accident on the way. The Rev. Dr. Todd deems the lioly bishop probably 
felt a natural desire to revisit Rome, to procure a new set of pontifical vest- 
ments, for the more solemn celebration of Divine service; the former ones 
having been bestowed, as an alms, on behalf of the poor.^3 He thinks, also, 
St. Conlaed's artistic skill and taste may have formed a strong motive with him, 
to visit Rome, even in opposition to St. Brigid's commands. ==■* The holy man 
seems to have journeyed onwards from his own place towards the sea. We 
are next informed, that wild hounds or wolves eat him at Sechai Condlad,^5 
at the side of Liamain, in Mag Laighen, or the plain of Leinster. This level 
would appear to have been a very extensive range — perhaps too a very un- 
defined one — in the province from which it had been denominated. Dr. 
O'Donovan seems to place it chiefly, in the northern part of the present 
county of Kildare."^ However, a very excellent and distinguished Irish 
scholar,^? pronounces this Leinster plain to have extended into the barony 
of East Narragh,^^ in the county of Kildare, and to have reached even within 
the borders of Wicklow County. Wherefore, it seems, that within the wide 
extent of this plain, we must seek out the exact locality of Sechai Condlad, 
" at the side of Liomain."-9 The former denomination now appears to be 
obsolete ; but, the site of the latter is minntely described, in the Dinnsenchus =° 

tends to prove, that Latinum in Italy, and 
not Letauia in Brittany was intended in St. 
Broj^an's metrical Life of St. Biigid. See 
"St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland," Introduc- 
tory Dissertation, n. 2, p. 25. 

-^ To such account is added, that Brigid 
prayed for him to get a sudden death, on the 
way, and this is what was fulfilled. 

^3 Dr. Todd adds : " But this design the 
stern severity of his patroness discounte- 
nanced; and if he was 'eaten by wolves' on 
his journey, such an event would inevitably 
be attributed to having disobeyed the com- 
mands or wishes oi St. Brigid." — " St 
Patrick, Apostle of Ireland." Introductory 
Dissertation, pp. 25, 26. 

•"^ See ibid., pp. 26, 27. 

^s '• SechA! Con-oLAit), that is, * Bones of 
Condla.' In O'Clery Glossary, ^^eic is 
glossed CTiAin, that is 'bone.' IS^ote by J. 
O'Beirne Crowe, A.B. It must be added, 
that William M. Hennessy renders Secha 
Conlaid, ' Conlaid Passing.' " 

^^ He remarks, that this is another name 
for the territory of the Ui Faelain in which 
the church Claenadh (Clane) and Uachter- 
ard (Oughterard), were situated. See" Leal- 
har na g-Ceart, or Book of Rights," pp. 
205 to 207, nn. 222, 223. Also " Annals of 
the Four Masters," vol. ii., p. 496, nn. (n, o). 
But, in a subsequent passage, at A.D. I171, 
it is stated, " A predatory excursion was 
made by the son of the Earl, and he plun- 
dered the churches of Magh Laighean and 
many of the Ui Failain," ibid., p. 1187. 
Hence, a distinction seems intended, be- 
tween Maigh-Laighen and the Ui-Faelain. 
See, likewise, " The Topographical Poems 
of John O'Dubhagain and Giolla na naomh 

O'Huiilhrin," p. xlvii., n. 368. 

'^ William M. Hennessy, M.R.I. A. 

^^ Usk or Uske, within this barony, is de- 
scribed, asbelongingto the plain of Leinster, 
according to him. 

^9 To William M. Hennessy, the writer is 
gratefully indebted for the following literal 
translation of the extract referring to it, as 
also for identification of places therein 
named, and found enclosed within brackets. 
"Liamain, whence is it? Not difificult, 
Liaman, Lcndcan, Forcartain, and Mianach, 
and Truistin, were four daughters of Dubh- 
tach Dubtaire, son of Fergna, King of the 
Deisi-Biegh. (Deece, Co. Meath). The 
four sons of Aicher Cerr, son of Echadh 
ordot, of the Ernai of Monster, of the race 
of Mogh-Lamha, son of Lughaidh, son of 
Cairpre Cromchind, loved them, and the 
four youths came from the west to Dubh- 
tach's house. Their names were Fer-dubh, 
Fornacht, Roimper, and Fomu, and bound 
themselves for a-year to Dubhtach. They 
were there, after soliciting their reward, and 
Dubhtach would not give it, until they should 
stay a month and a year with him, forit was 
Dubhtach that required a month to watch, 
and a year's companionship. Dubhtach 
then went on a foray to Laighen (Leinster). 
They pretended to be sick, in order that 
they should not go with him. Dubhtach 
afterwards went ; and they escaped in his 
absence, and Dubhtach's four daughters with 
them. Dubhtach met with them in Laighen 
and killed the entire eight, viz., Fomu, Fer- 
Liamna- Roimper, Fercantana, Fornocht, 
Fer Manca, Fer Dubh with Truistin. They 
were all slain, viz., Fer-Dubh at Dubh-atha 
Maisten (the Blackford of Mullaghmast), 


— an old topographical tract, contained in the Book of Ballymote.^' There can 
be no reasonable doubt entertained, that the thickly wooded and wild moun- 
tainous districts, in the plains of Leinster, were at that time infested with 
wolves, 3' lying i" '^vait for lonely and adventurous travellers. Whatever may 
be thought concerning the mode and place for this saint's death, we may take 
it for granted, the commentator has inserted an absurd popular tradition, 
which referred his violent end to a disobedience of St. Brigid's wishes, and 
especially to her prayers. Such infelicitous introductions, among the Acts of 
our National Saints, are greatly to be deprecated ; since they render the Irish 
hagiologist's task one of extreme caution and delicacy, when seeking to dis- 
criminate between fact and fiction. Professor Eugene O'Curry identifies this 
Liamhain ^3 — where a great battle had been fought — with the present Dun- 
lavin, in the county of Wicklow. Here there was an ancient seat of the Lein- 
ster Kings. 34 This was probably on or near the celebrated INIoat of Tornant, 
which forms so prominent an object, and which rises over the town of Dun- 
lavin, at no great distance from it. The writer has been informed, however, 
by a competent investigator of Irish topography and antiquities,35 as also by 
one who has a specially intimate knowledge of this locality and of the adjoin- 
ing places, that no denomination, at all resembling Sechai Condlad, can be 
traced near Dunlavin. Formerly this place was called Dun Lianhna, as well 
as Liamhain. 3^ It is celebrated in ancient documents, and it seems to have 
been in a district, not far from the sea, from allusion there made to it. 37 This 
circumstance should tally well with the accounts, that St. Conleth was obliged 
to pass near it, before embarking for Britain or the Continent, when prosecut- 
ing his intended journey to Rome. 

Probably, we may find the rationale of the foregoing account, and 
it may consist solely in these facts ; viz., that for special good reasons 
of his own, St. Conleth may have designed a journey to Rome ; that St. Brigid 
might have warned him of danger to be apprehended on the way, especially 
if he undertook thr journey without sufficient protection, or alone; and that the 
sad event of death, occurring in the manner described, fully justified her pre- 
science, her fears and her warnings. The year for this latter occurrence was 519, 
in the sixteenth year of King Muircheartach's reign, according to the Annals 
of Ulster,38 and of the Four Masters. 39 The Annals of Tighernach refer his 

Fornocht at Fornocht (Fornaughts ?) Roim- 33 Allusion is made to Liamain, in one ot 

per at Glas-Roimpair, Fomu in Fomina ; these three poems, yet preserved in the Book 

Liamain on Liomain (Dunlavin), Mianach in of Leinster, and attributed to Dubhtach Ua 

her Cul (Corner, i.e., Cul-Mianach), Forcar- Lug.iir, chief poet to the monarch Laegaire, 

tain in Forcariain, Truistin on his ford [i.f. who flouri>hed, A.D. 432. It refers to the 

Ath Trui>ten, near the hill of Mullaghmast triumphs of Enna Censellach and of his son 

on the Greece.) Their mother then came Crimthann, Kings of Leinster. 

from the west, i.e., Luachair Bairnech was 34 c^ge " Lectures on the Manuscript Ma- 

her name, and from Bairend of Corcomroe terials of Ancient Irish History." Appendix 

she came ; and when she obtained reliable iii. , p. 492, and n. 71. Ibid. 

knowledge regarding the killing of her sons, 35 Rev. John Francis Shearman, C.C., 

her heait broke within her. F"rom her is Howth. 

named Luachair Bairnech. (This name is 2* See Dr. O'Donovan's Edition of the 

still preserved in that part of the Burren " Circuit of Ireland, by Mircheartach Mac 

River, Co. Carlow.) Aichor went, and he Neill, Prince of Aileach," written by Cor- \ 

died on Cnoc-Dumha Aichor in Hy Fel- niacan Eigeas, in the year 942, n. 59, 

metha (in the parish of Tullophelim, Co. p. 36. 

Carlow?") -7 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Leabhar na-g- 

3° At Fol. 194, b. b. Ceart, or Book of Rights," pp. 40, 41, and 

" This is a much-prized Manuscript pre- n. (o). Al^o, n. (x), p. 203, and n. (m), pp. 

served in the Royal Iri-h Academy's Library. 228, 229. Also, n. (r), p. 231. 

3' The last descendant of those Irish 38 Sce Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hiber- 

wolves disappeared, only about the com- nicarum Scriptores," tomus iv., p. 13. 

mencement of last century. 39 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition, vol. i., 

May 3.] 



death to the year 520/° St. Conleth's remains are said'*' to have been at 
first buried in Killeen Cormaci^ It \yould appear, however, that tlie bones — 
and probably other reHcs — of St. Conlelh, had been recovered and conveyed 
to the former place of his abode. No doubt, St. Brigid took special care, that 
his sacred remains should be interred or enshrined, with all that religious 
reverence and honour, due to the distinguished virtues and merits of her holy 
bishop and counsellor. 

In the fine church, built at Kildare, and already described, some time 
after their respective deaths, thebodies of St. Brigid and of St. Conlaeth''^ were 
deposited in rich shrines. These were placed relatively on the right and left 
sides of a decorated altar. Their reliquaries were ornamented with gold, silver, 
gems, and precious stones, having been surmounted with crowns of gold and 
silver. 44 We are told, by CogitosuSi-ts that his remains were interred, near the 
high altar of the great church at Kildare ;46 and, in the year 799,^7 according 
to the Annals of Ulster,48 the relics of Conlaid or Conlaoi were placed in a 
shrine of gold and silver.49 Under the year S36, it ii: recorded, that the Danes 
plundered and burned the noble abbey and churches at Kildare, taking with 
them the rich shrines of St. Brigid and of St. Conleath.5° In a previous part 
of this biography, it may be seen, that such an account apparently conflicts 
with a local tradition. However, it is possible, a translation of St. Conlaeth's 
remains may have taken place ; for, while some portions of his relics may 
have been preserved at Old Conall, other parts had possibly been enshrined 

pp. 170, 171. 

'*° See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's "Rerum 
Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus ii., p. 

"•' By Rev. John Francis Shearman. 

*- See a very complete account of the origin 
and antiquities of this curious burial ground, 
in a very uiteresting seiies of papers intituled, 
"Loca Patriciana." They were published 
in the '"Journal of the Royal Historical and 
Archaeological Association of Ireland," vol. 
ii., Fourth Series, April, 1S73, No, 14, 
pp. 339 to 361. July, No. 15, pp. 4S6 to 498. 

*'' Colgan observes, that although for cen- 
turies before his time, the bodies of Saints 
Patrick, Brigid, and Columkille were de- 
posited in Down, of Ulster ; yet, the remains 
of St. Brigid were first buried at Kildare, in 
Leinster, as appears from this passage, and 
from other observations, which are made in 
the Fourth Appendix to our Saints' Acts. 
See "Trias Tliaumaturga," cap. vi., pp. 
617, 618, 619, and n. 17, p. 526. 

"t* Regarding the church and city of Kil- 
dare, Cogitosus remarks, that it would not be 
possible to describe sufficiently the great 
beauty of this church, and the many miracles 
wrought in this city, "si fas est dici civitas 
de qua vita in se multorum nomen accepit. 
Maxima hsec civitas et metropolitane est : in 
cujus suburbanis quae sancta certo limite de- 
signavit Brigida." He adds, that no carnal 
adversary, nor concourse of enemies, was 
feared there, in his time, as the city was one 
of safe refuge for all living elsewhere, "in 
tota Scotoium terra, cum suis omnibus fugi- 
tivis." In it were preserved the treasures of 
kings most religiously, and under its highly 
adorned covering. See Colgan's " Trias 

Thaumaturga." Vita Secunda S. Brigidse, 
cap. xxxvi., p. 524. In a note on this pas- 
sage, Colgan remarks on the Scotorum terra 
being identical with Ireland, as the city of 
St. Brigid, as Kildare, at some distance from 
the chief city, Dubhn, was undoubtedly in 
Ireland. Seen. 19, p. 526, ibid. 

45 See Messingham's " Florilegium Insulas 
Sanctorum." According to Messingham's 
version of this Life of St. Brigid, we find it 
in chapter xiv., at p. 199. 

■t" See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 
Secunda Vita S. Brigidse, cap. xxxv., p. 523. 

47 In Harris' Ware, vol. i., after treating 
about Conleth"s death, it is said : " But his 
bones 281 years after, i.e., A.D. Soo, were 
translated into a silver gilded shrine adorned 
with precious stones." — " Bishops of Kil- 
dare," p. 3S0. It may not be quite correct 
to state, that such a length of time had been 
suffered to elapse, before his remains were 
first enshrined ; all that should be observed 
is, at or before the commencement of the 
ninth century, his relics were placed in a new 
and beautiful reliquary. 

''^ See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's "Rerum Hiber- 
nicarum Scriptorej," tomus iv. Annales Ul- 
tonienses, ab A.D. cccxxxi. to a.d. dccc. 
Ex codice Bodleiano, pars i. " Positio reli- 
quiar. Conlaid hi serin oir agus oirget. [in 
scrinio auri et argenti."] p. 120. 

49 Allusion has been made to it already, in 
a previous chapter. 

S' See Dr. Sylvester O'Halloran's "Gene- 
ral History of Ireland," vol. ii., Book x., 
chap, ii., p. 160. 

5' No doubt, St. Brigid desired to have a 
part of his bones removed, to her great 
church, built at Kildare, 


at Kildare.s' It is probable, that this reliquary had been destroyed or re- 
moved, during one of the Danish or northern incursions, with which this city 
had been frequently visited.s^' But, the foregoing object of art, with its much 
prized contents, had been long preserved and exposed, for the admiration 
and veneration of Christians at Kildare. 

The place where he lived, Old Connell — known too as Condail of 
of the Kings — was under the special patronage of St. Conleath. The name 
Condail may be rendered, also, " the place of meeting."53 It is not impro- 
bable, that it was identical with the present remarkable mound, already de- 
scribed, and which may have been the folk-moat of olden times. After the 
celebrated victory of the Leinster chiefs and heroes, obtained in the battle at 
the Hill Allen, in a.d. 722, and about five miles northwards from Kildare, it 
is related, that they assembled at Condail of the Kings. That victory is said 
to have been obtained, under the patronage of St. Brigid, whose presence was 
seen over the Leinstermen, either before or daring the battle. However, 
the heroes of Leinster spent the night in high spirits, each describing his 
achievements, at Condail of the Kings, while wine and mead circulated, and 
merriment seemed the order of that night. s* The whole of this account, how- 
ever, is mingled with romantic and extravagant incidents. Near it, the an- 
cient church of Old Connell probably stood, when the Leinster heroes cele- 
brated their famous victory ; and, it seems likely, that St. Conleth was re- 
garded as its patron, even before the eighth century. Possibly, a considerable 
portion of his relics were preserved in it ; for, according to local tradition, his 
remains were deposited within the cemetery. 

All our Irish Martyrologists place his festival, at the 3rd of May, 
the date assigned for his death.55 In the Metrical Martyrology of St. 
yEno-us the Culdee, and known as the Feilire-^ngus, at this date, 
and'^when recording his death, it is stated : Bas Conlaid, cain-aige, " The 
death of Condlaid, beautiful pillar."56 The name of this holy bishop 
is written Roncend, in the ALirtyrology of Tallagh,57 at the 3rd of 
May. This Roncend is not a distinct saint from Conleth, who is venerated 
on this day, and whose first name, as we have already seen, was Roincenn. 
We read, in the Martyrology of Donegal,5S likewise, that a festival was cele- 
brated, in honour of Roineheann,59 on this day. In the diocese of Kildare, 
the feast of St. Conleth — at the 3rd of May — is observed as a double of the 
first-class, with an octave. There is no proper ofifice for this saint, however; 
but the psalms, lessons, &:c., are taken from the common to a confessor and 
bishop. For the other dioceses of Ireland, this office is recited as a double, 

5= "We have the most indisputable histo- published, in the year iS6o. 
ricalevidence, not only of the existence of one S3 See Dr. O' Donovan's "Annals of the 
of tlie two shnnes noticed by Cogitosus, as Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 170, 171. 
preserved at Kildarein his own time, but also so in the " IMartyrology of Tallagh, ' as 
of the costliness of its materials ; and it will edited by the Rev. Matthew Kelly, at p. 
surely not be doubted that the religious com- xxiii., we find, besides the enti7 of Connlai, 
munity of Kildare, who paid this reverence Bishop of Cill Dara, two other entries, at the 
to the relics of their first bishop, would have 3rd of May, viz., Roncend. and Mocbona 
had a similar, if not a still more splendid Daire. All these designations are referable 
shrine, to preserve the relics of the great to one saint. The same repetition is notice- 
founder and patronessof their establishment." able, in the "Martyrology of Donegal," 
— Dr George Petrie's "Ecclesiastical Archi- edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 118 
teclui'e and Round Towers of Ireland," part 119, and at ihe same day of the month, 
ii , sub.sec. i., pp. 203, 204. 57 Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxui. In 
S3 According to \Villiam M. Hennessy. the Franciscan copy is Con-oUe'o Cilli 
5< See "Three Fragments of Annals, ■Oa|\a Honcenx) piMinuf. 
copied from Ancient Sources," by Dhubal- =« Eiiiied by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
tach Mac Firbisigh, and edited by Dr. I18, II9. , ^ ^ ,, 
O'Donovan, pp. 33 1051. This work was 59 a note by Dr. Todd says, at Koin- 

May 3. 



but without an octave. Even De Burgo ^° altogether omitted St. Conleth 
from his Hst of Irish Saints, although he has compiled proper offices for others, 
not more celebrated, and for several totally unconnected, as to special vene- 
ration, in connexion with our national sees. 

Towards the close of the last century, when many of our old 
chapels had been erected, the Catholic people of Ireland were a cower- 
ing and proscribed race. Among other nations, however, their melan- 
choly music, their impatiently borne wrongs, their tried fidelity to country 
and religion, had made them known. But, their former places of wor- 
ship had been dismantled, and these passed as spoils into the hands 
of other worshippers. The haunts of their former saints had almost 
been forgotten. The old parish chapel of Newbridge was a wretched build- 
ing, on the strand of the Liffey, and not far from the site of St. Conleth's pre- 
sent imposing parochial church. For years, many a prayer was offered up, 
that a new parochial church might be built. At 'ast, in the year 1848, just 
as the nation was emerging from famine and prostration, the parish priest, the 
Rev. 'I'imothy Kavanagh, and the people ''' of Newbridge, undertook to build 
a larger church. The great efibri was to make out funds, during what were 

justly called the 
" Bad Times.'^s^ 
This, however, 
was soon effected, 
but with much 
difficulty.63 The 
drawings and sjDe- 
cifications for the 
the church were 
supplied by some 
friendly architect, 
whose name has 
not transpired.^* 
The style of that 
new building is 
Gothic ; it has 
a tower or bel- 
fry -65 but the spire 
is not yet built. 
In 1852, the 
church was dedi- 
cated to St. Con- 
leth, and opened 
for Divine ser- 
vice. This is the 
only church in the 
diocese of Kil- 
dareand Leighlin 
— we believe it 
may be stated in 
all Ireland — dedi- 
cated to St. Con- 
leth.^^ Out of the debris of the old chapel, and in close connection with St. 
Conleth's new church, a comfortable parochial house and good out-offices 

St. Conleth's Catholic Church, Newbridge, County of Kildare. 

ckeann : " The more recent hand adds, 
"Vide Conleadh," whose first name was 

*° AUusion is made to his work — now 
rarely procurable, " Otficia Propria Sancto- 
rum Hibernise." Yet, surely sufficient ma- 



[May 3 

were afterwards built. Active and earnest exertions were made ^^ to orna- 
ment the interior of this fine church, and to improve the external grounds and 
approaches to it. Since that time, further spiritual advantages have been 
secured for the parish. ^^ The foundation stone of a new convent at New- 
bridge was laid, by the Right Rev. James Walsh, D.D., and Bishop of Kil- 
dare and Leighlin, on Ascension Day, 22nd May, 1873. Its position is quite 
close to the church, and the establishment has been dedicated to St. Conleth.^9 
The community in possession is known as the Oblate Sisters 7° of the Imma- 
culate Conception. 7' These nuns first came to the convent, on the 26th of 

terials are available, for the compilation of a 
proper office for St. Conleth. 

" They contributed about ;^500. and after 
expending this sum on t'.e foundation, they 
seemed to despair of progressing further with 
their undertaking. 

'^ In the beginning of March, 1849, the 
Rev. Patrick Carey — now parish priest of 
Borris, county of Carlow — was sent by the 
greatly venerated Bisliop, Right Rev. Dr. 
Francis Haly, to Newbridge, as curate. In 
conjunction with the pastor, he actively 
laboured, in collecting funds, and in superin- 
tending the building of the new church. To 
the Rev. Mr. Carey, the writer is indebted, 
for many of these particulars. 

*3 The parishioners both Catholic and 
Protestant generously subscribed, and the 
neighbouring parishes gave much assistance. 
At the " Curragh Meeting," the Rev. Mr. 
Carey was very successful, in getting sub- 
scriptions from all creeds and parties, espe- 
cially from among the gentry. On one 
occasion, when collecting for the church in 
Dublin, he was asked by a gentleman, the 
late W. N. Skelly, Esq., to whom the church 
was to be dedicated. The Rev. Mr. Carey 
repli-jd, it was not necessary to go far for a 
patron saint, as tradition said the first Bishop 
of Kiklare lived on the banks of the Liffey, 
and, very near the site of the new 
church. " Bravo," said Mr. Skelly, " I will 
give a subscription ; but, if you went to 
foreign countries for a patron, and having so 
many saints in our own country, I should 
not give you one penny." The money after- 
wards came in rapidly, and the work pros- 

*'' We present an illustration from a photo- 
graph, kindly furnished by the Rev. Alartin 
Nolan, P.P., of Newbridge. It was drawn 
on the wood, by William F. Wakeman, and 
it was engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

*5 One of John Murphy's superior bells, 
weighing one ton, one cwt., is Jn the cam- 
panile. It was cast in Dublin. 

*' It may be of interest to mention, 
that in "The Lamp," of Saturday, 
July I St, 1854, vol. vii., No. 25, pp. 
36, 37, there is an engraving of a seal, be- 
longing to William, Bishop Kildare, and 
supposed to represent St. Cunleth, as one of 
its devices. The original matrix is said to 
be in possession of a l3ublin gentleman. The 

following is a minute description : — The de- 
vice exhibits three statues standing in cano- 
pied niches, of the florid Gothic or pointed 
style of architecture of the fifteenth century. 
The centre figure represents the Virgin and 
child, and the figures on each side appear in- 
tended to represent the patron saints of Ire- 
land, Patrick and Brigid. Below the centre 
figure there is a smaller niche, containing 
the figure of another ecclesiastic, with his 
hands raised, in the attitude of prayer, and 
his arm supporting the pastoral staff. This 
figure, it is probable, is intended to represent 
St.Conlaeth, the first Bishop of Kildare, who 
was contemporary with St. Brigid, and said to 
have been the joint founder of that See. On 
each side of the figure is a shield, one of 
which bears the arms of France and England 
quarterly ; the other, two keys in saltire, in 
chief a royal crown ; a device which, it is 
worthy of remark, constitutes the arms an- 
ciently and still borne by the Archbishops of 
York, and the appearance of which in this 
seal may therefore not be easy to account for. 
The inscription reads as follows : 

" Sigillum W'illmi dei gracia Kyldarens 
or, "Sigillum Willie mi dei gratia Kylda- 
rensis Episcopus" (the sealof William, by the 
grace of God, Bishop of Kildare). As among 
the Bishops of Kildare, two of the name of 
William occur in the fifteenth century, it 
may not be easy to determine with certainty 
to which of them this seal should be as- 
signed ; but, there appears the greatest rea- 
son to ascribe it to the first, who according 
to Ware, having been previously Archdeacon 
of Kildare, was appointed to this See, by the 
provisions of Pope Eugene IV., in 1432, and 
having governed this See fourteen years, he 
died in April, 1446. 

"7 By the Rev. Patrick J. Mulhall, ap- 
pointed curate in 1857 — afterwards, the 
worthy and deservedly esteemed parish 
priest of Goresbridge and Paulstown. 
Owing to a total loss of sight, the Rev. 
Timothy Kavanagh had been left unable to 
administer the affairs of his parish, the care 
of which chiefly devolved on the curate as 

'* By the Rev. Martin Nolan, the present 
excellent parish priest of Newbridge, who 
furnished many of the succeeding details to 
the writer. 


May,72 1875. The Oblate Sisters 73 have charge now of large poor schools, 
and of those for children of the higher classes, 74 in the parish of Newbridge. 7S 
Established by voluntary contributions, a Reformatory for Catholic boys, 7*5 and 
under the patronage of St. Conleth, has been for many years past located 
in Philipstown, King's County. A considerable portion of the premises was 
formerly the county prison, largely increased for accommodation, with build- 
ings in open spaces, and a farm attached. Near 300 boys, are here congre- 
gated, and the institution is under charge of the Oblate Fathers of Mary Im- 
maculate. Those boys are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and 
grammar, sufficiently well to turn them out respectably educated, according to 
their station in life. The premises have been much improved, gas-works were 
erected, cooking by steam was commenced, and an unlimited water supply laid 
on for use. The industrial progress of the boys has been admirable. All useful 
trades are taught, while the farm attached to this institution is admirably cul- 
tivated, by the inmates. As a matter of course, their religious training is 
sedulously prosecuted, by the Reverend Managers, and a governmental grant 
in aid is obtained. 

Like many other holy servants of God, St. Conleth departed from 
this earth, to give an account of his mortal pilgrimage and stewardship ; 
but, he went to receive from his loving Master, in acknowledgment 
for his fidelity, the crown of immortal bliss. The possession of God, 
in the unfading glory of his celestial kingdom, was the complement of his 
well-spent life. The revolution which he effected on earth was essentially re- 
ligious, and in a social point of view by no means abrupt or subversive. A 
grateful people have honoured him as their patron, and the appointed one of 
Heaven. We observe their fidelity and attachment to his name and teaching, 
during the varying scenes of his life. Fourteen centuries have passed, yet 
we feel convinced, that as years roll on, his name and his memory shall be 
more deeply venerated throughout the diocese, on which he conferred so 
many blessings, from the period of its first Christian organization down to the 
present time. 

Article IL — St, Daircheall, Bishop of Glendalough, County 
OF WicKLOW. \Seventh Century^ As servants, who have been trained in 
noble families, acquire the manners and accomplishments of their superiors, 
in a marked degree ; so religious, who have entered a good school and learn 
under perfect masters, become in turn learned and holy. In the Martyrology 

*9 The Very Rev. Nicholas Walsh, S.J., sphere of usefulness. The Order has ex- 
preached an eloquent sermon, on this in- tended very much in England, where there 
teresting occasion. are about ten houses, including the Novitiate 

7° They are established in conformity with of Rock Ferry, a magnificent house and es- 

their Rules, to assist in any works of mercy, tablishment dedicated to the reception of 

corporal and spiritual, and especially to postulants from Great Britain and Ireland, 

teach Poor, Middle and High Class schools. There is also one house in Scotland. There 

7' Their Order was founded, by the is a Novitiate for the French houses, at the 

Bishop of Marseilles, in the year 1826. Abbey of Royaumount, and also one in 

7^ On the 27th, the feast of Corpus Christi, Spain, where there are many houses of the 

the first Mass was celebrated, by the Rev. Order. The Sisters are also established in 

Father Cooke, O.M.I. South Africa, where they have more than 

'3 In 1S68, they were affiliated to the ten houses, and in Ceylon. The Order num- 

Order of the Holy Family, founded by the bers now about 6,000 Sisters. 

Rev. Father Noailles, a.d. 1820, at Bor- 75 Nearly 500 children there attend their 

deaux, for works nearly similar. schools. 

T' The Oblate Sisters have founded a large 76 Who have fallen into criminal courses, 

Convent, wiih Orphanage and Poor Schools, or who have been rescued from temporal and 

in Leeds, after much zealous labour. It is spiritual dangers. 

now flourishing, and daily increasing its Article ii,^' Edited by Rev, Dr. Kelly, 


of Tallagh/ St. Daircheall's name occurs, at the 3rd of May, as Daircholla, 
Glinni da locha.^ This is the oft and well described Valley of the Two Lakes, 
in the heart of the county of Wicklow. Quoting the foregoing authority, the 
Bollandists 3 enter Darchellus Glenndalocensis, at this date. In some autho- 
rities,'* we find him called Mac Curetai, or the son of Curetai ; and again, 
Mac Cuyletty.5 Under the head of Glenn-da-locha, Duald Mac Firbis enters 
Uairchill, son of Haireta, bishop of Glen-da-locha,° at May 3rd. The year 
674 is assigned for his death, in the " Chronicum Scotorum," as also in the 
Annals of Clonmacnoise ;7 and the year 676, by Mac Firbis, as also, by the 
O'Clerys ; while, the Annals of Ulster place the demise of Daircill mc Cur- 
tai,^ at A.D. 677.5 On this day, we find mentioned, in the Martyrology o! 
Donegal,'" that veneration was paid to St. Daircheall, Bishop of Gleann-da- 

Article III. — Sx Mochonna, of Derry. The name of this saint is 
set down in the ]\\ of Tallagh,' at the 3rd of May, as Mochonna, 
Daire.^ Many places in ! reland are called Deny, simply, or as compounds, 
with some other designation. The Bollandists 3 have entered Mochonna de 
Doire, from the foregoing record, at this day ; but, they remark, it is difficult 
to pronounce upon his identity, as there are so many similar names, and on 
different days, in the list given by Colgan,^ and in which the present holy 
man is not included. Another name for Mochonna is Dachonna.s A festival, 
in honour of Mochonna, was celebrated on this day, as we read in the Mar- 
tyrology of Donegal.^ We find [Mochonna, Marianus, and Martyrology of 
Tamlacht,7] thus cited within brackets ; but, from what has been already 
stated, perhaps he does not differ from St. Conleth of Kildare. 

Article IV. — St. Nem, or Nehemias, Bishop of Druim Dallain, 

OR TuLLAGH, CouNTY OF ANTRIM. Nothing very satisfactory can be dis- 
covered, regarding a Nehemias, who is mentioned in the Acts of St. Patrick, 

and who is said to liave appointed him as a bishop, over a church called 
Tulacha, or TuUagh,^ in that part of Dalriada, which is near Ramoan, in the 
diocese of Connor. The modern name of this place is uncertain; but, 

p. xxiii. ^ The Franciscan copy enters ■niocVionriAe 

" The Franciscan copy has 'OAiiAclielljk 'OAi]\e. 

Jlinm ■DA locViA 3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. 

360. ■» See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberni^e," Mar- 

■» The Annals of Ulster, and those of the tii viii. De S. Mochonn qui et Dochonna 

Four Masters. Antistite Dorensi, with notes, pp. 565, 

s In the English translation of the Annals 566. 

of Clonmacnoise. 5 The reader is referred to what has been 

* See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish already stated, in our notices of St. Mo- 
Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i., chonna, or Dachonna, of Daire, or Derry, in 
pp. 112, 113. vol. iii. of this work, at the 8th of March, 

"I See Dr.O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four Art. xv. 

Masters" vol. i., pp. 284, 285, and n. (m). ^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

* Styled " Episcopus Glinne-da-loc/ia." 118, 119. 

9 See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum 7 In a note Dr. Todd says : " The clause 

Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus iv.. An- within brackets is in the more recent 

nales Ultonienses, p. 61. hand." 

■° Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. Article iv.— ' See Colgan's "Trias 

118, 119. Thaunialurga," Septinia Vita S. Patricii, 

Article hi.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. lib. ii., cap. cxxx., p. 146, and nn. 199, 200, 

Kelly, p. xxiii. p. 182. 

May 3.] 



possibly it is DnimtuUagh, now popularly called Croshan,^ A Nem,3 Bishop, 
of Drum Dallain, is mentioned in the Afartyrology of Donegal,^ as liaving a 
festival on this day. In a townland of the place first alluded to, the name 
Manister — no doubt from the Irish word which signifies "a monastery" — 
occurs ; as also, another townland called Kilmoyle, in which there is an ancient 
cemetery. 5 The place has been incorrectly confounded with Tulach-ruise ^ — 
now Tullyrusk — in Dalmunia.7 The Rev. William Reeves, in a calendar which 
he has compiled, seems to identify the present St. Neim, with St. Nehemias, 
bishop of Tullagh.® The Rev. Dr. Lanigan 9 thinks, however, that the Nehe- 
mias alluded to, in St. Patrick's Life, may have have been placed at too early 
a date, and that he may not have been any other than a St. Nehemias, who 
died A.D. 654.'° Under the head of Druim Dallain," Duald Mac Firbis 
enters Nemh, bishop, for May 3rd.^- 

Article V. — St. Neccan. The name of Neccan — without any other 
designation — occurs in the Martyrology ofTallagh,' as having been vene- 
rated on this day. He is Latinized Neccanus, by the Bollandists,^ who quote 
this entry ; but, with a conjecture, 3 that he may have been confounded with 
Nessanus, who lived in the small Island off the eastern coast, and known as 
Ireland's Eye.-* A Book of Gosi)els, belonging to him, and called Kyrlabar,5 
is said to have fallen into the sea,^ and to have been taken out of it, without 
sustaining any injury.? It was held in great veneration ; and people were 
accustomed to swear on this book, because it was thought, if perjury were 

^ See Rev. Dr. Reeves' " Ecclesiastical 
Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore." 
Appendix T, p. 251, 

3 See what occurs at the feast of St. Nem, 
at 1 8th of February. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
118, 119. 

5 See "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps 
for the County of Antrim," sheet 8. 

"^ By Colgan, in "Trias Thaumaturga," 
Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, ii., cap. cxxx., 
p. 146, andn. 199, p. 182. 

7 See Rev. William Reeves' "Ecclesiasti- 
cal Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dro- 
more," Appendix T, p. 251, and F, F, n, 
(x), p. 322. 

8 See ibid., LL, p. 378. 

9 In his " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
land," vol. i., chap, vi., sect, iii., n. 22, p. 

'° Known also as St. Nera Mac Ua-Birn, 
successor of St. Enna, Abbot of Aran, who 
died on the 14th of June. See Dr. O'Dono- 
van's "Annals of the Four Masters," vol. 
i., pp. 266, 267. 

" Not now known — William M. Hen- 
nessy's note. 

'^ See " Proceedings of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i., 
pp. loS, 109. 

Article v. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy writes 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. 

3 Seemingly drawn from Father Henry 

Fitzsimon, who gave them Acts of the Irish 
Saints, in which there was an allusion to 

■» The Bollandists add : " ad sex mil- 
liaria de Dublin, et aqua benedicta fugasse 
diabolum ultra mare in rupem." This latter 
is yet traditionally shown on the Hill of 
Howth northern sliore. 

s This was a copy of the Gospels, pre- 
served in the time of Archbishop Ussher, on 
Ireland's Eye, anciently called Inis Meic 
Nessain, opposite the mouth of Howth Har- 
bour. Its penmanship seems referable to 
the early part of the seventh century. "The 
natives of the island gave this book the name 
ofKerlowre, i.e., in correct spelling, "Ceat- 
HAIR Leabhair," or the Quadruple Book, 
i.e., the Four Gospels." See " Descriptive 
Remarks on Illuminations in certain An- 
cient Irish Manuscripts," by the Rev. James 
Henthorr.Todd, D.p.,F.S.A., &c. TheGar- 
land of Howth, p. 13. London, 1869, Imp. 
4to. In this work, are two beautiful illus- 
trations of the Garland of Howth, drawn 
in Chromo-lithograph, by Mi>s Margaret 
Stokes, and an interesting subject tor study 
of the ecclesiastical antiquary. 

* Near the place known as Puck's Rock, 
still shown. 

7 It would seem formerly to have been 
preserved, in some precious box or ca=e. 

^ Archbishop Alan, in his Registriini gives 
a very curious account of this relic, which 
subsequently came into Archbishop 
Ussher's possession, and which is at present 
the property of the Provost and Fellows of 



[May 3. 

committed,^ some judgment of God must overtake the offender.9 Various 
Nessans are mentioned by Co]gan,'° without allusion to this particular saint, 
or his festival. The name Neccan is entered, in the Martyrology of Done- 
gal," at the 3rd of May. 

Article VI. — St. Cairpre, or Corpreus, Bishop of Moville, 
County of Down. St. Cairpre's name is entered, as Bishop of Magh Bile, 
in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 3rd of May ; and, hence we may fairly 
conclude, he lived before the tenth century. On this day, likewise, Colgan 
has cited,= not only the authority of St. Jingus the Culdee, but, also that of 
Marianus O'Gorman and of Cathal Maguire, for his feast.3 The Bollandists -t 
also note Carbrerusor Carpreus, Bishop of Moville, in Ireland. On this day 
was venerated Cairpre, Bishop of Maghbile, or Moville, as we find recorded, 
in the Martyrology of Donegal. s The exact time when he flourished, how- 
ever, is not placed upon record.^ 

Article VII. — St. Scannal, of Cill-Cobrainne. At the 3rd of May, 
in the published IMartyrology of Tallagh,' the simple entry occurs, Scannal of 
Chill conbraind. The Franciscan copy has written it Scandal of Cill con- 
brind-^" The Bollandists 3 notice Sandalius de Kill-Conbrain, from the same 
authority. He was born, probably, after the beginning of the sixth century. 
This Scannal was the son of Breasal, son to Enna,4 third son to Niall 5 of the 
Nine Hostages,^ while he was both a relation and pupil of St. Colum Cille,7 
the iUustrious Apostle of the Scottish nation. He sailed in company with 
the latter, when leaving Ireland,^ and on this great mission, in the forty-second 

Trinity College, Dulilin. Archbishop Alan 
supposes Ncssan to have been the patron 
saint of this Island, where his time had been 
spent in vigils, fastings and prayers, and he 
adds, " in quo loco aparuit ei malignus 
spiritus in specie hominis nigerimi, quem 
prosequebatur quadem indigriatione cum 
ysopo aque benedicte pleno, ambulans super 
mare per spatiam ferme unius miliaris iin- 
perans diabolo ut intraret rupem in locum 
qui dicitur Howth, ubi collis ille in vulgari 
appellatur Powke-rocke, ut videtur extrin- 
cicus ejus ymago in specie lapidea vilissima; 
unde legitur quod tempore quo fuga\ it dia- 
bolum cecidit in mare liber suus Evangelio- 
rum, dictus ab incolis. The Kerlowre ; post- 
mordum a nautis inventus illesus, proinde 
habetur hodie inibi in magno precio et vene- 
racione non modica, ita ut vix ju-tus audet 
jurare super ipsum propter Dei vindictam os- 
tensam hominibus perjuris in ilium." 

9 This must not be confounded with ano- 
ther Manuscript book, called the " Book of 
Howth," now in the Library of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, at Lambeth. 

'° See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernice," Mar- 
tii xvii. De S. Ncssaiio t'rtcsbytero Cor- 
cagiensi Patrono, jip. 629, 630. 

" Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
118, 119. 

Article vi. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy has 

CAii\pi\e e-Ap inAi5e bite. 

■" See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," ^lar- 
tiixviii. Appendix ad Acta S. Fridiani, 
cap. viii., p. 650. 

3 See, also, ibid., Februarii xi. De S. 
Canoco Abbate et Confessore, n. 14. p. 


* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. 

5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, p. 118, 


* See Rev. William Reeves' " Ecclesiasti- 
cal Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dro- 
more," Appendix A, p. 152, and Appendix 
LL, p. 378. 

Article vii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, ]i. xxiii. 

* In Irish ScawdaI Cilli Conbivint). 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

* From him Tir-Enna, a district in the 
present barony of Raphoe, county of Done 
gal, was named. 

5 By his second wife. 

* See "Memoir of the City and North 
western Liberties of Londonderry," part ii., 
sect. 2, p. 27. 

? See his Life, at the 9th of June, 

* See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adainnan's " Life 
of St. Columba." Additional Notes A, n. 
(m), p. 245. 


year of his age, and in the year 563.9 The place Cill-Cobrann, or Cill-Con- 
brind, has not been identified ; but, probably, it was in Ireland. Scannal, or 
Scandal, flourished towards the close of the sixth century. We know not if 
he survived his great teacher and superior. In addition, Colgan tells us, 
according to Marianus O'Gorman and Maguire, that St. Scandalius of Kill- 
chobhranne was venerated, on the 3rd of May.'° We find registered, in the 
Martyrology of Donegal," that a festival was celebrated on this day, in 
honour of Scannal, ofCill Cobrainne. 

Article VIIL — St. Aedan, or Aidanus. The simple entry of Aedan is 
found, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 3rd of May.^ Quoting the same 
authority, the Bollandists 3 enter Aidanus, for this same date.'^ 

Article IX. — St. Sarnat, Daughter of Maelan, Abbess. On this 
day, according to the Martyrology of Donegal,^ veneration was given to 
Sarnat, daughter of Maelan, abbess. " I think it is she," adds the calendarist, 
" that Meoling^ commemorates, in the history which is called the Boroimhe, 
when he went from the Leinstermen to ask a remission of the Borumean tri- 
bute from Lath Chuinn : — 

" Dear the four of noble power, 
Elcomac, and Aedhan, 
Sarnatan, Colmuatan the fair. 
It is not to me that they are not dear." 

Article X. — St. Clothach, Bishop. In the Martyrology of Tallagh,' 
the name ofClothaigh^ is set down, at the 3rd of May. From the same 
record, the Bollandists 3 have Clothacus Sanctus, or St. Clothac, for the pre- 
sent date. The name of Clothach, Bishop, occurs in the Martyrology of 
Donegal,'* on this day. 

Article XI. — The Daughters of Oissen, of Rath-eich. The 
designation, Inghena Ossein, is entered in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 

3rd of May.2 The denomination of their place is elsewhere given. In the 

9 According to the Annals of Tigernach, non constat utrum diversus ab hoc." 

at A.D. 563. See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's Article ix. — ' Edited by Rev. Drs. 

"RerumPIibernicarumScriptores,"tomusii., Todd and Reeves, pp. ii8, 119. 

p. 143. ^ He is venerated, at the 17th of June. 

"See "Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix Article x. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

Quarta ad Acta S. Columbje, cap. x., n. 102, p. xxiii. 

p. 492. " In the Franciscan copy CLouliAij ]'ci 

''Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pjD. ^ gee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., M.iii 

118, 119. iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

Article viii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 360. 

Kelly, p. xxiii. * Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

^ In the Franciscan copy is, -Aet)Ani. 118, 119. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i.,Maii Article xi. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

* To this they add a comment : "Aidanus - The Franciscan copy reads, In^eiiA 

etiam pridie seu 2 hujus relatus legitur, sed Ofpne. 


BoUandists' work, 3 they quote this entry as FiHae Osseni, which means " the 
Daughters of Ossen." On this day, we read in the Martyrology of Donegal,-* 
that veneration was paid to the daughters of Oissen, of Rath-eich. It is 
difficult to identify this place. 

Article XII. — St. Barrinn, of Droma Cula. In the published 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' at this date, is inserted Barrinn of Dronia Cula. In 
the Franciscan copy, we find it entered, as Barrfind Drom Cullin.^ The Bol- 
landists3 enter his name and place, as Bariindus de Druim-Chulim, while 
they quote the same auiliority. There is a Barrindeus, who was Abbot over 
the Monastery of Druin-Caillin, on the confines of ancient Munster and 
Leinster. It lay within the territory of Fearceall, in which the city of Rathin 
stood. He flourished in the year 590. Whether he was identical or not, with 
the present holy man, forms a difficulty for the investigator of our ecclesiastical 

Article XIII. — St. Athgen, or Cokbmac, of Baduiny, County of 
Tyrone. We read in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' that Aithghin Boitlii, or 
Boith, was venerated, at the 3rd of May. On the same authority, the BoUan- 
dists ^ notice him at this date, as being called Athgenius, or otherwise Corb- 
macus — although both names appear to be quite different. To this day. May 
3rd,3 Colgan refers the festival of St. Athgenius, or Corbmac, a cook to St. 
Patrick.'* He was the son of Doelius Massinus, son to Ferguss, son of Duoch, 
son to Bressal, son of Coll Menu, son of Eochad Mogmedom.s This place, 
called Both-Domnaich, now known as Badony, was in the county of Tyrone, 
and in the diocese of Derry. It lay within a valley called Gleann-arche.^ 

Article XIV. — St. Juvenalis. For the 3rd of May, Colgan' seems 
to have prepared the Acts of a St. Juvenalis, with a view to publication. As yet, 
however, we know not on what grounds he is claimed as an Irishman, for 
we have not found the evidence. Now there happen to be three distinct and 
several entries, by the BoUandists, of this date, referring to saints so deno- 
minated, viz., St. Juvenalis,^ Bishop and Patrons at Narni,-* in Umbria s — 

3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii * See the BoUandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. tomus i., Maii iii. Amonjj the pretermitted 

* Edited by Dis. Todd and Reeves, pp. saints, p. 360. 

118, 119. Article xiv. — ' According to the " Ca- 

Article XII. — 'Edited by Rev. Dr. talogus Actuum Sanctorum qu.x; .MS. haben- 

Keily, p. xxiii. tur, ordine Mcnsium et Dierum." 

* In the Irish character t>Ji\i\}:iii-o 'Oixoni = See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
Cullin. iii. De Sancto Juven^iie Episcopo Nar- 

'' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii niensi in Umbria, pp. 386 to 406. 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 360. ^ 'phe BoUandists present copper-plate en- 

Article XIII. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. gravings of his ahar, shrine anti tomb, with 

Kelly, p. xxiii. In the Franciscan copy is descriptions ; as also v;irious notices, record- 

Aichgm bochi. ing the several translations of his sacred re- 

" See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii mains. 

iii. Among the pretermitted saints, \i. 360. * lleie, there is an interesting bridge of 

3 Colgan cites the Martyrology ot Tal- Augustus, but now in ruins. " The ancient 

lagh. Roman colony of Narni st.inds on the sum- 

* See "Trias Thauraaturga," Septima niit of a very liii;h and steep hill, whose sides 
Vita S. Patricii, lib. iii., cap. xcviii., p. 166, are clothed with olives, .nnd whose base is 
and n. 121, p. 188. washeii by the Isera.' — Rev. John Chet- 

5 Sec Mciiclogie Genealogy, cap. xiv. wode Eustace's " Classical Tour through 

May 3. 


St. Juvenalis,^ Confessor,? of Fossano,^ in Piedmont — and anotlier, St. 
Juvenalis, Martyr.9 This latter festival is left by the Bollandists, among the 
pretermitted, and transferred to the 7th of May. 

Article XV. — Festival of the Blessed Alexander, a Cistercian 
Monk, of Foigni, in France. {Thirteenth Century?^ Already, when 
treating of St. Mathilde, Virgin, and sister to this holy man, at the ist day of 
January,' and also, when alluding to him, in a special feast at the 14th day of 
that month, 2 we have only a passing allusion to him, referring the reader to 
the 6th day of August, for further particulars. It appears, however, that in 
the Kalendar of the Cistercian Order,3 a festival is set down for him, 
at the 3rd of May, and accordingly the Bollandists 4 have placed his Acts, 
at this same date. The Petits Bollandists s have a similar record for 
this day. 

Article XVI. — The Festival of Finding the Holy Cross. In the 
Feilire of St. ^ngus,' at the 3rd of May, the Festival of Finding the Holy 
Cross,^ with many virtues,3 at Jerusalem, by St. Helena, is noticed.^ It is also 

Italy, An. mdcccii., vol. i., chap, ix., p. 


5 There is an account of a Miracle, wrought 
throught the intercession of Juvenalis, the 
venerable Martyr and Bishop of Narni, on 
the 8th of June, in the year 1233, and on 
behalf of an Irishman, called Moriens, who 
was so lame, that he was obliged to creep 
over the road he travelled, with his breast 
almost touching the ground. He was per- 
suaded to enter the church of St. Juvenalis, 
and to approach before the altar to that very 
place, where the Martyr's body was deposed. 
Blood was observed flowing from the shrine, 
at that moment ; and while the afflicted man 
prayed the Almighty for the use of his limbs, 
through the holy Martyr's intercession, a" 
priest, named James, who served there, took 
some of the blood, which he applied to the 
cripple's limbs. At the same time, Moriens 
in tears cried out, "O most holy father 
Juvenalis, heal me !" Innned lately the 
Divine power was manifested, in his perfect 
restoration. All the clergy and people of 
Narni were in admiration, and they ap- 
proached the altar of Juvenalis, with public 
religious ceremonies, and lights, also singing 
hymns in praise of their holy patron. The 
foregoing narrative is contained, in an old 
book, belonging to the Archives of Fos- 

* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mail 
iii. De S. Ivvenale Confessore Fossani in 
Pedemontio, cujus corpus ibidem perquatuor 
secula creditum esse S. Ivvenalis Episcopi 
Narniensis, pp. 406 to 422. 

^ The Petits Bollandists, at the 3rd of 
May, have the following notice regarding 
this holy man : " A Fossano, en Piemont, 
Saint Juvenal, confesseur, dont le corps, con- . 

serve dans cette ville, a ete pris pendent qua- 
tre Siecles pour cehii de Saint Juvenal, 
eveque de Narni, fete le meme jour." — 
' ' Vies des Saints, " tom.e v., ii F Jour de Mai, 
P- 275- 

^ While the inhabitants of this place had 
a tradition, that their patron was not dis- 
tinguishable from the Bishop and Martyr of 
Narni ; Father Daniel Papebroke deems it 
more probable, that he was a different per- 
son, held there in veneration from an early 

9 The Barberini Manuscript is quoted, as 
authority for his feast, on this day, as also 
the Additions to Greven. See the Bollan- 
dists' "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii., p. 361. 

Article xv.— ' The date assigned for 
her feast. See vol. i. of this work. Art. ix. 
^ See ibid., at 14th of January, Art. vii. 
3 Printed at Dijon, A.D. 1617. He is no- 
ticed, also, in Claude Chalemot's series of 
Saints and Blessed of the Cistercian Order ; 
this latter work, having been printed in 
Paris, A.D. 1666. 

** See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii. De Beato Alexandre converso Cister- 
ciensi Fvsniaci in Gallia, p. 434. 

5 See " Vies des Saints," tome v. Troi- 
sieme Jour de Mai, p. 300. 

Article xvi. — ' See " Transactions of 
the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, p. Ixxviii. 

- The Commentator adds, that this hap- 
pened in the time of Constantine, son of 
Helena, after having been 235 years con- 
cealed. See ihiJ., p. Ixxxiii. 

3 The meaning probably is, that many 
miracles accompanied this finding. 

■* In the lower margin of the Leabhar 


May 3. 

entered in the Martyrology of Tallagb.s On this Feast, which from an early 
date has been so universal in the Catholic Church, Father Daniel Papebroke^ 
has a learned and researchful disquisition. 

Article XVII. — Feast of the Conception of the Blessed Mary, 
EVER Virgin. According to the Feilire ' of St. y^ngus.^" as also to the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh,3 a festival of the Blessed Virgin INIary was celebrated in 
Ireland, on the 3rd of May. The latter record has it Marise Virginis Con- 
ceptio, as the Bollandists ♦ notice; they remark, however, that the Church 
places it, at the 8th of December. 

Article XVIII. — Reputed Feast of St. Donnan. Veneration was 
given to Donnan, at the 3rd of May, as is recorded ' in the published Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh. We do not find warrant for this entry, in the Franciscan 

Article XIX. — Reputed Feast of St. Concraid. We read simply 
the name Concraid, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 3rd of 
May. It is not found in the Franciscan copy. 

Article XX. — Reputed Feast of St. Fergusa. According to the 
published Martyrology of Tallagh,' veneration was given at the 3rd of May, to 
Fergusa. There is no corresponding entry, in the Franciscan copy. 

Article XXI. — St. Fumac, in Scotland. A saint of this name was 
venerated at Botriffnie, or Botriphnie,' also called Fumac Kirk, in Scotland. 
His age does not appear to be known ; nor does it transpire, as to whether 
he was of Irish or of Scottish birth. His well was formerly known at that place, 
and his fair was kept, on the 3rd of May. In the beginning of the last century, 
his wooden image was then washed with great solemnity each year in his well, 
by an old woman.* That image existed, until the beginning of this century, 
when it was swept away by a flood of the Isla, and stranded at Banff. There, 
it was committed to the flames, by the parish minister, who regarded it as a 

Breac, having repeated in Irish the substance 
of the previous comment, the scholiast has 
in Latin, "post ccxxx. duos annos et non 
inventa est crux (quando) romani cum tito 
et uespasiano succenderunt ierusalem et tunc 
abscondita est crux, et in xl° anno post pas- 
sionem domini. See ibid., p. Ixxxiii. 

5 In the Franciscan copy, we read at this 
date: C]\uci]' ch]\ifci muencio. 

* See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus i., Maii iii. De Inventione Sanctas 
Crucis per SS. Helenani et Magarium 
Hierosolymis, in three chapters and thirty- 
two paragraphs, pp. 361 to 366. 

Artici.f, XVII. — ' Here it is called Mary 
the Virgin's great feast. See " Transaciions 
of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- 
script Series, p. Ixxviii. 

' In the lower margin, the Scholiast has 
entered the following Latin conmient, on 
the words of his text; '^ i.e. ha;c inccptio 
eius ul alii jHitant sed in februo mcnse vel in 
martio facta est ilia quia post, uii menses nata 

est ut innarratur vel quselibet alia feria 
eius.'" — Hid., p. Ixxxiv. 

3 In the Franciscan copy, we find, at this 
date mA]\i<\e ui]\ CO)ice|\cio. 

•♦ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 
iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

Article xviii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Article xix. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Article xx. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Article xxi.— ' This is a parish, in the 
centre of B.mffshire, and in the narrow part 
of the county. The small river Isla runs 
through it, in a beautiful strath, between 
two hills lying north and south. See "Im- 
perial Gazetteer of Scotland," vol. i., p. 

^According to the Manuscript Account of 
Scottish Bishops in the Library at Slains, 

May 4, 



monument of superstition.3 One of the old Almanacks gives a St. Fumac's 
fair, at Dinet, in Caithness, and at Chapel of Dine, in VVatten.4 This saint 
seems to have obtained only a local celebrity. 

Article XXII. — Feast of the Translation of St. Patrick's Arm. 
On the 3rd of May was held, it appears, a festival to commemorate the Trans- 
lation of a Relic, called the Arm of St. Patrick,' Primate of Ireland.^ 

Jfourti) Bap of ilay* 



LIKE objects that appear dimly and undefined in the distance are many 
of those brief and scattered records or traditions, regarding our saints ; 
while, too frequently, such indications are unsatisfactory and elude all 
attempts at identification.' The Martyrology of Tallagh ^ enters the festival 
of Mochua Mac Cummin, in Sleibh Eibhinn,3 at the 3rd of May.^ Mochua 
is only another name for Cronan, as we have already shown. The BoUan- 
dists, quoting the foregoing authority, have entered this holy person's festival, 
with some differences of spelling.s This saint must have lived, at an early 

3 Persons were living in 1847, who saw 
this statue. See " Illustrations of the Anti- 
quities of the Shires of Aberdeen and Banff," 
vol. ii , p. 253, note. 

'' See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 
tish Saints," pp. 351, 352. 

Article xxii. — ' This information is 
in a work called " Promptuarium S.Scripturi 
Anonymi Cujusdem Hiberni," edited by 
Father Luke Wadding. 

^ This notice was communicated to the 
writer, by Rev. Theobald L. Carey, Superior 
of St. liidore's College, Rome, and dated 
2nd of November, 1884. 

Article i. — ' We present the following 
popular narrative, in illustration of many simi- 
lar local traditions. In tlie county of Cork, 
barony of Duhallow, and parish uf Boher- 
boy, there is a lioly well called Droumharif. 
This well is famed for curing all sorts of 
diseases in man, and especially the eyes. It 
is attended on the 4th of May, in each year. 
There is another well, called the city well, 
in the same county and barony. Tliis latter 
well is famed for curing all sorts of diseases, 
iu men and cattle. The cattle are brouglit 
to it, from all parts on May Eve, each year ; 
also the people bring some of the water 
hoiTie with them. With regard to the first- 
named well, a most remarkable occurrence 
is said to have taken place now over twenty 
years ago. The man who owned the land, 
in whicli this holy well is situated, thought 
to stop it by draining, as the people used to 
damage his place, when coming from all 

directions to visit the well. All the men he 
had employed, endeavouring to stop its 
course, refused working at it. He even ad- 
vanced their wages, but this did not induce 
the greater number of them to continue their 
labour. However, some undertook tlie 
draining, and the fust day they worked 
every workman got sore eyes. After this, 
some continued ior a few days, until they 
got stone blind. Then, the gentleman who 
owned the land saw his mi^,take, and he got 
xnen to repair the damage he had done to the 
well. He got a wall built around it, and 
from that date, he kept a man in charge of 
it. Edward N. Corridon of the Royal Irish 
Constabulary Barrack, Phoenix Park, Dub- 
lin, communicated the foregoing particulars, 
in a letter addressed to the writer, and 
dated April 9th, 1873. 

^ Edited by Rev^ Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. In 
the Franciscan copy is read lIloclniA niAc 
Cunnine 1 steib ebLnitie. 

3 The battle of Eildrlinne, by Muirchear- 
tach Mac Erca, is noticed at A.D. 526, in 
Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the Four 
Masters,*' vol. i., pp. 174, 175. 

^ The words of the Martyrology of Tarn- 
lacht, in the Brussels Manuscript, are, 
" Mocua mac Cuimmini, 1 Sbeib 
eibLmm," according to the Rev. Dr. Todd. 

s Thus : " Mochua, filius Crumminci in 
monte Eblina," at this date. See "Acta 
Satictorum," tomus i., Mali. Among the 
pretermitted saints, p. 437. 



[May 4. 

period, for we find his festival set down on this day, in the Feihre ^ of St. 
^ngus. To the stanza, a schoHast has added the comment, that he was 
Mochua, son of Conn, from Sliab EbUnne, in Munster.? It seems probable, 
that his church was connected with this district ; but, the exact locality is not 
denoted.^ The SHeve Phelim Mountains are a remarkable range, with beau- 
tiful undulations, extending over a considerable tract of country, towards the 
northeastern part of Limerick County 39 and, they are regarded, as lymg 
chiefly within the barony of Owneybeg. The range extends about ten miles 
eastward, with a mean breadth of about three ; and, by a narrow defile, on 
the boundary line of both counties, it is separated from the magnificent 
Keeper IMountains, which run in a north-easterly direction, through the 

Barnane Ely Mountain, County of Tipperaiy. 

county of Tipperary. One of the most remarkable features of this place is 
tlie celebrated Bnrnane-Ely ;'° better known as the Devil's Bit Mountain," 
where there is a celebrated defile, not far from Teinplemore.'^ At that spot, 
and on the eastern side of the Devil's Bit Mountain, formerly called Sliabh 

'' In the " Leabhar Breac " copy is the 
following entry : — 

iTipAi)* ^nre^Mm 

tllOchuA CxMIl TjecllOlT) 

TTlAC Cuniine clochdig 
1feiL SiILaui ■OeochAin. 

It is thus translated by Dr. Whiilev Stokes : 
"On AnailieriiH* passion went fair Mochua, 
son of famous Cnmine, on deacon Silvainis' 
feast." .See " Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," vol. i., Irish Manuscript 

Series, p. Ixxviii. 

' See ibid., p. Ixxxiv. 

^ In the Index to Dr. O'Donovan's "An- 
nals of the Four Masters," vol. vii., p. 56, 
the author has placed Eibhlinne, or the 
SI ieve- Phelim Mountains, in the county of 

9 They are chiefly within Abbington 
pnrish ; said to be an Anglicized form of 
11U\niipre)\ llAirne, or the Monastery of 
Uailhno, the former name of tlu- territory. It 
is described, in " Letters containing Infor- 
mation relative to the Antiquities of the 

May 4.] 



Ailbuin, is the head of the River Suir.'3 l^ie SHeve PheHrn range is con- 
nected, witli the Mountains of Kihiamanagli,'4 on the east ; while it pre- 
serves a finely-featured contour and surface outline, forming a charming back- 
ground to the rich landscapes of the northern champaign country of Limerick. 
A new road from Thurles 'S to Tipperary '^ passes along the base of the east 
end by the Slieve Phelim range.'? In Scotland, likewise, as in Ireland, St. 
Mochua was venerated, at the iv. of the May Nones, according to the Kalen- 
dar of Drummond,'^ and as a holy confessor. Among the various saints, 
called Mochua, or Cronan, we are unable to distinguish the present holy 
man, his period, or his office in the Church. The Martyrology of Donegal '9 
records, that this day was venerated Cronan, son of Cummain,='° of Sliabh 
Ebhlinne, in Munster. 

Article II. — St. Siollan, the Deacon. A festival was celebrated on 
this day, as we read in the INIartyrologies of Tallagh ^ and of Donegal, ^ in 
honour of Siollan the deacon. 3 This account is taken from the Felire Aeno-- 
huis.4 It has been thought by Colgan,s that the present St. Sillan may be 
identical with one, mentioned in the Life of St. Berach, of Kilbarry, who is 
venerated, at the 15th ofFebruary.^ The BoUandists 7 have the feast of St. 
Sillan entered, at this date ; and, they give a similar reference, as if he were 
identical with that monk of St. Berach, who had been killed by robbers, and 

County of Limerick," vol. ii., pp. 152, and 
416 to 446. 

" It is rendered, " the small gap of the 
Territory of Ely," and it gives name to the 
parish, according to Jolin O'Donovan, who 
describes it, as near the country of the 
O'Meaghers, who lived at the foot of it. 
Th-ere, too, are the remains of an old church. 
See ''Letters containing Information rela- 
tive to the Antiquities of the County of Tip- 
perary, collected during the Progress of the 
Ordnance Survey, in 1840," vol. ii. Letter, 
dated l<oscrea,Oct. 24th, 1840, pp. 225, 226. 

" Its highest peak is 1,583 feet above the 
sea. See it marked, on "Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of Tip- 
perary," sheet 28. 

'^ The accompanying illustration, from 
an original sketch by William F. Wakeman, 
was by him drawn on the wood, engraved 
by Mrs. Millard. 

'3 See " The Topograhical Poems of John 
O'Dubhagain and Giolla na Naomh 
O'Huidhrain," edited by Dr. O'Donovan, 
p. Ixi., n. 513, 

"'The Barony of Upper Kilnamanagh, 
N.R., is an extensive tract of country, de- 
scribed on the " Ordnance Survey Townland 
Maps for the County of Tipperary," sheets 
27. 28, 33, 34, 38, 39, 40, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51. 
The barony of Lower Kilnamanagh, .S.R. in 
the same county is shown, on sheets 39, 40, 
45, 46, 51, 52. 59, 60. 

'3 The parish of Thurles, in the barony of 
Eliogarty, county of Tipperary, is shown, on 
sheets 35, 41, 42, 47, ibid. The town and 
townparks of Thurles are noted, on sheet 

'^ The parish of Tipperary, in the barony 
of Clanwilliam, is shown, oiv sheets 58, 59, 
66, 67. The town itself is marked on 
sheet 67. 

'7 See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land," vol. iii., p. 257. 

'" See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of Scot- 
tish Saints," p. 12. 

'9 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
120, 121. 

■° Dr. Todd says, in a note, at Cummain : 
"The more recent hand has written ai over 
the vowels ei of Cuimmeme in the text • 
and adils at the end of the paragraph, ' Sed 
jNlart. Taml. vocat ItlocuA niAc Cumiene.' " 

Article ii.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
120, 121. 

3 In a note Dr. Todd says, that paragraph, 
within brackets, contained m the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal, is in the more recent hand. 
Besides the present £ntry, the preceding St. 
Mochua, of Slieve Phelim, is found there 
inserted, as if distinguishable from St. 

*• In a comment, the scholiast adds, " he 
was Silvanus the deacon," without giving 
any other clue to his history. See " I'rans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy," vol. i., 
p. Ixxxiv, On the Calendar of Oengus, by 
Dr. Whitley Stokes. 

5 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernije." xv. 
Februarii. Supplementum Vitas S. Ber.achi 
Abbatis, cap. vii., n. 6, p. 348. 

^ See his Life, at that day. 

7 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mai 
iv. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 437. 


who had been cafterwards resuscitated, through the miraculous agency of his 
venerable superior. This miracle was wrought, at a place called Rath-ond, 
which has not been identified. In the sixth or seventh century, St. Sillan 
flourished, if the identification in question be admitted. This Natalis occurs, 
also, in the Kalendar of Drummond,^ as Sillan, Deacon, a holy confessor, at 
the 4th of the May Nones. 

Article III. — St. Aedh, Son of Brec, or Bricc. This day was 
venerated Aedh, or Aedo, son of Brec, as we read in the Martyrologies of 
Tallagh ' and of Donegal.' A note appended to the latter record, by a more 
recent hand, quotes the authority of Marianus O'Gorman, for this festival, at 
the 3rd of May. 3 Colgan merely says, that a bt. Aldus is to be found, in the 
Irish Calendars, at the 4th of May.* No other information is furnished, 
regarding him. The Bollandists,5 who quote the IMartyrology of Tallagh for 
this festival, remark, likewise, that other authorities regard St. Aldus, son of 
Brek, or Brecc, as the Bishop of Kill-air, in Meath, and founder of the monas- 
tic establishment of Enach-midbrenin, whose death has been assigned to 
A.D. 588. They promised to give his Life, at the loth of November. Thus, 
we may doubt, if the present holy man be distinct from St. Aedh, Mac 
Bricc, whose festivals occur, also, on the 28th of February,^ and on the loth 
of November.7 

Article IV. — Festival of the Blessed Alexander, Cistercian 
Monk, at Foigni, in France. ^Thirteenth Century.'] At the 4th of May, 
the Bollandists ' enter this Feast, on the authority of Chrysostom Henriquez, 
Saussay, and Bucelin. More will be found^ concerning him, at the 6th of 

Article V. — St. Colmoc, Bishop of Banff, Scotland. [Tenth 
and Eleventh Centuries.'] We receive this saint, on the authority of Demp- 
ster, who has entered a feast for St. Colmoc, Bishop of Banff, in his " Meno- 
logium Scoticum," ' at the 4th of May.^ Whether the birth of St. Colmoc 
be referable to Ireland, or to Scotland, is a matter to be questioned. The 
name was doubtless a very common appellation formerly, in our own Island. 
However, we do not find this entry, in the Irish Calendars ; and, Dempster's 
tissue of statements — which are here given — cannot be regarded as free from 

^ See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- Article iv. — ' See "Acta Sanctorum," 

tish Saints," p. 12. tomus i., j\Iaii iv. Among the pretermitted 

Article hi. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. saints, p. 436. 

Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy enters Article v. — ' Thus: " Bamfise Col- 

<Xet)o 111 AC bjMcc. moci episcopi, miri concionaioris B. B. T." 

= Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. = See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 

120, 121. tish Saints," p. 198. 

■'According to the Rev. Dr. Todd. ^ This was probably Malcolm II., son to 

♦ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Kenneth III., and who is said to have ruled 

nia;," xxxi. Januarii. Appendix ad Acta S. over Scotland for twenty-nine ye.rrs. How- 

Maedoci, cap. i., p. 221. ever, a judicious and critical writer, John 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii Mill Burton, states, that there is much of a 

iv. Among the pretermitted saints, p. questionable character admitted into ac- 

438. oiunts of this period. See " The Histoiy of 

' See notices of him, at this date. Scotland from .Agncola's Invasion to the 

' See his Life, at the loth of November. Revolution of 1688," vol. i.,chap. x., pp. 364 


the suspicion of fiction. The bishop St. Colmoc is said to have been man of 
exemplary Hfe, who reproved the vices of his people with achiiirable freedom 
of speech. While civil war raged between King Constantine and jMalcolm,3 
the son of Kenneth, he issued grave fulminations against those, who would 
not attend to his admonitions, and repent of their errors.-* Banff was the 
chief city, and a royal burgh, in the old Scottish district, known as Buchan.s 
In reference to this saint, Dempster has not only the most absurd, but even 
the most contradictory, accounts. Thus, in one passage, while the saint's 
festival is set down at the 4th of May, it is there added, that he was trans- 
lated, on the 5th of February, a.d. 760.^ Then, a few lines lower down, ac- 
cording to the same writer, St. Colmoc died, a.d. ioio.? There is a Colmoc 
entered, among the early ecclesiastical celebrities of Scotland, by the Rev. Dr. 
J. F. S. Gordon in his learned and valuable work,^ evincing so much care 
and research, both in plan and treatment ; but, we find no further^account of 
his i)lace or period. There is also a St. Colraach invoked, among the Scot- 
tish Bishops. 9 If we are to credit Dempster, his ?t. Colmoc wrote, Monita 
Salutaria, lib. i.; Ecclesise Scoticse Successio, lib. i. ;^° and, also, Ad Regem 
pro pace stabilienda, lib. i. In Dempster's History of the Scottish Church," 
it is stated, that this Bishop was enrolled among the saints, and that churches 
were erected in his honour.'^ This account has been followed, by Ferrari, 
quoting a Breviary ; but, the Bollandists '^ — who have certain remarks on 
Colmocus at the 3rd of May — state, that the Breviary of Aberdeen has 
nothing on the subject, while they prefer waiting for more authentic acts or 
memorials of this Colmoc's veneration, than had been within their know- 

Article VI. — Festival assigned for a reputed St. Haymarus, 
Bishop and Martyr, at Toul, in France. \_Eightli Century^ The 
Bollandists ^ remark, that Camerarius has a festival to a St. Haymarus, a 
Bishop and Martyr, who succeeded St. Maunsey,^ a Scot, in the See of 'i'oul. 
However, the Samma.rthani, and other writers, treating on the antiquities of 
this See, have no account of a Bishop Haymarus, as having presided over it. 
However, by Cameranus, he is said to have been the twenty-seventh Bishop 
of Toul, in the order of succession ; and Haymarus is related, to have been 
pierced with lances, in the year 760. 

to 368. enlarged ; with Reeves' and Goodall's Trea- 

* See Dempster's " Historia Ecclesiastica tises on the Culdees," vol. i., p. 68. 
Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., Hb. iii., Num. « In the Processional Litany of the Monas- 
255, p. 152. tery of Dunkeld. See idid. 

5 This district of Aberdeenshire extends '° To this Dempster adds : "Citatjoan- 

along the coast, from the Ythan, nearly to nes Fordunus, quod opus utinam hodie ex- 

the Devron, a distance of over forty miles. taret ; certe Scotia- ornamenta sua, quibus 

.See "Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland," vol. nulli genti videretur inferior haberet." — 

i., p. 204. " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," 

* Then, as if to crown the absurdity, this tomus i., lib. iii., Num. 255, p. 153. 
translation was the work of a St. Comus, " See idi'd. 

Abbot or Prior of the Royal Cloisters in the " For this statement, Dempster cites the 

Island of May, whose feast occurs on the 9th Scotichronicon. 

of June, while his death took place in a.d, '3 gee "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Maii 

710. To this Dempster adds '' transtulitque iv. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

.S. Colmoci reliquias die v. Febr. anno lau- 437, 

dato, ut in actis loci." See " Historia Ec- Article vi. — 'See "Acta Sanctorum," 

clesiastica Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., lib. tomus i., Maii iv. Among the pretermitted 

iii., Num. 247, p. 149. saints, p. 437. 

7 See zditl, Num. 255, p. 153. " His festival is set down, at the 3rd of 

^ See " Scotichronicon : compi ising Bis- September, and he is regarded as an Irish 

hop Keith's Catalogue of Scottish Bishops, saint. 



[May 5. 

Article VII. — Feast of St. Antherius. In the Irish Church, accord- 
ing to the Martyrology of Tallagh ' and the Feihre of St. ^ngus,^ the feast 
of a St. Antlierius is presented, as having been kept, on this day. The Bol- 
landists 3 refer to it, as probably a festival of St. Anterius, Pope and Martyr, 
who, also, is commemorated, at the 3rd day of January. 

jfifti) ©ap of iHay* 




The name of St. Feilan, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at this date, as also 
in that of IMarianus O'Gorman, with the adjunct Finn, "fair" or "white," 
has Kill-Colma attached, as if this were his place.^ The locality has been 
identified with Killcolumb,^ barony of Ida, county of Kilkenny.^ The Bol- 
landists 5 refer to the Martyrology of Tallagh, for the feast ofFoelanus Can- 
didus de Kill-Colma, at the 5th of May. He is commemorated, likewise, in 
the Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman. It is mentioned in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal,^ that Faelnn Finn, of Cill Cholmai, was venerated on 
this day. 

Aritcle II. — St. Scandal/Eus, or Scandalus. In the Life of St. 
Columba, allusion is made to Scandalus, confessor, as Henry Fitzsimon 
states, on authority of the English Martyrology, written by John Wilson.' 
It is doubtful, however, if the present saint is at all distinguishable from one 
similarly named, and already noticed, at the 3rd of jNIay ; for, Scandal is 
said to have been the son of Bressal, son to Enna, son to Niall of the Nine 
Hostages, according to Ussher, relying on tlie authority of a Cottonian 
Book.^ The Bollandists notice him at this date; but, not discovering any 
antique vestiges of his veneration, they preferred adjourning to the 9th of 
June,3 any account that might well be included in their Acts of his illustrious 

Article vii. — ' In the Franciscan copy, 
we find this entry : AncVie^Mi pApe Agti]' 

* The Scholiast adds : " hi pais antei-ini 
.i. papa (e) et martiris. 

' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus i., Mali 
iv. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 436 

Article i. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy 
■pAelAn ■pint) C1LI1 Col,m<M. 

' .See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Ilibcr- 
nise," xvi. Januarii, Appendix, cap. i., \k 

3 This parish is described, on the 
" Ordnance Survey Townlaiid Maps for 
the County of Kilkenny," sheets 40, 41, 
43. 44- 

* By William M. Hennessy. 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Mail 
iv. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
120, 121. 

Article h. — ' See Colgan's "Acta 
Sanctorum Hiberniaj," xvii. Februarii. Vita 
S. Cormaci, Appendix, cap. ii., recti p. 

^ See " Primordia," cap. xv., p. 694. 

3 The Festival Day for St. Columkille. 

* Sec " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Mali 
V. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

5 The accompanying illu>tration of lona 
has been drawn on tiie wood by William 
F. Wakeman, and it has been engraved by 
Mrs. Millard. 

May 5.] 



Abbot St. Columba.4 He is represented, as one of those twelve companions, 
who sailed with St. Columba from Ireland, when about to found his great 
missionary establishment at Iona,5 and when Christianity had not been pre- 
sented to the Alban Scots or Picts, in alliance with the impressive aspects of 
Roman civilization. Nor had the tramp of Roman legions been heard in the 
Highland glens, nor had their clans ever seen with awe the majesty and 
power of Roman government. In the days of Columba, and of his mission- 
aries, whatever tidings^ may have reached the natives of Argyle, or 

Mediaeval Church at lona. 

of Inverness, must have been tidings of Christian disaster and defeat. All 
the more we ought be ready to believe, that the man, who planted 
Christianity successfully among them, at that period, must have been one of 
powerful character and of splendid gifts. There is no arguing against that 
great monument to Columba, which shows the place he has secured, in the 
memory of mankind.? In a minor degree, his labours were shared, espe- 
cially by the earlier companions of his voyage. The Bollandists cite Demp- 
ster ^ and Ferarius, for a Festival to Scandalus or Scandalius, at the 5th of 
May. Among the holy persons venerated in Scotland, Camerarius has 
entered him, at this date.9 The anonymous list of Irish Saints, published by 
O'Sullevan Beare,'° places him, likewise, at the 5th of May, but naming him 

* See " lona," by the Duke of Argyle, 
chap, i., p. 52. 

^ Se&il>id., p. 53. 

^ Said to be "in Menologio Scotico." 

9 Tlius : "5 Die. Sanctus Scandalus 
Confessor." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars 
of Scottish Saints," p. 237. Scottish En- 
tries in the Calendar of Camerarius. 

" See "Historic Catholicse Ibernise Com- 
pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., xii., 
pp. 50, 56. _ 

" See " Trias Thaumaturga," Appendix 
Quarta ad Acta S. Columbse, cap. x., num. 
102, p. 492. 

'^ See " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 
P- 443- 


Scandaljeus, Colgan " has a notice of liiui, as also Bisho]) Forbes.'^ Yet, 
in a copy of the Irish Calendar, formerly belonging to the Ordnance Survey 
Office,' 3 Phoenix Park, we find no mention whatever of this saint's name occur- 
ring, at the Third of the Nones (or the 5th) of May. 

Article III. — St. Senan. The simple entry of Senan's name is in 
the published Martyrology of Tallagh/ at this date ; and, a similar record 
is found in the Franciscan copy.^ The Bollandists,^ who enter his feast, on 
the same authority, and at the 5th of May, have remarked, that Colgan 
sets him down as an Abbot / although, when or where he exercised such an 
office, and his acts, are not recorded. The Festilogy of St. yEngus, jSIarianus 
and Maguire are also quoted. 5 On this day was celebrated a festival in 
honour of Senan, as we find entered in the Martyrology of Donegal.^ 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Maura and of St. Brigid, 
Virgins and IMartyrj. The festival of a Translation ' of these holy Vir- 
gins is given by Saussay,^ at the 5 th of May ;3 while, according to other 
authorities, their feasts are held on the 4th ♦ and 14th s and 15th ^ of January, 
and on the 13th of July. The Bollandists 7 have a notice of them, at the 
5th of May ; but, they refer the reader to the 13th of July, when they hoped 
to have further illustrations of their Acts. To this arrangement, we also prefer 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Ectbrict, or Eadbert, the 
Saxon, or of Saxonland, Bishop of Lindisfarne, England. On the 
5th of May, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh ' appears the name of 
Euchbricht, Saxon, or in the country of the Saxons. A nearly similar entry is 
in the Franciscan copy.^ The BoUandists^ quoting this authority, likewise, 
have inserted a festival for Euchbritus Saxo, at this same date, with a notifica- 
tion, that elsewhere they read of nothing relating to him. Marianus O'Gorman 
has noticed Ectbrict. We find it set down in the Martyrology of Donegal,* 
that veneration was given to Ectbrict,5 simply, on this day. This was, no 
doubt, St. Eadbert, bishop of Lindisfarne,^ who is commemorated on the 
6th of May, in the Roman Martyrology. 

'3 Now kept in the Royal Irish Aca- ^ The Bollandists remark, "et post euni 

demy. Artiuus in Gynreceo Sacro." 

Article hi. — ' Edited by Rev. Matthew ■• See notices of them, at the date, in the 

Kelly, p. xxiii. First Volume of this work, Art. v. 

= The notice here is SenAni. s See, at this date, ibid.^ Art. iii. 

3 See " ActaSanctoruni," tonius ii., INIaii * See, at this date, //vV/., Art. iii. 

V. Among the pretermitted feasts, p. 3. ^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii 

* See " Acta Sanctorum Ilibernia:," Martii v. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

viii. Appendix ad Acta S. Senani, cap. i., p. Article v. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

541, rede 537. p. xxiii. 

s See ibid. ' Here we read : CuchbiMCfAX. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 3 gee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii 

120,121. iii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 3. 

Article iv. — ' On Sunday after the *• Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Feast of the Ascension their Feast was kept, 120, 121. 

with s]>ecial solemnity, in the country about ^ Dr. Todd in a note says, at Ectbrict, 

Beauvais, in France. " Tlie more recent hand adds, 'Saxo, Mart. 

' In his Gallic Martyrology. Taml. et Marian.' " 

May 5.] 



Article VI. — Festival of the Deacon Justinus. In the Feilire of 
St. yEngus,^ at the 5th of May, is entered the festival of Justinus, Deacon. 
The SchoUast adds a comment,^ that he was possibly the Deacon Just 3 of 
Fidarta, now Fuerty,+ in Mag Aei,s who baptized St. Ciaran ^ of Cluain ; 
while, according to others, he was St. Eustinus, the Deacon.? 

Article VII. — Reputed Feast of St. Tigernach, in Scotland. At 
the 5th of May, Dempster has inserted the Invention ^ or Discovery of a 
Tigernach, Abbot, in Scotland ;- but, we know not on what authority. 

Article VIII. — Festival of St. Hilary, Bishop and Martyr, in 
Gaul. In the Feilire of St. ^Engus, at the 5th of May, there is an entry of St. 
Hilary's Feast. The Scholiast remarks, that he was St. Hilary, Bishop and 
Martyr, in Gaul.^ The particular acts of this saint are set forth by the Bol- 
landists,^ in their great collection. 

Article IX. — Festival of St. Ultan, Abbot of Fosse, Belgium. 
The Bollandists ^ enter at this date a festival for St. Ultan, the Abbot, whose 
Acts have been inserted already, at the ist of May. 

* It would seem, that the Martyrologists 
Manrolycus, Canisius, Menard, and Buceli- 
nus, have confounded St. Egbert, who is 
venerated on the 24th of April, with the St. 
Eadbert, who succeeded St. Cuthbert, in the 
See of Lindisfaine. The place of his birtli 
is not known for a certainty. The Bollan- 
dists furnish his Acts— taken chiefly from 
Venerable Bede's " Historia Ecclesiastica 
Gentis Anglorum," lib. iv., cap. xxix.- — in 
their great collection, "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Maii vi. De Sancto Eadberto 
Episcopo Lindisfarnensi in Anglia, pp. 107, 

Article vi. — ' In the Leabhar Breac 
copy, we have the following stanza : — 

In ■oeochAiii luiTinuy" 
tAheb<M|\ ]'echpiAnu 
LocA]\ tAiche LichA 

■p^lf l\0CAlb A]A]:iA'Ot1. 

Thus rendered into EngHsh, by Dr. Whitley 
Stokes:—" The deacon Justinus with Hilary 
beyond pains ; they went on (the) day of fes- 
tival (whereon) our God arose." — "Trans- 
actions of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish 
Manuscript Series, vol. i. On the Calendar 
ofOengus, p. Ixxviii. 

^ See ibid., p. Ixxxiv. 

3 He was possibly the Deacon Juis, who 
was left by St. Patrick, in the territory of 
Ui Maine, as already related in the Life of 

St. Patrick, at the 17th of March, chap. xi. 
in the Third Volume of this work. 

•♦ This is a parish, in the Barony of Ath- 
lone, described on the " Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of Roscom- 
mon," sheets 34, 35, 38, 39, 41. The town 
and townland are on sheet 39. 

s The plain of Roscommon, extending 
west of the River Shannon. 

* His feast occurs, on the 9th of Sep- 

7 The commentator on the Feilire of St. 
yEngus observes, that he and Hilary died, on 
the day of the solar month of the first resur- 
rection. See the " Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 
vol. i., p. Ixxxiv. 

Article vii. — ' Thus : " In Scotia 
Tigernaci Abbatis inuentio." — " Menologium 

^ See Bishop Forbes"" Kalendars of Scot- 
tish Saints," p. 198. 

Article viii. — ' See "Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i. On the Calendar of Oengus, 
p. Ixxxiv. 

° See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii 
V. De Sancto tlilario Episcopo Arelatensi 
in Gallia, pp. 24 to 43. 

Article ix. — 'See " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Maii v. Among the pretermitted 
saints, p. 2. 


[May 6. 

^ijrtf) ©ay of i^ap. 


AN entrv, Colman Locha ethin, appears in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' 
at this date. The Bollandists ^ quote from this authority, likewise, 
but in a somewhat different manner.3 However, among the various Irish 
saints bearing the name of Colman,'^ they could obtain no certain indications, 
ref^ardinf^ the present holy man. Again, we find another note, that the feast 
of'st. Colman, Loch Eichan, was kept, on the 6th of May.s We cannot find 
any lake in Ireland, which is now similarly named. On this day was vene- 
rated, Colman, of Loch Eriin, as we find registered, also, in the Martyrology 
of Donegal.* 

Article II. — St. Inneem, Dromtariff Old Church, County of 
Cork. In the diocese of Kerrv, there is an old church at Dromtariff, in the 
parish so called, and county of Cork, where a female saint, called Inneen, 
was venerated, on the 6lh of May. According to popular tradition, she was 
the sister of St. Lateerin,' who is likewnse popularly known, at Cullin,^ in that 
part of the country, and to an older sister, who lived at Kilmeen.3 It it stated, 
according to a local tradition, that the angels of Heaven made a road, one 
nif^ht, from Kilmeen ■* through Dromtariff and on to Cullin, so that the three 
sislers might the more conveniently visit each other once every week.s Much 
obscurity hangs over their history, as their celebrity appears to be merely 
local ; although, the people, in their part of the country, have a great venera- 
tion for those sisters. 

Article III. — Festival of St. INIatthew, the Apostle. The Feilire 
of St. ^no-us ■ has noticed at the 6th of May, that a festival of St. Matthew, 

Article i.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 
p. xxiii. In the Franciscan copy, the read- 
ing is, CotniAin tochA ediin. 

== See "Acta Sanctorum, tomus ii., Maii 
vi. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 97. 

3 Thus, they have, " Colmanus de Loch- 
echin et alii LXX. 

tThey refer the reader to Colgan's "Acta 
Sanctorum IliberniK," Martii xxx., where 
he treats of several Saints Colman, iinder 
the heading, De S. Colmano Lannensi sive 
Linnense Abbate, pp. 792, 793- 

5 The Manuscript Calendar, which be- 
lons^ed to Profe-sor Eugene O'Curry. 

'Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
120, i21. . 

Article ii.— ' Her patron day is said to 
have been on the 24th of July. 

= The parish of Cullcn is in the Barony of 
Duhallow, and it is described, on the "Ord- 
nance Survey Townland Maps for the 
County of Cork," East Riding, sheets 29, 30, 
38, 39- 

3 The remains of an ancient paved way 
may be traced between the places. It ex- 
tends to the distance of fully ten English 

■* The parish of Kilmeen is in the barony 
of Duhallow, and shown, on the "Ordnance 
Survey Townlnnd Maps for the County of 
Cork," East Riding, sheets 4, 12, 13, 21, 22, 

23. 29> 30. 31- 

5 For a further account, the reader is re- 
ferred to Edward Walsh's Popular Legends 
of the South. — No. iii., St. Lateerin, 
" Dublin Penny Journal," vol. i.. No. 45, 
p. 360. 

Article hi. — ' In the Leabhar Breac 
copy is the following Irish text : — 

Ve]\ ]-o]"ci\ib ceiicei\c<M 
CAin pcclA CiMi'c cixoch-Odi 
<\)\nuiinre]\ LApldirhe 
3ein mop lIlAchoi IIIochcA. 

It is thus translated into English, by Dr. 


the Apostle, was held in the Irish Church. The Scholiast adds, that it was 
the feast of his nativity.^ The Bollandists3 have a notice of this Festival, as 
found in various ancient Martyrologies.4 In the Roman Martyrology, the 
feast is entered, at this date, as the Translation of his body at Salernum, wliile 
his Natalis is referred to the 21st of September. 

Article IV. — Reputed Festival of Brigidona and Maria, 
Martyrs. At the 6th of May, the BoUandists ' refer to a Manuscript copy 
of the Tallagh Martyrology, for the insertion of Brigidona and Maria among 
the Martyrs; while, they remark, that elsevvhere, they could find no similar 
notice. To us, it seems likely, this entry has reference to the Saints Maura 
and Brigid, Virgins and Martyrs, noticed at the previous day, and placed by 
some error, at this date. 

^ebentJ) 2Bai) of i^lap* 


FROM accessible accounts, it seems difficult to set down any authentic 
particulars, regarding the present holy man, his place, and his period. 
At the 7th of May, in the Feilire of St. ^ngus,' a commemoration of two dis- 
tinct saints, and at the same place, denominated Daire Echdroma, is recorded. 
These are called MochuarocandBreccan. The commentator on this Metrical 
Martyrology of ^ngus remarks, that Daire Ech-Droma is in the north of 
Dalaradia, and on the border of Dalaradia and Dalriada.^ It was in the 
Diocese of Down and Connor, according to Colgan.3 It seems likewise to 

Whitley Stokes: — "A man who wrote Article i. — ' In the " Leabhar Breac" 

without stint fair stories of Christ crucified : copy, we have the following : — 

commemorated by princes is (the) great 

birth of Matthew (the) magnified." — Trans- tTloc]^UA]^oc La ■b)\eccAn 

actions of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish ■OijeixAic AcglAinm 

Manuscript Series, vol. i. On the Calendar CA]\fAc C|\i-pc aj'tdiLui 

of Oeiigus, p. Ixxviii. liroGAch 'Oi\oinA 'Oaiimu. 

" A Latin comment follows the Irish, 

" vel in hoc die occidit Christo [leg. occisus It is thus rendered in the English version of 

est pro Christo ?] See /i^zi/., p. Ixxxiv. In Dr. Whitley Stokes: "My Cuavoc with 

the lower margin he adds: " Fer roscrib Breccan, two champion? who are purest, 

7rl. Matha mochta .i. machta .i. ab eo quod loved Christ who is dearest, in Daire Ech- 

est mochta [leg. macto] .i. occido uel magis droma." — Transactions of the Royal Irish 

aucta ab eo quod est augeo mathens ad ere- Academy, vol. i., Irish Manuscript Series, 

dendum." p. Ixxviii. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., ^ See Introduction to the " Book of Obits 

Mail vi. Among the pretermitted feasts, and Martyrology of the Cathedral Church of 

p. 98. the Holy Trinity, commonly called Christ 

* They write : " Matthsei Apostoli et Church, Dublin," p. lix , Edited by John 

Euangelistse natalis in Perside memoratur Clarke Crostvvaite, A.M., and Rev. James 

in apographis Martyrologii Hierony/niani, Henthorn Todd, D. L). 

Lucensi et Corbeiensi Pai-isiis excnsso, into et ^ ^ee "Acta Sanctorum Hiberni^," xxviii. 

Epternacensi nomine natalis omisso." Martii. De S. Carnocho Episcopo, nn. 4, 5> 

Article IV. — ' See " Acta Sanciorum," p. 783. 
tomus ii., Maii vi. Among the pretermitted ■• The Rev. William Reeves also observes: 

saints, p. 96. " it is reported that stations were formerly 



have been denominated Echdruim Brecain. Though the name is now lost, 
the position corresponds very accurately with that of Deshcart, which is close 
upon a stream dividing both territories. The spot bears strong marks of 
remote antiquity.4 The denomination Echdruim or Eachdruim s is usually 
Anglicized Aughrim.^ At the 7th of May, the BoUandists? notice this saint, 
after the Martyrology of Tallagh, and as referred to by Colgan, but with some 
inaccuracy. He is believed^ to have been of Ulster descent. St. Berchan, 
or Breacain, who was venerated at Eachdruim, is said to have been a son to 
Saran.9 This chieftain received St. Patrick, in a very rude manner, when the 
Irish Apostle visited Dalaradia, where he lived. For this, the saint reproved 
him, and predicted, that he should be expelled from his place.'° Notwith- 
standing, he had posterity, remarkable for holiness of life, viz., Brocan, his 
son, Atractha," his grand-daughter, and a grand-son called Trenoc." Another 
alternative conjecture of the scholiast on St. ^ngus is, that Daire Echdroma 
was possibly in Mucraime, in the west of Connaught. We are told of it, 
moreover, that the tree of the church was seen from the plain, and when one 
went to see it in the oak-wood, it was not to be found ; it is added, that the 
voice of the bell was heard, and the psalmody there, wliile the church itself 
was not found. '3 Elsewhere, Colgan has a conjecture, '•* that the present St. 
Breccanwasnot distinct from Becan, brother to St. Carnech 'S and toSt. Ronan 
sons of Saran, son of Colgan, son to Tuathal, son of Felim, son to Fiach 
Cassan, son of CoUa Dachrioch.'^ The published Martyrology of Tallagh '7 
enters Breccan Echdroma. The Franciscan copy has not a quite similar 
notice.'^ The Martyrologies of Marianus O'Gorman, of Christ Church Cathe- 
dral, of Donegal, and of Rev. William Reeves, '9 have noticed this festival to 
St. Bretan,'-'° or Berchan.*' He must have lived, at a remote period. At the 
Nones of May, corresponding with the 7th day, the Kalendar of Drummond^'* 
has placed the two saints, then venerated in Ireland. *3 

Article II. — St. Mochiarog, or Mochuarog, of Doire Echdroma. 
The present holy person must have flourished, at an early phase of Irish 
Church affairs, since we find the insertion of Mo-Cuaroc in the Felire of St. 
yEngus, composed towards the beginning of the ninth century. In the Fran- 
held there, though they are now discontinued, On the Calendar of Oengus, by \Yhitley 
and even the name of the ]iatron saint is Stokes, LL.D., p. Ixxxiv. 
forgotten." See Rev. William Reeves' '* See ''Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," 
"Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, xxviii. Martii. Vita S. Carnechi, nn. I, 4, 5, 
Connor and Dromore," Appendix G.G., n. p. 7S3. 
(g), p. 335. '5 See his Life, at the 28th of March, in 

5 It is Anglicized "hovse-hill." the Third Volume of this work, Art. i. 

* There are about twenty places so called '* Such is the pedigree found, in the 

in Ireland. See Dr. Patrick W. Joyce's Genealogies of the Irish Saints, at cap. xiii. 

"Origin and Histoiy of Irish Names of "' Edited by Rev. Matthew Kelly, D.D., 

Places," part iv., chap, ix., p. 506. p. xxiii. 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., '^Thus: biAeccAn .1. ech ■0|\omAiT). 

Maii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, "^ See " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of 

pp. 131, 132. Down, Connor and Dromore," Appendix 

» By Rev. Dr. Todd. L.L., p. 378, and n. (v), ibid. 

9 See Colgan's "Acta .Sanctoium Iliber- ■° So is he called, in the Liber Sancte Tri- 

niK,"xx. Februarii, Vita S. Olcani, n. 13, nitatis, at Nonas Maii. See '• The Book of 

p. 378. Obits and Martyrology of the Cathedral 

'" See ibid., cap. vii., p. 376. Church of the Holy Trinity, commonly 

" Her Life will be found, at the llth of called Christ Church, Dublin," Edited by 

August. John Clarke Crostwaite, A M., and by Rev. 

" His fca^t has been assigned, either to James Henthorn Todd, p. 113. 

the Slh, or to the 28th, of Ecbruaiy. '-' This was his name, .as given in the 

'3 See " Transactions of the Royal Irish Martyrology of Donegal," edited by Rev. 

Academy," vol. i., Irish Manviscript Series. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. I20, I2I. 


ciscan copy of the Tallagh Martyrology, after the entry of the previous saint's 
feast, as already set forth, we find it united with that of Mochuaroc.^ How- 
ever, in the pubhshed Martyrology of Tallagh,^ at the 7th of May, 
we find recorded Ciaran, who was identical with Mociaroce. With 
an evident misunderstanding of this entry, the Bollandists^ quote from the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, at the 7th of May, and with a remark, that among 
many similar homonymous saints in the Irish Calendars, they feel unable to 
identify those given, at this date. This saint — who appears to have been a 
woman — must have flourished, at rather an early date. Ciarog, as we are 
told, by the 0'Clerys,4 belonged to the race of Fergus, son to Ros, of the 
race of Ir, son of Milidh, i.e. of the race of Ciar, son to Fergus, son of Ros, 
son of Rudhraighe. There was a St. Dachiarog, ofErrigal Keeroge,^ near 
Ballygawly, in the county of Tyrone. Tradition states, that a former church 
was built here by a St. Kieran f nor is it fairly to be inferred, that a record 
misunderstood ^ is preferable to a specious tradition.^ This saint is thought 
to have been identical with the present Mochiarog — Moch and Dach being 
commutative forms, attaching to Ciarog, or Ciar.9 By some, this latter is 
thought to have been a name only applying to a female saint ; the postfix, 
og, or oig, meaning " virgin." Now, the derivation of Errigal appears to be 
from the Irish word Aireagal '° — pronounced arrigle — which means primarily 
*' a habitation," but in a secondary sense, it was often applied to an oratory, 
to a habitation, or to a church." Thus, the Church of Aireagal Dachiarog " 
— now Errigal Keeroge '3 — was once a very important establishment, and it 
is often mentioned in our Annals. It gave name to the parish. Raths and 
forts are numerous there \ while, on an eminence, in the townland so named, 
are the ruins of the former parochial church of Errigall-Keeroge. The walls 
are now in a very decayed state, nor do they seem to have been originally 
good or well built.'* The remains of an ancient stone cross were near, and 

°^ Thus : " NoriK. Apud Hiberniam Na- confounded with Ciarog, or Ciar. 

tale Sanctorum Confessorum Ciaroc at Bre- ^ See ibid., pp. 137, 138. 

cain hoc die celebratur." ' This information has been communicated 

^3 See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of to the writer, by Mr. John W. Hanna, in a 

Scottish Saints," p. 12. letter, headed, Saul-street, Downpatrick, 

Article ii. — ' To that entry is added 29th December, 1873. 

Agui^ nioclniA'poc. '° " It has been used in Irish from tlie ear- 

^ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. liest times, for it occurs in our oldest MSvS., 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., as for instance in the Leabhar na hUidhre, 
Maii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, where we find it in the form airicul.'^ — Dr. 
p. 132. Patrick W. Joyce's " Origin and History of 

4 See the "Martyrology of Donegal," Irish Names of Places," part iii., chap, ii., 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. p. 309. 

120, 121. " The word is said to have been derived 

5 There is an interesting notice. No. vi., — as were most Irish w'ords of ecclesiastical 
Parish of Errigall-Keroge, Diocese of Ar- use— from the Latin language, and oraculuin 
magh and County of Tyrone, by the Rev. was the term usually applied both at home 
John Groves, in William Shaw Mason's and abroad to oratories ; while Errigal and 
" Statistical Account, or Parochial Survey oraculiun are somewhat similar both in 
of Ireland," vol. iii., pp. 137 to 182. A Map sound and form. See Di-. George Petrie's 
of the Parish is prefixed. "Ecclesiastical Architecture and Round 

^ The writer has been informed, in a letter, Towers of Ireland," part ii., sect, iii., sub- 
dated Bloomfield House, Emyvale, 29th of sect, ii., p. 352. 

October, 1884, and written by Rev. Daniel '^ Rendered in English, "the Church of 

O'Connor, P.P., of Errigal Truogh, that St. Dachiarog." 

Errigal Keeroge is now commonly pro- '^ This parish is shown, on the " Ord- 

nounced — and even written in this part of the nance Survey Townland Maps for the County 

country — as Eriigal Kieran. of Tyrone," sheets 44, 45, 52, 53, 59, 60, 

1 The Rev. Mr. Groves assumes, that the The townland proper is set out, on sheets 

recorded denomination of Errigall-Keeoge, 52, 59. 

the latter compound differs from Kieran, '■'■ In June, 1878, the writer, in company 



[May 7. 

also, a well.'s which the Cathohcs considered holy.'^ The modern Protestant 
churcliyard, and that of the old church, are the only burying places in the 
parish. In the beginning of this century, the foundations of a round tower 
were to be seen, near Ballinasaggard or Priestown,'? where a convent of 
Franciscans of the Third Order formerly stood. '^ Tliis parish is in the diocese 
of Armagh, and in the Union of Clogher. Some curious local legends are 
connected with the old'.church,'? and its supposed patron St. Kieran. The 
surface of this parish — containing some fine scenery — is uneven and 


Errigal Keerogue Old Church. 

tumulated.'° Near this place, likewise, Errigal-Truogh is a parish, partly 
within the barony of Clogher, county of Tyrone ; and, it is, in still greater 
part, within the barony of Truogh, and county of Monaghan. Errigal-Keeroge 
and Errigal Truogh comprise the nucleus of what was once an extensive prin- 
cipality, known as Oirghealla^ and, of this kingdom, it is said, Rathmore,'" 
near Clogher, was the royal residence. Errigal Truogh is in the diocese of 

with Rev. Daniel O'Connor, P.P., and 
Richard Joseph Cruise, Esq., G.S.I., visited 
this spot, and took a sketch of the old 
church, as it then stood. That illustration 
has been drawn on the wood, by William 
F. Wakemnn, and it has been engraved by 
Mrs. Millard, as here rcpresen'ed. 

's Various miraculous cures are said to 
have been efiected for pilgrims, who came 
there to pray. 

'* The Rev. Mr. Groves stales that the 
service of the Roman Catholic Chuich u^ed 
to be pcrfoinied occasionally at it. See 

" Statistical Account of the Parish of Errigal 
Keroge," No. vi., sect, iv., pp. 151 to 156. 

'7 Here, it is said, Con O'Neal built this 
house about 1489. See Harris' Ware, vol. 
ii. " Antiquities of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., 
p. 281. 

'* From the ruins of this friary, the pre- 
sent Protestant church was built. 

'9 One of these is, that the gable shall 
never fall, until it tumbles down upon and 
shall have crushed a Mac Mahon under its 

'° See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 

May 7.] 



Clogher.^' The Blackwater River '3 divides both parislies. According to 
some accounts, Errigal Trough is called in Irish Aireagal-Triucha, interpreted 
to be '• the church of (the barony of) l'rough.^+ The old mail-coach road 
from Dublin to Londonderry traverses the interior of tliis parish. *5 Within 
it are also the ruins of an ancient church. We might ask, if it be possible to de- 
rive this latter denomination from such an original, as Aireagal-Trea — the latter 
portion of the compound being the name of a holy virgin, ^^ who is venerated 
in our calendars,^? but her name is not found associated with any particular 
known locality. The Martyrology of Marianus O'Gorman, and the Martyr- 
orlogy of Donegal ^^ register, on this day, Berchan and Mochiarog, or Moc- 
huarog,^? of Echdruim-Brecain, on the confines of Dal Araidhe and Dal 
Riada, or as the O'Clerys state, in Magh Mucraimhe, in the west of Con- 
nacht. They were venerated, at Doire Echdroma, according to the same 
authorities. In the Martyrology 3° of Christ's Church, Dublin, at the Nones 
of May — corresponding with the 9th of this month — we have Ciaroc's festival 
set down. s^The festival of a St. Kiaran,3' at the ^th of May, is noticed, also, 
by Father John Colgan.33 No further accounts of this saint are we able to 

Article III. — St. Lassak, or Lasre. This saint is mentioned, at the 
7th of May, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,' as Lasre, Virgin. The 
entry is somewhat varied, in the Franciscan copy.' On this authority, like 
wise, the Bollandists 3 mention her, at the 7th day of this month. Also, on this 
day was venerated Lassar, Virgin, as we read in the Martyrology of Donegal. ■♦ 

land," vol. ii., pp. 1S9, 190. 

^' The Rev. Daniel O Connor states, that 
this Rathmore, within the grounds of Mr. 
Mac Cartney, M.P. for the county of 
Tyrone, is that place so named, which figures 
in the Life of St. Fanchea, at the 1st of 
January, of St. Patrick at the 17th ofMarcli, 
and of St. Endeus at the 21st of this latter 

'- In the letter of Rev. Daniel O'Connor, 
P.P., and already noticed, the writer is in- 
formed, that a St. Mellan, Abbot, is patron 
of his parish of Errigal Truogh. 

^3 The same most capable investigator of 
local ecclesiastical antiquities informs me, 
that it must have been, tbe ford of Errigil 
was on the Blackwater, at or somewhere 
near the present village of Augher. where St. 
Patrick's strong man, St. Mac Cartan, failed 
in strength, wlien carrying the Irish Apos- 
tle over tlie ford, while on his journey from 
Errigal Keeroge to Clogher. There, too, 
the remarkable dialogue between the saints 
took place. 

-'■* See Dr. Patrick W. Joyce's " Origin and 
History of Irish Names of Places," part iii., 
chap, ii., p. 309. 

^5 See " Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land," vol. ii., p. 190. 

'* On referring to her reception by St. 
Patrick, in our Life, at the 17th of March, 
vol. iii., chap, xv., it will be found, that she 
must have lived, not very far removed from 
this district. 

=7 See notices of ber, at the 8th of July. 

=■2 Edited by the Rev. Dis. Todd and 
Reeves, pp. 120, 121. 

^^ In a note Dr. Todd says : "The more 
recent hand has written the following note 
on this word : — liiTDeAcli ■0[\om<i 'OAii\e aj 
■p. xXongAif, vbi mocuj.i\occ non tllociA- 
1\65 uc hic ec Apux) ■piLuve m AieL ni Ai]\e : 
sed secundum Tamlacl. Cia^ati i-oeni ec 
mocoLnioj. Videtur esse niociA^xos 
sancta." " Indeach, of Drlum Daire is in 
the Felire of /Enijus, where we have 
Mochuarog, not Mochiarog, as here and in 
the Martyrology of Marianus ; but according 
to that of Tamlacht, ' Ciaran idem et Moch- 
olmog.' " 

3° In Liber Sancte Trinitatis, Dublin, p. 


3' See " The Book of Obits and Martyr- 
ology of the Cathedi'al Church of the Holy 
Trinity, commordy called Christ Church, 
Dubli;i," edited by John Clarke Crosthwaite, 
A.M., and Re\^. James Henthoru Todd, 

3= Apparently a mistake for Kiaroc. 

33 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernias," xv. 
Februarii. Vita S. Berachi, n. 8, p. 348. 

Article iii. — ' Edited by R-v. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

" Thus: LA]'|\Ae. D^a. .b. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Mali vii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 132. 

■• Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves. See 
Appendix to the Introduction, p. xlvi\ and 
p. 121. 


Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Eata, Abbot of Melrose, 
AND Bishop of Lindisfarne. Referring to Sarins for notices of St. Eata, 
Thomas Dempster,' at the 7th of May, sets down this holy man, as one of 
Scotia's most shining lights.^ On such authority, the Bollandists 3 note his 
festival, at the same date, but they remark, that English and other writers 
place his feast, at the 26th of October. Our own account of him will be 
found, also, at the latter da}'. 

Article V. — St. Airaran. In the Franciscan copy of the Tallagh 
Martyrology, at the 7th of May, a feast is entered for Airaran.' It is omitted 
from the published copy ; nor do we find such a record, in any other 
authority, so that it may be supposed, there is some error in the entry. 

eigl)tl) J3ai) of iBap* 




WHETHER our Island deserves the greater merit, for having sent 
innumerable Doctors and Apostles to convert and enlighten the 
people of the continent, or for having attracted to itself, as to a hive of learn- 
ing and monastic piety, Italians, Gauls, Germans, Britons, Picts and Saxons, 
with people of other countries, who flocked thither, in order to acquire sacred 
and secular branches of learning,' and to lead lives of strict holiness, may exer- 
cise speculative opinion. It was a cradle of learning and of asceticism, for Euro- 

Article IV. — ' Thus is he entered, in ec ^ip ApAni, meaning " and" 

"Menologium Scoticum :" "vii. Ila^ul- Article i.— Chapter i.— ' " Des 

stadice Eata; episcopi, qui ex Abbale Mail- fiottes d'etudiants font voile de toutes parts 

rosice Apostolus Nordanynibrorum et Lindis- vers I'lrlande ; ils y vont chercher des mai- 

farnx Archiepiscopus, inter claiisbinia Scotiae tres de latin, d'ecrituie sainte, et 

luniinacensendus." Ics ecoles hibernoises deviennent le ren<iez- 

" See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- vous general des pelorins dc la science." — 

tish Saints," p. 198. Urbain Sinardet's " Synchronisme des Lit- 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., teratures depuis leur origine jusq 'a nos 

Maii vii. Among the pretermitted saints, jours, considerees dans leurs rapports avec 

p I -JO. les croyances, les Moeurs, les Instiiutions 

Article v. — ' After the entry of Moch- socials. "_ Cinquieme Epoque, sect, xii., p. 

uaroc's name, another distinct line is given, 2S4. 


pean scholars, while many distinguished and pious men are recorded to have 
lived and died in Ireland. In our ancient records, and in the Lives of our 
Saints, such as in those of St. Patrick, of St. Kieran, of St. Declan, of St. 
Albeus, of St. Columkille, of St. Endeus, of St. Maidoc, of St. Senan, and of St. 
Brenan, besides in various other similar biographies, relations confirmatory of 
these assertions are found. From St. ^Engus' " Book of Litanies," alone, 
we find innumerable native saints, its author invokes, as also, several holy men 
placed on the list of foreign saints, and who were buried in Ireland. The chief 
authority for tiie Acts of St. Wiro is an old Life, by an anonymous writer, and 
which came into the possession of Wilhelm Lindan, the first Bishop of Rure- 
mond. This has been compared and collated with another Manuscript copy, 
by Father John BoUand ; as various changes or alterations have been 
admitted, in more recent compilations. We find, that a Life of St. Wiro has 
been written by John Capgrave,^ as also in the Hystorie Plurimorum Sancto- 
rum, 3 and in Lippeloo 4; while Mirseus has son^e notices of St. Wiro, at the 
8th of May f as also Molanus.^ Thomas Dempster lias an account of him. 7 
Again, Laurence Surius,^ who usually follows the old Memoir by Wilhelm 
Ivindan 9 — but who changed the style from that copy of the old Manuscript 
in his possession — has published his Acts, at the 8th of May, in five para- 
graphs. Baronius ^° also borrowed his notices from this source. The Acts 
of St. Wiro seem also to have been prepared by Colgan for publication, at 
the 8th of May." The Bollandists give his Acts," and these are introduced 
by a previous commentary, '3 the composition of Father John BoUand him- 
self. Likewise, the "Acta Sanctorum Belgii,"''* Father Adrien Baillet,'5 
Bishop Challenor,^^ the Rev. Alban Butler,'? John D'Alton,'^ and Bishop 
Forbes,'? record his Life, at this same date, as also the Rev. S. Baring-Gould. ^° 
In the " Scoti-Chronicon "-' of Rev. Dr. J. F. S. Gordon, there is an account 
of St. Wiro, as in " Les Petits Bollandistes,"^^ at this date. 

This holy bishop was born in Scotia, ^3 or Ireland ,^4 although the particu- 

- See " Legend a Nova Anglias," fol. ''' Tomus v., Maii viii. These Acts of St. 

cccvii., cccviii., for Octavo Idus Maii. Wiro, Bishop of Ruiimond, at the 8th of 

3 Printed at Louvain, A.D. 1485. It has May, are a Vita S. Wironis, auctoie anony- 

Wiroepiscopus et Confessor, foL Ixviii., Ixix. mo, ex schedis Wilhelmi Lindani Episcopi 

* See "Vitse Sanctorum," vol. ii., pp. 614, Rurimondensis, sections l to 9. Also a 
to 617, at 8th of May. Translatio Ecclesire collegiate ex Monte S. 

5 See " Fasti Belgici et Bm-gundici," pp. Odilise in urbem Rurcemondam, sections i 

23810 241. to II. These are preceded by a commen- 

* See " Natales Sanctorum Belgii," in tary of J. BoUandus, in three sections, pp. 
three paragraphs, pp. 89, 90._ _ 343 to 369. 

7 See " Histovia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 'S See " Les Vies des Saints," tome ii., 

torum,"tomus ii., lib. xix., num. 1167. pp. 152, 153. 

* See " L)e Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," '^ See "Britannia Sancta,'' part i., jip. 
vol. iii., Maiiviii., pp. 28, 29. 182, 183. 

5 However, the two first paragraphs of ''' See " Lives of the Fathers, Mart) rs and 

this Life — as publi.^hed by the Bollandists — other principal Saints," vol. v., May viii. 

have been omitted in the work ofSurius. "® See "Memoirs of the Archbishops of 

These do not contain any biographical par- Dublin," pp. 18 to 20. 

ticulars of great interest, as they are chiefly '^ See " Kalendars of Scottish Saints" 

prefatory. p. 459. 

'° See " Annales Ecclesiastici," tomus ^° See " Lives of the Saints," vol. v., pp. 

viii., ad A.D. 631, num. 8, et seq. 116, 117. 

" Accordifig to " Catalogus Actuum -' See vol. i., p. 67. 

Sanctorum qure MS. habentur, ordine Men- " See " Vies des Saints," tome v. viii=., 

slum et Dierum." Jour de Mai, pp. 404, 405. 

" See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii. ^3 "Sanctum Wironem produxit Scotia, 

De S. Wirone Episcopo Ruremundae in fertilis Sanctorum virorum insula, Scotus 

Gelria, pp. 309 to 320. enim patria fuit Wiro." — " Batavia Sacra, 

'3 This is in Three Sections, and in sive Res Gestw Apostolorum \irorum qui 

Thirty-two paragraphs. fidem Batavi:s primi intulerunt." L pars,, 



[May 8. 

lar country of his birth has been challenged by certain writers.'s However, 
the great bulk of autliority,'^ and all the inferences to be drawn from our 
saint's earlier Acts, tend to estal)lish beyond question the fact, that Ireland 
was the land to which his nativity must be referred. '^ The parents of St. 
Wiro are thought to have been of considerable rank,^^ and to have belonged 
to that race, from wliom St. Senan ^9 drew his origin. In accounts of the 
present holy man, his name is written indiscriminately, Wyro, or Wiro ; but, 
we doubt, if this correspond closely with his original Irish etymon, which now 
is probably unknown. He descended from the race of Conaire, son to Mogh- 
lamha, who was King of Eirn, and who belonged to the progeny of Eremon. 
In a Table, appended to the Donegal Martyrology,3° the commentator calls 
him Viron, i.e., Feron.3' St. Wiro's father was named Cuan, and liis grand- 
father's name was Lugid. This latter was the son of Fintan, the son of 
Mechar, son to Conchrius, son of Decius, son to Imchad, son of Corb, &c., 
according to the " Sanctilogic Genealogy. "32 Wiro is said to have lived at 
the place, called Corcobaschin,33 in the county of Clare. There, it is sup- 
posed, our saint was born, early in the seventh century,34 but in what year is 
uncertain. However, although the Irish writers consider Wiro as their country- 
man ; on the assumed authority of Alcuin, the Rev. Dr. Lingard has called him 
an Anglo-Saxon.35 For such an assertion, he quotes an old Latin Poem, on 
the Bishops of York. 3^ To this claim, Dr. Lanigan responds, that in the said 
poem 37 — which by-the-bye was not written by Alcuin — there is not a word 
about Wiro, at that verse quoted, nor, as far as he could find, in any other 
part of it. 38 

The early training of Wiro in learning and virtue, by the guardians of his 
youth, had not been neglected, as his after life and labours proved. From day 

p. 80. Thomas Dempster, as usual, claims 
for his own country of Scotland the birth of 
this holy man, or at least, at the 12th of this 
month, he is noted as Archbishop of Dun- 
blane, although he afterwards adds, " ut 
tunc moris erat nulli certK sedi alligati," 
&c. See "MenologiumScoticum," in Bishop 
Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 
p. 198. 

** Father John Boland, although admit- 
ting that John Capgrave makes our saint a 
native of Hibernia or Ireland, seems to 
tliink, the original Continental writer of his 
Acts, must have imagined, that he was born 
in North Britain ; thus connecting Saints 
Patrick, Columba or Cuthbert with this 
quarter, although Venerable Bede states, 
" Hiberniam proprire patriam Scotorum 
esse." — "Historia Ecclesiastica Genlis 
Anglorum," lib. i., cap. i. 

'5 Ferrarius, in his General Catalogue of 
the Saints, follows the statement of Demp- 

'' Thus, 7"k" Capgrave, Gerbrandus a 
Leidis, John Wilson, in his " Martyrologium 
Anglicanum," Canisius, in his German 
Martyrology, Constantius Ghinius in " Na- 
talibus Sanctorum Canonicorum," Mirxus, 
Molanus, and Petriis Galesinius, in his 
Martyrology, all make St. Wiro an Irish- 
man. Ag.iin, Willilirordus Boschartius, of 
the Order of Premunst rants, in the Abbey of 
Tungcrloo, writes : " Wiro oriundus crat ex 

veteri Scotia ; quae nunc dicitur Hibernia : 
ibi egit. ibi in Episcopum est electus, inde 
Roman ivit consecrandus, inde reversus in 
Gallias transivit." — " De Primis Vetei is 
Frisise Apostolis," Dissertatio Ixxxiii, The 
Office of Ruremond Church, keeping the 
local tradition, accords with the foregoing 

'7 See the Bollandists' " Acta Sancto- 
rum," tomus ii., Mali viii. De S. Wirone 
Episcopo Ruremondoe in Gelria. Commen- 
tarius Prxvius Joanuis Bollandi, sect, ii., 
num. II, 12, p. 311. 

'•* See John D'AIton's " Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin," p. iS. 

^ See his Life, at the Slh of March. 

■5° Etlited by Dis. Todd and Reeves, 
p. 121. 

3' See ibid., pp. 478, 479. 

3' See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nix," viii. Maitii. Appendix ad Vitam S. 
Scnani, cap. iii., p. 538 {rccle), or p. 542. 

33 This was an ancient district of Tho- 
mond, now erected into a barony. 

3^ See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies 
des Saints," tome v., viii=. Jour de Mai. 
p. 404. 

35 In his "History of the Anglo-Saxon 
Church," chap, xiii., n. 12. 

3" Alcuin, de Pontificibus Ebor. v. 1045. 

37 Sec note 12 to chap. iii. 

38 Sec "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect, viii., note 105. 


to day, his merits and good dispositions became more pronounced ; so that he 
grew up, flourishing as a pahn tree before the Almighty, and as a cedar in 
the house of God. His zeal to advance in all virtue was noticed, nor were 
bounds given to his holy desires ; he was steady of purpose, when obstacles 
interposed ; while in prosperity, his serenity of soul was noticeable. According 
to some writers, St. VViro was a monk pg but, this statement is not to be in- 
ferred, from his earliest known biography. His vigils were constant ; he 
prayed and he fasted. As examples for his imitation, and holy rivalry, he 
proposed those of the illustrious Fathers of the Irish Church : such as St. 
Patrick, 'I" St. Columkille,'*' St. Cuthbert,-'^ the pillars of his country, and the 
luminaries of the world. Thus, he was filled with Apostolic desires, to spread 
the Gospel in distant places ; while daily and nightly were his prayers and 
fasts directed to implore their intercession, so that no obstacle might be in- 
interposed to his self-sacrificing zeal, and to prevent the natural tendency of 
the flesh to prevail against the purity of his intentions. His youth is said to 
have been distinguished, by the performance of miracles. 43 Such was his re- 
putation, that at an early period of life, he was called upon to assume the 
responsibilities of the episcopal office, when one of the Irish bishops died, and 
left his See vacant. The people of the place, conscious of St. Wiro's merits, 
were unanimous in wishing him to succeed in that office. But, the humble man 
declined such an honour, and declared, that he prefered the situation and con- 
dition of a disciple to that of a master. In filling the vacant See of a bishop, 
however, the voice of the people was by no means sufficient ; he upon whom 
their choice had fallen must gain also the vote of the clerg}^ and receive 
ordination from the bishops of the neighbouring churches, before he could be 
considered a member of the episcopal body of the Catholic Church. 44 While 
Dempster states, that Wiro was appointed Bishop of Dunblane,4S his country- 
man Camerarius^^ will have it, that he ruled over the See of Glasgow ;47 but, 
these statements are given, without quoting any authority. Again, it has 
been said, that he was a Bishop in England. 4^ Although Wiro's objections 
were strongly urged at first, in opposition to the especial wishes of the clergy 
and people, his assent was at length reluctantly obtained. 49 Then, he made 
preparation for his departure, to visit the Eternal City and to have an 
interview witli its Sovereign Pontiff. 

39 This is stated, by Trithemius, in his 46 jn his worl<, "De Scotorum Pietate," 

work, " De Viris Illustribus Ordinis S. lib. iii. 

Benedicti,"cap. cclxiii. ^^ St. Kentigern is the reputed founder of 

4° See his Life, aheady given at the 17th of this See, and there he is buried. See John 

March. ' Lesley, " De Gestis Scotorum," lib. ii., 

4' His Life occurs, at the 9th of June. cap. vii, 

4* See his Life, at tlie 20th of March. •'^According to , Trithemius, "De Viris 

43 So states Dempster, in these words, IHustribus Ordinis S. Benedict!," cap. cclxiii. 
"qui etiam ab infantia miraculis emicuit," He is called " S. Wiro Episcopus Deiro- 
&c. rum," in an old Life of St. Swibert — vene- 

44 " Ordinarily the election was conducted rated at the 1st of March — and which has 
under the superintendence of bishops of the been attributed to St. Marcellinus. 
province ; and not unfrequently, the bishops 49 " Erat ejus insula consuetudo, ut primo 
alone elected, their choice being afterwards eligerint incolce Episcopum, deinde electum 
approved by the people." — Dollingei's Romam mitterent, Summi Pontificis mani- 
" History of the Church," Dr. Cox's Trans- bus consecrandum, atqueitaque demumred- 
lation, vol. i., period i., chap, iii., sect, ii., diturum ad sedem suam. Itaque licet mul- 
p. 243. tum refragraretur Sanctus Vviro, non tamen 

45According to Hector Boetius, it was only a sua sententia discessit plebs fidelis, sed 

in the time of King David L of Scotland, etiam ilium invitnm eligens, compulit tan- 

who begin to reign al)Out A.D. 1121, that dem assenliii. " — Acta S. Vvironis Episcopi. 

four new Sees, viz., Ross, Dunkeld, Brechin See Surius, " De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 

and -Dunblane were established. See " His- ad diem viii. Mali, 
toria Scotia;," lib. xii., fol. 264. 5° Xhe ancient name was Ath Cliath. 



[May 8. 

He was elected Bishop of Dublin s°— as is generally thought s'— but incor- 
rectly ; for, Dublin was not then erected into a See. This city, however, boasts 
a considerable antiquity, for Ptolemy, about a.d. 140, sets a town there, and 
calls it " Civitas Eblan'a." By the old Irish, it seems to have been named 
Ath-cliath-dubhlinne, " the Ford of Hurdles of the Black Pool," more com- 
monly given, Ath-cliath, " Hurdleford,"5^ or Baile-ath-cliath, " Hurdleford- 
town/'^^Dubhlinn, or " Black Pool," was originally the name of the estuary or 
part of the estuary on the Liffey.53 For several centuries, it was not remark- 
able for its growth or population ; but, the Northmen took Ath-cliath, a.d. 
836, according to the Donegal annalists. In their hands, it began to take 
rank as a capit°al 3S4 and, its importance was deemed to be so great, that it was 


Dublin from the LifTey, at Wood Quay, and Christ Church Cathedral, in the distance. 

surrounded by strong walls. Near the old Celtic dim or fortification, which 
connnanded a pass over the Lififey, and at a part of the river, called Dubhlitiu,^^ 
or "the black pool," was built the Church of the Holy Trinity, since called 
Christ Church Cathedral.s^ This is said to have been erected, about the year 

5' See John D'Alton's "Memoirs of the 
Archbishops of Dublin," p. 19. 

5^ There were several minor places in Erin 
called Ath-cliath, " Ilunlleford." 

53 They were foreigners, probably, who 
picked out the Dubh linn— Latinized 
Eblana — and fixed that for the nnme of this 
place, on the dark-watered LifTey, at the 
lowest ford over tlie river, just before it ex- 
panded into its estuary. Naturally it was 
an early place of settlement, owing to its 
fine situation, and ready access botJi by sea 
and land. 

5< The county of Dublin has its name from 
the city. See William' Allingham's article, 
on Irish Names of Places, in Frazer's 
" Mag.izine for Town and Country." 

55 From this, the Irish capital derives its 
now generally accepted name. See W. F. 
Wakcman's " Tourists' Guide to Ireland," 
p. 62. 

5* An interesting engraving of this church, 
as lately restored i>y Mr. Roe, " the eminent 
Dublin distiller." will be found in the work 
just quoted. See ibid, 

5' The accompanying illustration was 


1038, by the Northmen citizens ; although, there can hardly be any question, 
but that a more ancient church occupied its site. It was built on an elevated 
situation, and in the oldest part of the city.s7 

In accordance with the prevailing custom, it is related, that St. Wiro pro- 
ceeded to Rome, for the purpose of receiving consecration, at the hands of 
the Pope ; and, he sailed over to England, taking with him the Priest, St. 
Plechelmus.58 The latter was distinguished, likewise, for his holy life and 
high reputation, and he was about the same age as Wiro. In England, these 
were joined by a virtuous Deacon, named Othgerus,s9 who was desirous of 
leading a most perfect life. Charmed with the purpose and conversation of 
the Irish visitors, he resolved on accompanying them, leaving to Divine 
Providence the disposition of his future career. The author of St. Wiro's 
Life tells us,,that after a prosperous voyage, he arrived at Rome, with his com- 
panions ; that they devoutly visited the shrine of St. Peter and St. Paul, where 
they offered up their prayers and vows before the altar, and bedewed the 
pavement with their tears. When the Roman Pontiff^" heard of their arrival, 
they were summoned before him. This order they immediately obeyed. 
When the Pope beheld Wiro, struck with the angelic expression of his coun- 
tenance, he accurately conjectured the dispositions and fervour of soul, which 
such an exterior indicated ; and, unable to control an excess of affection 
towards the saint, the Pontiff rushed impulsively into his arms, and kissed 
him with tears of affection. The Pope made inquiries about his name, country, 
and business. This information our saint revealed, yet with much reluctance. 
Falling on his knees at the feet of the Pontiff, Wiro declared his repugnance to 
assume the office of bishop, and besought him, but in vain, to withhold assent 
from the popular appoiniment. To this request, the Pope would not accede. 
Soon Wiro received episcopal consecration at his hands. He was afterwards 
dismissed, with many presents, and recommended to return for Ireland ; 
although, it seems to have been his most earnest desire, even to have engaged 
himself on a foreign mission. At the same time, Plechelm was elevated to 
the dignity of the episcopate ; while, the Sovereign Pontiff bestowed on both 
the relics of saints, and other gifts, to mark his esteem and affection for the 
holy strangers.^' 

On the way to his own country, St. Wiro crossed over the Alps,^^ in 
obedience to a mandate of the Sovereign Pontiff; and, afterwards, he sailed 
on that Strait, which interposed between him and the land of his birth. It is said, 
moreover, that Wiro returned to his appointed See, and was received with 
much joy on his arrival, by the clergy and people of his cathedral. While 
filling this exalted position of bishop, every day manifested more his fitness 
for the office. His morals and example were lights to his faithful people ; 
while, his doctrine and teaching were directed to lead, them in the paths of 
life eternal. After presiding over that portion of the Irish Church, for some 

drawn on the spot, by William F. Wakeman, St. Sergius, who ruled from a.d. 687 to 701. 
in 1884, to exhibit the existing view from He also consecrated St. Willebrord as Bis- 
the north side of the River Liffey, the upper hop. However, Gabriel Bucelin and John 
part of the cathedral appearing in the back- Spotiswod think, that St. Wiro had been 
ground. It was afterwards transferred by consecrated Bishop, by Pope Honorius I, 
him to the wood, which was engraved by This Father John Bolland will not admit. 
Mrs. Millard. ^' See the Bollandists' "Acta Sancto- 
ns His Acts are given, at the 15th of July ; rum," tomus ii. Vita Auctore Anonymo, 
and, in the diocese of Rurimond, he has Ex Schedis Willielmi Lindani Episcop'i 
another festival, at the 26th of the same Ruremondensis, sect. 5, p. 316. 
month. ^- In his time, this was the course invaria- 
59 His feast occurs, on the lOth of Sep- bly taken by Irish travellers to and from 
tember. Rome. 
*° The Bollandists suppose, that he was ^^ See the Eollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 



[May 8. 

time, being moved by missionary zeal for the conversion of unbelievers, he 
resigned his episcopal charge, because his soul thirsted to gain in foreign 
lands a more abundant harvest of souls. Seeking a favourable time and 
opportunity for leaving his native countr)', Wiro took with him the holy Bis- 
hop Plechalm and the virtuous Deacon Otger, as the companions of his journey. 
Neither the considerations of fomily or of temporal ease could obstruct that 
early feeling, which still burned within his soul ; and, as we may infer from 
the words of the old writer of his Life, Wiro and his companions went through 
England, on their way to a more distant field of labour.^5 With his com- 
panions, St. Wiro passed over into Gaul, after the year 680, as appears most 
probable ; and, while the power of the Mayors of the palace was established 
in that realm, under the nominal rulers, who w'ere called rots faineants f*^ it is 
thought, he arrived there, to coinmence his missionary career. 



The course by sea was a favourable one ; but, landing on the shore of Gaul,' 
St. Wiro gave thanks to the Almighty for his safe deliverance from the perils of 
the sea, and still more, that he had been saved from that shipwreck, which the 
world makes of souls. As yet, he had not defined the scene for his future 
settlement, which he left to the Almighty's wise decree. However, he wished 
rather to be an exile and a pauper in a strange country, than to be rich and 
renowned in the land of his birth,^ At that time, Pepin of Her5tall,3 the 
father of Charles Martel, appears to have enjoyed great power and an exten- 
sive rule in France.^ He soon heard about the arrival of tliose pious pilgrims, 
who were now within the bounds of his dominions ; and, filled with joy, he 
invited them to his presence. In return, St. Wiro, with his companions. 

tomus ii., Maii viii. De S. Wiione Epis- 
copo. Vila Authore Anonymo, sect. 3,4, 5, 
6, pp. 315. 316. 

"* See L.-P. Anquetil's " Ilistoire de 
France," Premiere Race dite des Ivlerovin- 
giens, sect, v., pp. 52 10 54. 

Chapter ii. — 'The Rev. Dr. Lanigan 
is of opinion, tliat liis advent in Gaul must 
have been later than 6S0, as Pepin of Ileris- 
tall was not invested with great power, until 
after that period. See " Ecclesiastical His- 
tory of Ireland," vol. iii, chap, xviii., sect, 
vii., n. 100, p. no, and sect, viii., n. 108, 
p. 113. 

^ The " Memorial of Ancient British 
Piety " — attributed to Bishop Chalioner — 
states, that our saint preached " in the Low 
Countries, about the beginning of the eighth 
centui-y," p. 74. 

3 In the opinion of Bollandus, this was 
the "Pippiiuis Dux l'"rancorum,"' men- 
tioned in the Anonymous Life of St. Wiro, 

in possession of Bishop Wilhelm Lindan, 
sect. 7. See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii viii. De S. Wirone Epi^copo, Rure- 
mundce in Gelria, Commcntarius Pri^vius, 
sect, ii., num. 18, 20, pp. 312, 313, 316, and 
n. (i). p. 317. 

•* He was called, likewise, Pepin-le-Gros. 
and his father's name was Ancisses, or An- 
sii^ise. According to the metrical "Chroni- 
qiie Rimee de Philippe Mouskes,' v. 1504, 
1505 :— 

" Et Pepins fu fius Angezil 
D'une dame biele etgentil." 

— Public par le Baron de ReifTenberg, tome 
i., p. 63. See " Collection de Chroniques 
Beiges Inedites, publice par Ordre du Gou- 
vernement ct par le Soins de la Commis-ion 
Royal d'Histoire," 410, Bruxelles, 1836, 
et suiv. 

5 This is a fortified town, at the confluence 


responded to his courteous invitation, and on appraching the royal residence, 
great honour was manifested by the noble host. He was most favourably 
received, by Duke Pipen de Herstal, who soon learned VViro's motives for 
leaving Ireland. Then, desirous of gratifying the wishes of so holy a visitor, 
Pepin selected a spot, remote from worldly resort, and suited for religious re- 
tirement. At present, it is known as Roermonde s or Ruremond,^ in the pro- 
vince of Limburg, and kingdom of Holland. He desired greatly to favour 
those foreign missionaries, who came from a distance, to spread the light of 
Christianity among the people of the Low Countries.? This prince assigned 
a place of retreat for his future spiritual adviser and confessor, at Mons Petri,^ 
now St. Odilia,9 near the River Roer,'° about three miles from Ruremond, and 
formerly it was in the diocese of Leige." Here a small church was built, in 
honour of the Blessed Virgin, and around it were formed little cells." In the 
following year was built a monastery named St. Peter's, The workmanship 
of this house, built with stone, was greatly admired. '3 This was just the 
position, which the man of God deemed most desirable, in completing his 
long formed plans for quiet meditation ; and soon, he drew great numbers to 
share in his privations, and to draw instruction from his example. The calm 
find demeanour of an anchorite made him appear venerable to all the people. 
On his lips, as in his heart, were the name and presence of Christ, whom he 
solely loved, and whom he offered daily, in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 
Meditation, prayer, fixsting, cherished poverty, and contemi)t for this world's 
goods, filled up the measure of his rule and life. Against vice, he constantly 
waged a war, although he readily pardoned the penitents ; and, while he denied 
himself every luxury, he was munificent in his gifts to others. In him, humi- 
lity and charity abounded. His teaching and example alike edified the peo- 
ple. He sought for heavenly favours, but shunned the rewards of men. Taking 
to himself the helmet of salvation, he dreaded not the powers of fortune, nor 
the snares of the old enemy. To his subjects and companions, he showed 
the paths of Heaven; to the great sinner, he proved the true physician of 
souls ; while, he felt more afflicted for the injuries others suffered, than for 
those which fell to his own share. The three fellow travellers to Rome were 
associated, also, in spreading the faith among pagans living at Guedres, in the 
Low Countries.'-* His religious patron, Pepin, had such a veneration for 
St. Wiro, that he was chosen to be the guide 's and guardian of his public and 
private life. It is said, that Pepin was accustomed to approach the saint 
barefooted, as a token of his respect, whenever he was about to reveal his sins in 

of the River Roer with the River Maese, ^ In a Diploma of King Lothaire, issued 

now possessing some manufactures and com- a.D. 858, it is denominated Bergh. 

merce, with a population of over 4,000 in- 9 John Capgrave i|;alls it " Mons Odulse." 

habitants. See James BelTs "System of It is now called Mons S. Odilias, or Odilie- 

Geography, Popular and Scientific," &c., bergh. 

vol. ii., part i., Holland, chap, xv., pp. 50, '° This village of St. Odilia is on the left 

51. Its situation is marked on R. Mont- bank, and higher on its course than Rure- 

gomery Martin's " Illustrated Atlas," under mond. 

the heading of Holland. " At present Ruremond is a separate See. 

■^ Its etymon is derived from the name of "See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies 

the River Roer, and from the Flemish word des Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, p. 405. 

vioiid^ which signifies " the mouth," and '^ The old writer of St. Wiro's Acts has 

most of the places having the compound the passing observation, that it remained to 

niund, in Germany are river mouths. About be seen in his own time, 

the year 1 23 1, it was surrounded with walls, '■♦See Bishop Challoner's "Britannia 

by Otho HI., Count of Gueldres. Sancta," part i., p. 283. 

7 See Jules Zeller's "Histoire d'Allema- '5 Thus is he characterized by Thomas 

gne," tomei., Oiigines dAllemagne et de Dempster: " Pipini regis confessarius, vv. 

I'Empire Germanique, liv. ii., chap, vii., B. K.," in " Menologium Scoticum." See 

sect, ii., p. 380. Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish 



[May 8. 

the tribunal of penance. ^^ Wiro was also consulted on all great occasions, 
when the chiefs of the kingdom were convened, to give their opinions on 
affairs of state. The saint's disinterestedness and candour, as also his wis- 
dom and eloquence, had deserved weight in those councils, where he spoke 
the truth freely, and without respect of persons. His candour sometimes 
gave offence to individuals ; but, he shrunk from being a mere courtier and 
flatterer, as he wished only to please God. Thus he lived, respected for his 
virtues, until he had attained a great age. Nor was his rigour of life'relaxed, 
in consequence ; but, rather as his years sped, his merits and his virtues 
increased. He betrayed no regret for having left his native land, for he only 
sought final repose in the true land of promise. In old age, his mind was 
clear and composed ; because he looked nearer to the goal of his labours and 
pains, and to those happy i ewards which crown the just. 

If we are to believe Dempster, St. Wiro wrote, Ordinationes Ecclesise Suae, 
lib, i. : Epistolasad Pipinum Regem, lib. i.j as also, Ad Fratres Odiliae, lib. '\^^ 
It is almost unnecessary to state, that no person has either read or seen such 
works ; and, the statement m.iy be regarded as an unmitigated falsehood, coined 
by that unscrupulous writer. The time for St. Wiro's happy departure now ap- 
proached, and he was prepared for the call, owingto his constant practice ofpiety 
and penitential exercises. At length, he was seized with fever, which caused his 
death, on the 8tli day of May, towards the close of the seventh, ^^ or beginning 
of the eighth, century. '9 This day is now kept as his festival. A great concourse 
of the faithful assembled, with several religious men, to assist at his funeral 
obsequies. Hymns and canticles were sung on earth, while the Angels are 
said to have re-echoed these requiems in Heaven. An odour of miraculous 
fragrance was observed by all, who assisted at the ceremonies, while his re- 
mains were buried in Mons Petri oratory, dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, 
and of which he was founder. Afterwards, a great number of miracles was 
wrought at his tomb.^° 

A Chapter of Canons was afterw-ards endowed, in connexion with the 
church, at Mons Odilia. This place was situated, within the Dukedom and 
Lordship of Montfort. During the middle ages, their house and possessions 
were subjected to the pillage and rapine of lawless men, who were disturbers 
of the public peace. The country about Mons Odilia was solitary, surrounded 
by woods, and unprotected from their incursions. Nor does the local mag- 
nate, Edward of Gueldres,^' and the temporal lord of Montfort, seem to have 
been able to protect the Canons ; wherefore, they resolved on applying to his 
brother, Reinald III., who was Duke of Gueldres, and Count of Zutphen," 

Saints," p. 198. 

'* See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii , 
sect, viii., p. in. 

''See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. xix., num. 1167, 
p. 651. 

'^ In Harris' Ware, it is stated, on the 
authority of Surius, that St. Wiro died a.d. 
650. See vol. i., " Bishops of Dublin," p. 
304. This is much too early a date for the 
event, and many of Surius' notes are only 
conjectural. Again, Thomas Dempster tells 
us, without apjiarcnt warrant, that he 
flourished, in tlie year 757. See " Historia 
Ecclesiastica Gtntis Scotorum," tomus ii., 
lib. xix., num. 1 167, p. 651. 

'9 Towards the year 700 is that period as- 
signed for his departure, in " Les Petits Bol- 

landistes, Vies des Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, 
p. 405. 

'-° See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Maii viii. Vita Auctore Anonymo 
S. Wironis, num. 7, 8, 9, pp. 316, 317. 

" His consent was obtained i, ior the pur- 
pose desired by the Canons, in a Diploma, 
dated April 3rd, 1361. The succeeding May 
25th, he was vanquished, in a contest with 
his brother, Reinald III., who detained him 
as a captive. Both of these nobles died, in 
ihe year 1371 ; and, with them ceased the 
Nassau family, known as Dukes of Guel- 

'" His grandfather, Reinald I., yielded his 
right over the Limburgh province to John I., 
Duke of Brabant, and he was taken prisoner, 
in the battle of Woeiingan. 

^■5 This Catholic town was formed by de- 


so that their establishment sliould be transfeired to Ruremond,'-'3 where they 
might enjoy greater security. Their petition was favourably received. A 
part of St. Wiro's body,^-* in 1361, was brought to Ruremond, when the col- 
legiate church had been removed thither,''5 and, hence, he is often called St. 
Wiro of Ruremond.^*^ This transference took place, in consequence of that 
complaint, which was made by the Canons, to Reinald 111.^7 He issued a 
charter, that gave the requisite permission.^^ The Magistrates of Ruremond 
town assented, by a Decretal,^? saving the rights of the Duke of Gueldres 
and their own. This grant was further confirmed, by a decree 3° of John 
Vernenburg,3' Bishop of Utrecht, 3^ and of Hugh Vustinck, Canon of Utrecht, 
and Prrepositus of Mons Odilia, then within the Diocese of Liege. This 
document was afterwards confirmed, by a Decree 3? from Engelbert,34 Bis- 
hop of Liege, who was ordinary of Mons Odilia; and, who appointed a com- 
mission to examine the particulars necessary, for permission to make the pro- 
posed change. Accordingly, the former chapter of Secular Canons of Mons 
Odilia was translated to Ruremond, and there attached to the Chapel of the 
Holy Spirit.35 On the nth of May, and in the year 1569, from being a col- 
legiate church, the Chapel of the Holy Spirit, at Ruremond, was erected into 
a cathedral, and the Most Rev. Wilhelrnus Damasus Lindanus, was appointed 
its first Bishop. 3^ About the middle of the ninth century, the Northmen 
committed great ravages, in Frisia and in Holland, 37 which they invaded. 
Afterwards, Hungerus, Archbishop of Utrecht, with some of his Canons- 
others were slain or dispersed — was obliged to fly for refuge to Kino- 
Lothaire, who was then at the monastery of Prumia. Owing to the necessity 
of the case, the Monastery of INIons Odilia was assigned to them, as a place 
of refuge. 3^ When the storm of invasion had passed over, and when it was 
supposed safe to return, Archbishop Hunger and his Canons 39 are thouo"ht 

grees, near the Abbey, which had a magni- VI., at Avignon, A. D. 1345, and afterwards 

ficent church of the Roman- Byzantine style, he was chosen to be Archbishop of Cologne, 

first erected during the earlier years of the A.D. 1363. 

thirteenth century, and it was finished during 35 At first, it was dedicated to Saints Peter 

the ogival period. See Elisee Rectus' and Paul. 

" Nouvelle Geographie Universelle, la Terre ^6 The BoUandists, who give all the fore- 

et les Hommes," tome iv., liv. iv., chap. iv. going statements, with the texts of the vari- 

La Neerlande, sect, v., p. 272. ous cliapters, state, that Bishop Lindan came 

^■t The feast of the discovery and elevation to the Residence, on the i ith of May, 1569, 
of these relics is celebrated the Tuesday They add : " nunc vero ad sedem S. Chris- 
after Trinity Sunday, topheri translata Sedes Episcopalis est." 

""s See John D'Alton's "Memoirs of the See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii 

Archbishops of Dublin," p. 19. viii. De S. Wirone Episcopo Ruremondse 

^* See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical in Gelria. Translatio Ecclesicc CoUegiatce 

History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii., ex Monte S. Odilice in Urbem Rurjemundam. 

sect, viii., p. 112. Ex Archivio Rursemundensis Ecclesias ab 

^7 His father Reinald II., was created first Adriano d'Abreu Rectore Collegii Rurse- 

Duke of Gueldres, by Ludovicus, Emperor mundensis Societatis lesu submissa, pp. 317 

of Bavaria, and Reinald III. succeeded him to 320. 

in that title, a.d. 1343. ^^^ According to the " Annales Bertiniani," 

'^ This is dated, on the Feast of St. Ger- they occupied the Batavian Islands, in 847 ; 

trude, a.d. 1361. and, in the year 850, Rorich, grandson of 

-^ This is dated, April 20th, 1361. Heriold — who rebelled against Lothaire at 

3° This is dated, April 20th, 1361. the head of the Northmen forces — devas- 

3' He governed the See of Utrecht, from tated the whole country, between the Rhine 

8th of September, 1354, to the 23rd of June, and the Wahal. 

1371, when he died suddenly. 38 ^^.ccording to John Molan, in his work 

^- He was the forty-eighth Bishop in sue- " De Natalibus Sanctorum Belgii." 

cession over this See. 39 This account is to be found in the Bre- 

33 This is dated. May I2th, 1361. viary of Utrecht, Lect. ix., at the 8th of 

^ He is called Engelbert de Marca, ap- May. 

pointed Bishop of Liege, by Pope Clement ''° See Bollandus' "Acta Sanctorum," 



[May 8. 

to have brought with them a portion of St. Wiro's relics, which was consigned 
to the city of Utrecht.'*° However, the remains of St. Wiro had to be buried 
again, when the fear of similar invasions threatened that city. For a long 
period, tlie place where they were hidden had lapsed from memory. Yec, in 
the time of Baldricus, the fifteenth Bishop of that See, he had a divine reve- 
lation, which enabled him to find that exact spot, where they were hidden. 
Then, those tliree glorious patrons of Utrecht — Samts Wiro, Plechelm, and 
Otger, — were there held in great reverence. Baldericus, the Bishop of Utrecht, 
bestowed, also, a very considerable portion of St. Wiro's relics, on the Canons 
of the Church of Oldenzel, a town of Over Yssel, in the Low Countries. 
This College of Canons he had founded, through his own exertions.*' 

That portion of St. Wiro's relics, which had been moved to Ruremond, 
was deposited under the high altar of the church. St. Peter's church and 
monastery, near Ruremond, were destroyed, in the year 1572, by soldiers 
serving under William of Nassau,*^ the first Prince of OrangCj^'s when the 
place was taken after a fiftii assault, on the 23rd of July. Afterwards, the 
besiegers overturned the table of the high altar, under which the relics were 
kept.'*'* Twenty-two years elapsed, before the relics were preserved, when 
recovered from the ruins, in the year 1594. Each year, in commemoration of 
this event, the Feast of the Finding and Elevation of the Relics of St. Wiro, 
of St. Plechelm, and of St. Otger, is celebrated with a Double Rite. A proper 
office, too, is recited on Tuesday, after the Festival of the Most Holy 
Trinity. ■♦5 The Bishop of Ruremond and the Cure of St. Odilia rebuilt the 
church, which was finished in 1686. It was dedicated to St. Wiro as princi- 
pal patron, on the loth of May. The feast of the dedication, however, was 
afterwards transferred to the first Sunday of September. The bishop trans- 
lated the relics of St. Wiio, of St. Plechelmus, and of St. Otgar, to a shrine 
prepared for them ui the new church. This imposing ceremony took place 
two days after its dedication. 

In the Dioceses of Utrecht, of Daventer and of Groningen, St. Wiro's depar- 
ture, on the 8th of May, is specially commemorated. In nearly all the gene- 
ral Calendars and Martyrologies of the Church — excepting some of our earlier 
Irish ones '♦^ — St. Wiro's festival is placed, at the 8th of May, which corre- 
sponds with what is stated, in the Anonymous ancient Acts. Thus, in a 
Martyrology printed at Cologne, a.d. 1490, at that day, he is noticed as a 

tomus ii., viii. Mail. De S. Wirone Epis- 
copo Rurstmundas in Gelria, sect, iii., num. 
23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, pp. 313 to 


*' " Prsecipuam portionem Corporis 
Canonici oppidi Oldenza iensis, quod est 
trans Iselam, sibi attriburent ex dono Bal- 
derici Ultraject. Episcopi, qui illic celebrum 
Canonicorum Collegium extruxit, de quo 
sub eodem Balderico fusius, ibidemque Na- 
talia Saucti illius dies colitur ad diem xv. 
Julii. Cui et Parocliialis Ecclesia olim S. 
Sylveslro sacra, est dedicata." — ''Bavaria 
Sacra." i. pars. p. 81. 

*' Owing to his prudence and reserve, at 
an early pge, lie obtained a surname " The 
Silent," by which he was afterwards known 
in history. See Charles Knight's "Eng- 
lish Cyclopedia," Biography, vol. iv., 
col. 438. 

*' lie fell by the pistol shot of an assas- 
sin, B.iith.izar Gerard, on ihe lotli of July, 
A.D. 1584. See John Loihrop Motley's 

" History of the United Netherlands: from 
the death of William the Silent to the Synod 
of Doit, with a full view of the English- 
Dutch struggle against Spain, and of the 
origin and destruction of tlie Spanish Ar- 
mada," vol. i., chap, i., p. I, London, 8vo, 
i860, et seq. 

^* "The persons and property of the bur- 
ghers were, with a very few exceptions, 
respected ; but many priests and monks 
were put to death by the soldiery under cir- 
cumstances of great barbarity." — John 
Lothiop Motley's " Rise of the Dutch 
Republic," vol. ii., part iii., chap, vii., 

P- 385- 

<5 See "Acta Sanctorum, tomus ii., Man 
viii. De S. Wirone Episcopo Ruremundx 
in Gelrii, sect, iii., num. 30, 31, 32. p. 315. 

<^ Thus, the Felirc of St. /Engus an i the 
Martyrology of Tallngh altogether omit this 
saint, as they do so many other undoubtedly 
Irish saints, wiio lived and died abroad, and 
of whom the compilers had liitle knowledge. 


Bishop and confessor ;'»7 while, this is sustained, by many of the Belgian and 
Dutch Manuscript Martyrologies, such as those of St. Mary's, at Utrecht,48 
of the Monastery of St. Martin, at Treves,t9 and of Florarius.s° Herman 
Greuen agrees, in his Additions to Usuard's Martyrology,^' first printed at 
Cologne, A.D. 1515, and afterwards a.d. 1521. The Roman Martyrology,52 
in like manner, has the entry of his feast, at this day. John of Trittenhem 53 
has noticed his festival as occurring, on the eighth of the May Ides, which is 
identical with the same day of the month. Thomas Dempster has notices of 
St. Wiro, in his " Menologium Scoticum,"54 at the 8th of May. This saint is 
also named, by Father Stephen White, at the same At this same day, 
Convseus says, he was a bishop, celebrated at Utrecht. He is entered, too, 
in the anonymous Calendar of national Saints, and in the list of Henry Fitz- 
simon, who calls him Archbishop of Dublin.s^ According to the Martyrology 
of Donegal, 57 he is noted as Wiro, Archbishop of Ath-cliath. All other later 
accounts of this Apostolic Bishop and Confessor have his chief feast placed 
at the 8th of May.s^ Thus state Bishop Challenor,59 Rev. Alban Butler,6°the 
Memorial of Ancient British Piely,^' the Circle of the Seasons,^Mhe Petits 
Bollandistes,^3 and Rev. S. Baring-Gould.^^ There can be no question, that St. 
Wiro's life and labours were dear to the Almighty, for whom he made so many 
sacrifices. Our earliest saints— pre-eminently men of action — regarded prayer 
as among the first and most essential of their duties. To renew their sense 
of God's presence, they had recourse to short prayers suited to each action ; 
while their habits of meditation were acquired from the consolations it affords. 
Abroad as well as at home, they felt in their true sphere, labouring with zeal 
for the comfort of others, and ever pointing the way to that true country, 
where all the elect are destined to reap in joy the product of those seeds, 
which may have been sown with tears. 

Article II. — St. Gibrian, or Gibrianus, Priest in Champagne* 
France. [Fifth and Sixth Centuries.'] It will be seen, from the following 
account, that Ireland furnished France with the hallowed influences, brought 
not alone by the present holy priest, but also by his many brothers and 
sisters, who were equally desirous of seeking a retreat, in one of her most 

*7 It notes: " Eodem die B. Wironis et tish Saints," p. 198. 

Confessoris. " ss See "Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. ii., 

'•^ It has: "Trajecti Wironis Confes- p. 15, and cap. iv., p. 37. 

soris." 56 See O'Sullevan Beare's " Historise 

■*' There is read : " Trajecto Wironis Epis. Catholicas Ibernice Compendium," tomus i., 

et Conf." lib. iv., cap. x., xi., xii., pp. 48, 50, 57. 

s° This account has the following : " Eo- ^^ Edited by Dh. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

dem die depositio S. Wironis Ep. et Conf. 120, 121. 

anno salutis dcclii." This, however, is s? See references to this saint, at May 8th, 

thought to be too late a period for his de- among the "Dublin Extracts," taken for 

mise. the Irish Ordnance Survey Collection, p. 

5' This record has: "In Trajecto in- 131. 

feriori B. Wironis Ep. Deirorum et Conf." 59 See "Britannia Sancta," part i., pp. 

But, Father John Bolland shows, that the 182, 183. 

statement of his having been Bishop over *" See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 

the Deiri, in Anglia, is drawn from a false and other principal Saints," vol. v., at 

account, which is to be^found in a Tract, May viii. 

wrongly attributed to St. Marcellinus. ^' See p. 74. 

s= There we read, at the 8th of May : " In *^ See p. 129. 

Scotia S. Wironis Episcopi." ^3 See " Vies des Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, 

53 See " De Viris lUustribus Ordinis S. pp. 404, 405. 

Benedicti," lib. iii., cap. cclxiii. *'* See " I.ives of the Saints," vol. v., 

5* See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- p. n6. 

Vol. v.— No. 3. i 


agreeable districts, there to edify all, by their holy conversation and example, 
during life ; while, after death, the Christian Celts of Gaul venerated their 
relics, obtaining choice graces and benefits from their intercession. Among 
the earlier Acts of St. Gibrian is an account, furnished from the special Bre- 
viary, belonging to the Head INIonastery of St. Remigius ; while another 
eulogium of the saint is to be found, in the Rheims Breviary,' printed a.d. 
1630. Besides, he is commemorated, in various ancient Martyrologies, and 
by Flodouard.^ The Acts of this saint have been published, in five para- 
graphs, by Surius,3 at the 8th of May. A Life of this holy man was in pre- 
paration, but, it w^as left, unpublished by Colgan,^ at this date. The Bollan- 
dists 5 have the Acts of St. Gibrian,^ at the 8th of May, and they allude to the 
Translation of his Relics, in an Appendix.? The Rev. Alban Butler,^ the 
Circle of the Seasons,^ the Petits Bollandists,'° and Rev. S. Baring-Gould," 
mention Gibrian, or Gobrian, a priest, at the 8th of iVIay. This holy man 
was born in Hibernia,'^ some time in the fifth century \ and, as he seems to 
have lived contemporaneously with St. Patrick, '3 it is not improbable, that 
himself and the other members of his numerous family received baptism, at 
the hands of the Irish^Apostle, or, at least, from the ministration of someone, 
among his disciples. It would appear, that in Ireland, St. Gibrian had been 
elevated to tlie priesthood. He chose, however, to serve God, in a more 
distant country ; and, it is related, that about the close of the fifth century, 
he left home for the Continent. Six holy brothers and tliree sisters accom- 
panied him to France.'"* Their names are given, as Tressan,'5 Helanus or 
Helain,'^ Germanus,'? Veran,'^ Abranus and Petranus,'? his brothers \ as 
also, Franchia,^° Promptia and Possenna,^' his sisters. St. Gibrian, with his 
brothers and sisters, is said to have arrived in France, according to a Bre- 
viary of Rheims,^'^' in the time of Clovis I., and of St. Remigius.^3 His arrival 
is placed, at a.d. 509, by Sigebertus Gemblacensis.^^ It is thought to be pro- 

Article II. — ' Throughout the whole tia." Notwithstanding, some Scotch writers 

diocese of Rheims, the Ecclesiastical Office claim St. Gibrian, as having been born in 

of St. Gibrian was prescribed to be recited, Scotland, 

as a Simplex, with three Lessons. '■' In the Life of St. Patrick, at the 17th of 

'In " Hibtoria Rhemensis," lib. iii., March, we do not read, however, about any 

cap. ix. of his converts, named Gibrian, or about the 

3 See " De probatis Sanctorum Vitis," vol. names of his holy brothers and sisters. 

iii., Maiiviii., p. 116. '•♦See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 

* See " Catalogus Actuum Sanctorum the Saints," vol. v., p. 114. 

quse MS. habentur, ordine Mensium et Die- 'S See his Life, in vol. ii. of this work, at 

rum." the 7th of February, Art. i. 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii '* His feast is on the 7th of October, 

viii. De S. Gibriano Presbytero in Diocesi '' See some notices of him, at the 30th of 

Catalavensi e* Remensi, pp. 300 to 303. July> ^^d at the 3rd of December. 

* Under the heatling •• Vita et Miracula. '^ The festival for Gcrmanus et Veranus is 
Ex MS. Codice Remensi Monasterii S. Re- assigned, by Ferrarius and Saussay, to the 
migii." 3rd of December. 

^ See also tomus ii., Appendix p. 843. '« The feast day of Abranus and Petranus 

® See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and does not seem to be known, 

other principal Saints," vol. v., May 8. ^^ Also called Franche, Fracla, or 

'Seep. 129. Franda. 

'° See " Les Vies des Saints," tome v., 8 " Promptia and Possenna are inscribed in 

Mai, pp. 403, 404. the Scotch Menology of Camerarius, at the 

"See "Lives of the Saints," vol. v., 3rd of January. But, because the 8th of May 

p. 114. is set down for the least of St. Gibrian, their 

" Flodoardus and the Breviary of Rheims brother, all these three sisters are placed at 

state, " ex Hibernia venisse." A greater the same date, by Artlnir de Monster, in his 

confusion of writing is in the Manuscript " Gynaecium Sacrum," and by Laherius, in 

Codex belonging to the Monastery of St. his *'Menologium Virginum." 

Remigius at Rheims, where we read, that he '^ Referred to by the Bollandists. 

came "de Ilibcrnia insula, in qua est Sco- "^ St. Remigius, or Renii, was the fifteenth 


bable, that those holy pilgrims sojourned, at first, in Bretagne ; for, in this 
French province, many localities are called after them. There is a parish, 
known as St. Helen ; a parish is named St. Vran ; a parish and various other 
places are dedicated to St. Abraham — probably the same as Abram — the 
strand of St. Petran, and the grotto of the same saint, in Trezilide,'S have 
supposed relations with these Irish visitors to France. However, the pious 
brothers and sisters regarded St. Gibrian, as their leader ; because he had 
received Holy Orders, and because he was the oldest among them. He sought 
for settlement theterritoryabout Chalons-sur-Marne, and fixed hisdwellingnear 
a rivulet, called Cole,^^ which flows into the River Marne.^7 On account of 
St. Gibrian's great sanctity, his habitation was the chief rendezvous for his 
brothers and sisters. He was especially the companion of the brother, named 
Tressan,^^ who lived in a retired village, supposed to be Murigny, in the 
former Duchy of Rheims, and on the River Marne. A strong family attach- 
ment bound the saintly brothers and sisters to t-ach other ; so that, mutually 
desirous of visiting frequently their solitary places of retreat, these were 
selected within measurable distances, in this part of the country. Gibrian's 
love for prayer and for labour was most remarkable. He was indefatigable in 
the exercise of all virtues ; while his abstinence from food was a means he 
adopted, to render his life still more spiritual. Having led a very holy state, 
in the district of Chalons-sur-Marne, in Champagne, Gibrian died there, and 
he was buried in the place of solitude he had selected for his home while 
upon earth. That spot was indicated, by a sort of tumulus, or mound, near 
the public road. A stone sarcophagus had been prepared, to enclose his 
body, which was then deposited in the earth. There, his memory is revered, 
on the 8th day of May, which was probably that of his death, or as it is said of 
his deposition. "^9 A small oratory was built over his tomb, in course of time. 
On the anniversary of his happy departure, a great concourse of persons usually 
came to celebrate the occurrence, and it was converted into a religious festi- 
val. Soon after his departure, the Almighty was pleased to work great mira- 
cles,3°when the name and intercession of his holy servant had been invoked, 
by the faithful pilgrims. These kept vigil, with prayers or hymns, the night 
before his anniversary feast; they also brought votive offerings ; and when the 
sacred offices of Mass were over, on the day itself, all the people returned 
with rejoicing to their several homes. However, this saint is said by some 
to have died at Rheims, a.d. 509 ;3i but, this appears to have been supposed, 
because his remains were subsequently removed to that city. In the tmie of 
Otho,3^ King of France, the Danes and Normans brought terror and destruc- 

Archbishop of Rheims, and he is regarded '" An account of these may be seen, from 

as the Apostle of the Franks. He died, on the Manuscript todex of St. Reniigius' 

the 13th of January, A.D. 533; but, his Monastery, at Rheims, as published by the 

chief feast is on the 1st of October. Bollandists. 

=•* In his Chronicle. 3i For such statement, the authority of 

'3 See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des Sigebertus and of Floratius is cited, by Father 

Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, p. 404. Henry Fitzsimon. See " Historian Catho- 

°^ Its ancient name was Cosla, according licce Ibernise Compendium," tomus i., lib. 

to the Manuscript Codex of the Monastery iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 54. 
of St. Remigius of Rheims. 3= He was King of France, from 888 to 

=7 Formerly called Matrona or Materna. 89S, and he is also called Eudes. See an 

It falls into the Seine, above the city of account of his reign, in Bossuet's " Abrege 

Paris. de I'Histoire de France," liv. iii., col. 1206, 

=^ See the Bollandists' and Colgan's ac- 1207. iEuvres Completes, tome x. 
count of him, at 7th of February. 33 This onslaught is referred to A.D. 891, 

=9 According to the Manuscript Codex in the " Chronicon Besuensis." 
of the Monastery of St. Remigius of 34 Even yet, this cathedral is under St. 

Rheims. Stephen's patronage. 


tion among those Christians, living in the district about Chalons ; while they 
burned churches and villages, and also put many to the sword. 33 They set 
fire to the beautiful cathedral church of St. Stephen,34 in the city of Chalons, 
and also to the little oratory of St. Gibrian ; but, as his relics were sepulchred 
in tlie earth below it, these fortunately escaped their ravages.35 Afterwards, 
while travellers journeyed by that spot, the sweetest sounds of music were 
heard by them, and as if these were issuing from St. Gibrian's grave; while, 
the sentinels on guard Avithin the fortifications of Chalons reported, that they 
had frequently observed bright lights streaming over C61e.3° Such portents 
caused a general popular veneration for the holy exile, whose body still lay 
there. Afterwards, the religious Count Haderic obtained permission, from 
R6doard,37 bishop of Chalons, that he might remove the body of St. Gibrian 
to a place, where suitable honour might be rendered. His remains, in the 
latter end of the ninth century, were accordingly removed to Rheims. From 
Chalons, they were brought first to the village of Balbiac, where for three 
years, they were honourably preserved, and, afterwards, they were removed to 
that city, selected for their final deposition. 3^ In those days, the removal of 
a saint's remains from one place to another was reluctantly submitted to by 
the people, among whom they had been preserved ; and, this will probably 
account for the secrecy observed, on that occasion, when it was resolved, to 
take St. Gibrian's body away by night. A boatman had been ordered to 
have his skifi"in readiness, before the dawn of day, and near the holy man's place 
of sepulture on the river's side. A priest and three men, sent by the Count, 
were waiting the boatman's arrival ; but, notwithstanding frequent shouts 
to guide him near their station, the skiff appears to have got aground, on the 
opposite bank, nor could it be moved. The priest and his companions then 
devoutly prayed, that means should be furnished them, to remove the body. 
As if by miracle, the skiff was detached from its fastenings, and it was driven 
over where they waited. Next, approaching'the tomb, the sacred relics were 
reverently raised from the sarcophagus, placed in a new shrine, and removed 
to the boat. When the bones of St. Gibrian had been kept for two years, at 
Balbiac, Count Haderic and his pious wife Heresinde went on a visit, to the 
city of Rheims. That removal of St.^Gibrian's remains took place, when Fulco,39 
or Foulques, was Archbishop over the See,''° and, therefore, some time 
betw-een 882 4' and 900,4^ or 901.43 His noble visitors preferred a request, 
that the shrine of the saint might be placed, on the right side of his church, 
near the opening to the crypt. Their petition was granted. The relics were 
reverently placed, within the basilica of St. Remigius ; while, an altar was 
built, in honour of the holy man,44 and most beautifully ornamented, even 

35 For an account of their wars in this 39 The Bollandists state, tliat he was at 

century, the reader is referred to the "An- first Abbot of St. Berlin, at Silhieu, and 

nales Vedastini," in Pertz's "Monumenta Abbot elect of St. Vedast, at Arras, in 851. 
Germanise Ilistorica Scriptoium," tomus i., ^° According to St. Giberian's Acts, 

pp. 516 to 531. 41 This year was the first of his archiepis- 

^ According to the Manuscript Codex copate, after the death of Hincmar. 
of the Monastery of St. Remigius, at ■•' According to the BoUantiists, on the 

Rheims. 17th of June, a.d. 900, he was assassinated. 

3' Bishop Rodoard flourished in the ninth •'^ At tlie instigation of Baudouin, Count 

century. His successor Mancion was pre- of Flanders, one Winemere committed this 

sent at the consecration of Ilerivcius, Arch- barbarous murder, a.d. 901, according to 

bishop of Rheims, who succeeded Fulco, the Petits Bollandistes, " V^ies des Saints," 

when the latter died, A.u. 900. tome vii., Juin 17. See pp. 104, 105. 

3^ In his " Historia Rhemtnsi," written in ^-i We may infer, from the account of 

the tenth century, the Priest Flodoardus, Flodoard, that this was the gift of Count 

lib. iii., cap. ix., gives a particular account of Haderic. See his "Historia Rhemensis," 

this Translation. lib. iii., cap. ix. 


with the precious metals. Here was the noble monastery church,45 more 
ancient than the magnificent cathedral,"*^ and dedicated to that holy bishop, 
who was patron of Rheinis ; and, over the high altar — called the Golden 
Altar — of this church, the body of St. Gibrian was preserved within a shrine. 
When the body had been brought away from Cole, a blind woman, named 
Erentrude, came to that place, with a candle to present, as her humble offer- 
ing. Finding that Gibrian's remains had been removed from his sarcopha- 
gus, she asked why the saint had permitted it, or why he should desert the 
people, who had obtained such great benefits from his patronage. With ear- 
nest prayers for her recovery, she then went to the village of Matusgum, where 
his brother Veran was buried and greatly venerated. There, she deposited 
her candle on his tomb, and prostrated in tears before it, she prayed to both 
holy brothers for restoration of her sight. Her petition was granted, and the 
afflicted woman left the spot, filled with a holy joy, when she again saw the light 
of day."*? The body of St. Gibrian was transferred to a new shrine, in the 
year 11 14, and then, too, various miracles took place,4^ while a large con- 
gregation was present."*? The shrine of St. Gibrian was preserved, until the 
period of the French Revolution ; but, at present, both the shrine and its 
sacred deposit have completely disappeared. s° At this time, a general system 
of robbery and plunder was organized in France : in various places, the 
churches were despoiled of their plate and valuables. s^ Not far from his ancient 
tomb, in the diocese of Chalons, there is a village, known as St. Gibrien.s^ 
On the Continent, the feast of St. Gibrian is commemorated, at the 8th of 
May, by Usuard,53 as also in a Manuscript Martyrology of Rheims,54 and in 
another Florarius Sanctorum. Besides Greven,Canisius,Saussay, Ferrarius,and 
Molanus, have his festival entered, for this same date. The Irish and Scotch 
also celebrate his memory. Thus, Thomas Dempster places him, in his 
" Menologium Scoticum,"5s as also, Adam King,5^ in his Kalendar, at this 

''^ It is remarkable for its large nave, and by an anonymous editor of the Chronicle of 

fine stained glass windows. Sigebert of Gemblours : " Remis in caenobio 

■** This grand structure is attributed to the B. Remigii S. Gibrianus Scotus multis claret 

genius of an architect, Robert de Coucy, virtutibus, et multo populi concursu fre- 

who flourished in the earlier part of the quentatur." 

thirteenth century. For an account of it, ^° See Les Petits Bollandistes, " Vies des 

with a fine engraved illustration, the reader Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, p. 403. 

is referred to Elisee Reclus' " Nouvelle ^i gee Eyre Evans Crowe's "History of 

Geographie Universelle," liv. ii., chap, xi., France," vol. iv., chap, xxxix., p. 520. 

sect, v., pp. 705 to 709. 52 His brothers and his sisters are also 

''7 See Flodoard's " Historia Rhemensis," publicly venerated ; for, in the dioceses of 

lib. iii., cap. ix. Rheims and of Chalons, many churches have 

"•^ Camerarias, in his work " De Scotorum been dedicated, under the invocation of St. 

Pietate," lib. iii., at the 8th of May, refers Veran, ofSt. H«lain, of St. Tresain, and of 

to a History of this translation, which was St. Possene. See Les Petits Bollandistes, 

contained in three Books. Father Hen- " Vies des Saints," tome v., 8 Mai, p. 403. 

schenn hoped to obtain a transcript of that ^3 It enters, "Remis depositio S. Gibriani 

Tract, before printing the Acts of St. Gib- Confessoris, in Ecclesia S. Remigii quies- 

rian, at this date ; but, owing to wars then centis. 

prevailing, and consequent interruption of ^4 gaid to have belonged to the church of 

commerce, he was unable to procure it. St. Timothy and of St. Apollinarus. It occurs 

However, a promise is made, that if it came under this form: "In pago Catalaunico 

to hand, the account should be inserted, at depositio St. Gibriani Presbyteri et Con- 

the end of the volume, which he had been fessoris." 

engaged in editing; and, ifnot, hestillhoped, ss At the 8th of May : " Rhemensi terri- 

that it should appear, in a supplement to some torio Gibriani confessoris cumseptem fratri- 

future volume. See "Acta Sanctorum," bus et duabus sororibus, qui omnes miraculis 

tomus ii., Mail viii. De S. Gibriano Pres- inclaruerunt et vel a sede Apostolica, vel a 

bytero," &c. Commentarius Praevius, num. loci Antistite elevati, Sanctisque adnume- 

I, p. 300. rati." — Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars ofScot- 

*9 At A.D. 1145. thi^ matter is thus related, tish Saints," pp. 198, 199. 


day. In the anonymous list, published by O'SuUevan Beare, at the 8th of 
May, Gibrianus is entered-^? He is also noticed, by Father Stephen White.s^ 
The Irish people cannot learn too much about their European missionaries — 
those grand pillars of Faith and of truth — whose names stud the pages of 
Church history, like so many fixed landmarks of a past civilization, in which 
those servants of Christ have had a glorious share. 

Article III. — Reputed Festival of Saints Fraxca, or Franda, 
Promptia and Possena, in France. {^Fi/th and Sixth Centuries.] As 
already noticed, in our account of St. Gibrian at this day, his devoted sisters, 
Franca or Franda, Promptia and Possena, are accorded a feast, likewise, at 
the 8th of May, by Arthur de Monstier,' by Laherius,^ and by Saussay.3 The 
Bollandists acknowledge, however, that elsewhere they find no warrant for 
this festival.4 

Article IV. — St. Comman, of Tigh-mic-Fignnchain. In the pub- 
lished Martyrology of Tallagh,' we find no entry of the present saint, or of 
his feast. The copy of the Tallagh Martyrology, belonging to the Dublin 
Franciscan Convent, has a notice, however, at the eighth of the May Ides 
about Comman,* while his place is denominated — probably as given in the 
later Martyrology of Donegal. The locality, denominated Tig-mac- 
Fionnchain, does not appear to be known ; nor do we find any correspond- 
ing nomenclature for it, among the parochial or townland etymons, on the 
Ordnance Survey Maps for Ireland. The Bollandists ^ have a feast for Com- 
munus de Teghunc Fendchain, sive de domo filii Fianthaim, but, it seems 
pretty certain, they have mispelled some of the letters in the original entry, 
drawn from the Tallagh Martyrology. The Martyrology of Donegal * re- 
gisters a festival, on this day, in honour of Comman, of Tigh mic Fionn- 

Article V. — St. Odhran, Bishop. The name of Odran, a Bishop, is 
entered in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 8th of May. In the 
Franciscan copy,' a like notification appears, at same date — the eighth of the 
May Ides. The Bollandists ^ enter Odranus Episcopus, quoting the fore- 
going Martyrology. Where he exercised the episcopal office does not seem 
to be known, nor the time when he flourished. St. Odrian, Bishop, and 
Tutelar saint of Waterford, was revered, at tlie 8th of May, according to the 

5* Thus :*' S.Gibriane Confess. Scotsman 111 ac pnclioii. The writer has a great 

vnder KingConrannus." — Jbid., p. 152. doubt, if the first n in the latter patronymic 

57 See " Histori^e Catholire Ibernise Com- should not be rather o or ■o ; but, he has set 

pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., p. 50. it down, to correspond with the entry, in the 

55 See "Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. iv., Martyrology of Donegal, 

p. 41. 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

Article hi. — ' In "Gynceceum Sa- Mail viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

crum." p. 284 

' In " Menologium Virginum." " Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

3 In " M.irtyrologium Gallicanum." 122,123. 

♦ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii Article v. — ' Edited by Rev.Dr. Kelly, 

viii. Among the pretermitted saints, p. p. xxiii. 

284. -The entry is 0-o]\aiii epi. 

Article IV. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, ^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

at p. xxiii. Maii viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

' In the Franciscan copy, ComtriAni C15 p. 284. 


Rev. Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints,'* and the Circle of the Seasons ;5 but, 
here, the present saint seems to have been confounded with St. Otteran, Bis- 
hop and Confessor, whose feast is rather referable to the 27th of October.^ 
There was a holy well, called Tobar-Odran, near the churchyard of Kil- 
keeran,7 in the parish of Castlejordan,^ and Deanery of Mullingar.9 It lies 
within the barony of Upper Moyfenrath. An aged ash tree spreads its 
branches over the ancient altar-site. ^° But, whether the well and former 
church had been dedicated to the present saint, or to some one of the other 
eight Odrans, mentioned in our calendars, does not appear to be readily ascer- 
tainable. A festival in honour of Odhran— without any other title — was 
celebrated on this day, accordijig to the Martyrology of Donegal." The 
Very Rev. Laurence F. Renehan, D.D., and former President of St. Patrick's 
College, Maynooth, most certainly fell into an error, when he states, that the 
Martyrologies of Tallagh and of Donegal mention a St. Odran, Bishop, 
whose feast was kept, on the 8th of July.'^ He probably meant the 8th of 

Article VL — Feast of St. Indract, with his Sister, St. Domi- 
nica, AND his Companions, who were Martyrs. \_Seventh or Eighth 
Century. '\ In the Martyrology of Salisbury, the festival of these saints has 
been placed, at the 8th 'of May. This account is further sustained, by the 
authority of the Tallagh and Altempsian Martyrologies,' as the Bollandists 
remark, at the same date.^ Already have we given their Acts, at the 5th 
of February ;3 which seems to be recognised, as the chief day for their com- 
memoration. * At the 8th of May, Richard VVhitford s places the Festival of 
St. Indract, a King of Ireland, who abdicated his kingdom, and who is said 
to have set out with his sister St. Dominica, and with various other com- 
panions, who all suffered martyrdom.^ 

Article VII. — St. Brenann. Veneration was given on this day to 

Brenann, as we find mentioned, in the Martyrology of Donegal.' Who he 

was, and where or when he lived, have not transpired. 

* See vol. v., May viii. " Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
5 See p. 129. 122, 123. 

* See notices of him, at that date. " Dr. Renehan adds : " However, he is 
' It is shown, on the " Ordnance Survey so unknown to other authorities, and his his- 

Townland Maps for the County of Meath," tory is so unknown even to these, that I think 

sheet 46. they mistook his rank and feast together." — 

* The larger portion of this parish is Letter, dated Maynooth College, Feast of St. 
within the Baronies of Coolestown and Otteran, 1845,' addressed to Mrs. Keshan, 
Warrenstown, and this is described, on the Lady Superioress of the Presentation Con- 
" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for vent, Waterford. 

the King's County," sheets 3, 4, 10, 11, 19; Article vi. — ' These have " SS. In- 

while the other part, within the Barony of dractus, Dominica et Socii, Martyres, in 

Upper Moylenraih is to be seen, on the Anglia." 

" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the ' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

County of Meath, " sheets 46, 52. Mail viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

9 This parish, situated within the baronies p. 2S4. 

of Fartullagh, Moyashel and Magherader- ^ See vol. ii. of this work, Art. ii. 

non, is described on the "Ordnance Survey "* See also Colgan's "Acta SanctorumHi- 

Townland Maps for the County of West- berniK," v. Februarii, Vita S. Indracti et S. 

meath," sheets 12, 18, 19, 25, 26, 27. The Dominica; Virginis ac Sociorum Mart) rum, 

town and townland are on sheet 19. pp. 253 to 255. 

'° See Rev. A. Cogan's "Diocese of 5 in the Martyrology of Salisbury. 

Meath, Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., * See the Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," 

chap, xviii., p. ^96. tomus i., Februarii v. De Sanctis Martyri- 



[May 8. 

Article VIII. — St. Barrion, Bishop of Cill-Bairrinn. This 
holy man, although having been honoured with episcopal dignity, seems to 
have simply received a local celebrity, for we only find his name, place and 
festival set down, by one ' of our modern authorities. He is called St. Barrion, 
of Cill-Bairrinn,* said to have been in the county of Donegal. Duald Mac 
Firbis enters liis feast, under the head of Cill Barrinn. To the north of Es 
Ruadh,3 he has Bairrion, bishop.4 The parish of Kilbarron, is in the former 
district, known as Tirhugh, from which the modern barony has been named, 
while its position is along the western coast of Donegel, and there bounded 
by the Atlantic Ocean. 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of a St. Benignus. In the 
" Menologium Scoticum " of Camerarius, tliere is a festival, at the 8th of May, 
for Benignus, who is characterised as a saint, and about whom there is men- 
tion made, in the Acts of St. Livinus.' The BoUandists * have a similar 
reference, at the present date. 

Article X. — Festival of Saints Victor and Maximus, In the 
Feilire ^ of St. ^ngus, and at the 8th of jNIay, the festival for Saints Victor 
and Maximus is found recorded. The Scholiast observes on this passage, that 
their martyrdom took place in Milan. ^ However, this place, assigned for 
their crown, only had reference to Victor, who is said to have been of 
Moorish extraction. 3 St. Maximus seems to have been one among an illus- 
trious company of Martyrs,'' who laid down their lives for the Faith of Christ, 
in Byzantium, now Constantinople. Their Acts, written in the Greek lan- 
guage, have been preserved, and these have been translated into Latin, by 
the BoUandists. 5 

bus Indracto, Dominica et ix. Sociis Glas- 
tonire in Anglia. Commentarius Praevius, 
sect, ii., num. 6, p. 689. 

Article vii. — ' Edited by Rev. Drs. 
Todd and Reeves, pp. 122, 123. 

Article viii. — ' Duald Mac Firbis. 

- Kilbarron, county of Donegal. William 
M. Hennessy's note. 

3 Now Assaroe waterfall, near Ball)'- 

* See " Proceedings of the Royal Irirh 
Academy," Iiish MSS. Series, vol. i., part 
i., pp. 94, 95. 

Article ix. — "• See his Life, at the 12th 
of November. 

^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Mail viii. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 2S5. 

AuTici.E X. — ' The followmg entry is 
from the " Leabhar Breac " copy : — 

•Uiccof Agup lIlAxim 
llni Ctmit coc*]\iiicj-ec 
<\l\feii\cc i\i5 ]\(icc».\]\]*AC 
1n<\piiil ]:oc]\inc]'ec. 

It is thus Englished by I^r. Whiiley Stokes : 
"Victor and Maximus, for Christ they gave 
themselves : for afTection towards the kin" 

whom they loved they bathed in their 
blood." — " Transactions of the Royal Irish 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., 
part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. 

'Thus: "Victor agus Maxim .i. in 
med [i] olano passi sunt." — Ibid.^ p. 

3 See the BoUandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Mali viii. De S. Victore Mauro 
Martyre Mediolani, pp. 286 to 290. 

■* At Die Octava Mali, an account of their 
Passion will be found, under the following 
enumeration and heading : — '" De Sanctis 
Martyribus Agathio Milite, Maximo Presby- 
tt-ro, Anthe Diacono, Aiestino, Marino, 
Tampo. Stercita, Rogata, Victuria, Florida. 
Item Florida, Lucio, Donata, Victore, F!a- 
via, Joanne, Nina, Casto, Gaio, Furio, 
Maximo. Item Victore, Julia, Felice, Mar- 
ciano, Famosa, Ilonesta, Nigro, Baptizio, 
Rustico, i'roce>so, Secunda, Milito, Felicia, 
Maxima, Dativa, Tuniano, Eutitiio, Secun- 
dola, Datica, Gundino, Tertnlo, Ca;lestino, 
Faustino, Ceneriu, Baracho, Siddiiio. Item 
Nina, Tido, Mittuno, Sirico, Rogato, Bac- 
ciro, Gaddero, Bereuso, Donata, Spico, Ko- 
galo, Saturnina, Gaudiosa, Vitale, Cxcilia, 
Januaiia, Galla, Senero, Rogata, Matrona, 


Article XI. — Supposed Feast of St. Odranus, Charioteer of St. 
Patrick, and Martyr. S^Fifth Century.'] The Bollandists have a notice 
of Odranus, likewise, while he is supposed to have been that charioteer of 
St. Patrick,' who sacrificed his own life, to save that of his master,^ and whose 
Acts have been already set down, at the 19th of Februar3\3 

Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Cataldus, Bishop of Taren- 
tum, Italy. This holy bishop — an Irish saint — is thought to have departed 
life, on the Sth of May, as recorded in various Festilogies.' He is venerated, at 
Tarentum in Italy. It is pretended, by Thomas Dempster,^ that he came from 
lona, in Scotland.3 At the Sth of May, Cataldus, Epis. is found in Father 
Henry Fitzsimon's List of Irish Saints.-^ This is regarded as his Natalis.s 
However, the Roman Martyrology has his chief festival, at the loth of May, 
when the finding and translation of his body took place. 

Article XIII. — St. Fiacrius, of Iona, Scotland. A St. Fiacrius 
is set down, in the anonymous Catalogue of Irish Saints, at the Sth of May.' 
He, no doubt, is that Fiacer, Con., of Henry Fitzsimon's list. At the same 
date, on the authority ofSurius, he is classed among our Irish Saints.^ Colgan 
enters him as a sainted abbot of Iona.3 However, this Fiacrius does not 
appear, in Rev. Dr. Reeves' list of Abbots there ; but, he has the departure 
ofaFiachraUa h Artagain, Aircinnech of lae, at a.d. 97S,4 while Mugron 
presided over that community, in quality of Abbot. 5 

^intl; JBay of jiflap. 



THE great gift of ruling justly and religiously is to be brought from the 
depths of a conscience, which God inspires, and not from the frigid 
lessons of mere philosophy. Such appears to have been the foundation on 

Augustina. Item Satunino, Rufo, Victore, viri, depositio, qui Iona Scotorum Insula 

Faustino, Cithino, Zadero, Anliquo. Item oriundus, eo profectus. Gh." — Bishop 

Nina, Saturo, Nicoma, Byzantii, Nunc Con- Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," 

stantinopoli." — Ibid., pp. 291 to 299. p. 199. 

5 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii * See O'.SuUevan Beare's " Historise 

viii. De Sanctis Martyribus Agatho MiHte, Catholicse Ibernia; Compendium," tomus i., 

Maximo Presbytero, &c., pp. 291 to bb. iv., cap. xi., xii., pp. 50, 53. 

299. 5 See Ughelli's " Italia Sacra," tomus ix. 

Article xi. — ' See his Life, in vob iii. Tarentina Metropolis, col. 121. 

of this work, at the seventeenth day of Article xiii.— ' See O'Sullevan Beare's 

March, Art. i., chap. xxi. " Historiie Catholicas Ibernios Compen- 

- See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., p. 50. 

Quarta Vita S. Patricii, p. 50. = See ibid., cap. xii., p. 54. 

3 See vol. ii. of this work. Art. i. 3 gee "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta Ap- 

Article XII. — ' See the Bollandists' pendix ad Acta S. Columbse, cap. iii., sect. 

"Acta Sanctoruiu," tumus ii., Maii viii. v., p. 502. 

Among the pretermitted saints, p. 284. '' See Adamnan's " Life of St. Columba." 

^ In his " Menologium Scoticum." Additional Notes O, p. 395. 

3 The following is his notice, at the Sth of s He ruled from 964 to 980. See ibid., 

May : " Tarenti Cataldi episcopi, Apostolici pp. 394, 395. 


which rested the motives, aims, and practice, of this holy servant of God, in 
reference to his own sanctifi cation, and to the spiritual welfare of those he had 
in charge. Regarding the biographical particulars of this early saint, there 
is a considerable amount of obscurity. By some writers, he is supposed to 
be the same as St. Sannan, the reputed brother of our great Apostle, St. 
Patrick.' This identification, however, seems inadmissible; especially, if 
we acknowledge his father Samuel to have been a king of Britain, and his 
mother to have been Drechura, daughter to Muredach Munderg, King of 
Ultonia.' It is certain, that Bishop Sanctain flourished, at an early period, 
since his feast is set down, and with a special reference to his celebrity, in 
the Feilire of St. yEngus,3 at this day. The commentator on this Feilire * 
states, that he was of Kill-da-leis ;S and, he quotes the authority of yEngus 
for such assertion. This place appears to be unknown, or it has not yet 
been properly identified. To Sanctain also belonged Druimhaighille, in 
Tradraighe,^ as we are informed. Drumlaighille 7 is identified with Drum- 
lille,^ in the deanery of Tradery, and barony of Bunratty, in Clare County. 
According to an opinion,^ Cill-da-Has may represent Cildalaish, i.e., the 
Church of Dalaise, or Molaise, now Killalish,'° in the parish of Kilranelagh, 
and barony of Upper Talbotstovvn, in the county of Wicklow. There is 
another place called Killaliss," in the parish of Knockbride,'^ and barony of 
Clankee, in the county of Cavan. According to another conjecture,'3 Drum- 
laighille is perhaps identical with Tigh Laigille, in the south-east of Ossory ; 
for, Tradraighe may have been written, by an oversight, for Osraighe ;'■» 
however, the latter seems to us as a mistake, not likely to have occurred. 
In addition to the notice of this saint, at the 9th of May, in the Feilire of St. 
^ngus, the simple entry Sanctan of Cill-da-les, is found in the published 
Martyrology of Tallagh,'5 at that same date. In the Franciscan copy, it seems 
to read somewhat differently.'^ It is a difficult matter to determine the site 

Article i — ' See his Life, at the 17th says: and, I know not where Kill-da-leis is : 
of March, in the Third Volume of this work, and to him belongs Druimlaighille, in Trad- 
Art, i., chap. iii. raighe." 

« See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga." ? See the "Book of Obits, and Martyr- 

Prima Vita S. Patricii, n. 13, p. 8. ology of the Cathedral Church of the Holy 

3 In the " Leabhar Breac " copy, we find Trinity, commonly called Christ Church, 

the following stanza : — Dublin," Introduction, p. Ix., n. (i). 

* This is said to be the Druim Leaghine, 

^AiLt-fiujuT) mo|\ michiL which is mentioned, in the "Atmalsofthe 

TDonbich b<\fcel iDi\onichA Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (t), p 669. Dr. 

pAi]' CiimII CAin Cc^l^chA O'Donovan's edition. 1. \ 

e]*cop SAiiccAin fochlA. ' Of Rev. John Francis Shearman. * 

'° It is divided into Upper and Lower | 

It is thus translated, by Dr. Whitley Stokes : Killalish. It is shown, on ihe "Ordnance 

" Michael's great m.inifestation to the world, Survey Townland Maps for the County of 

it was a proven story. The passion of Cyril, Wicklow," sheets 27,32. 

fair, beloved. Famous bishop Sanctain." — " See "Ordnance Survey Townland 

On the Calendar of Oengus, p. Ixxix. See Maps for the County of Cavan," sheet 23. 

" Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," " This is described, ihiiL, on sheets 22, 

Irish Manuscript Scries, vol i., part i. 23, 27, 28, 33. 

* In " Leabhar Hreac " copy. "' Of the Rev. John Francis Shearman. 

5 " Colitur S. Sanctanus Episcojius geneve '•• See " Loca Patriciana," No. x., pp. 

Britannus die 9' Maii in Ecclesia de Killda- 92, 93. "Journal of ilic Royal Historical 

leas in Langenia." — Colgan's "Trias Thau- and Archaeological Association of Ire- 

maturga,"n. 13, p. 8. land," vol. iv.. Fourth Series, July, 1876. 

*The text of the Irish gloss is as follows. No. 27. 

with its English translation : — ".I.e. Chill 'S Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

■OA leif •00, uc <\en5U)' x)icicec nc^'cio u\)i " So far as the writer can decipher the 

efC Cell X)A leif ^Njur M" ^^M' 'Opuitii Irish text, it appears to be Saiicaii 1 Cill, 

Iai^iIIc 1 C|\Arp<\ij;c." and over the line in smaller characters. 

''i.e., he was of Kill-da-lcis, as i^Engus Cen-oinAi\ .1. 0* leif. 

May 9.] 



of Cill-da-leis ; but, a conjecture has been offered, that as Colgan fixes its 
site in Leinster, it may be no other than the Church of KildelHg,'7 in the 
barony of Upper Ossory, or Clarmallagh, Queen's County. The Bollandists'^ 
notice him, hkewise, at this day, and quoting the Martyrology of Tallagh, as 
Sanctanus de Kill-da-leas. It has been very generally allowed, that St. Sane- 
tan was a native of Britain. It is stated, moreover, that he was a son of Samuel 
Chendisel, or "the low-headed," who was a king of Britain, while his mother was 
Dectir, or Dechter, a daughter of Muiredach Muinderg,^? (red-necked). King of 
Ulster.^° His uterine brother was St. Madoc,^' or Matoc, the pilgrim, who 
has a festival, at the 25th of April. ^^ The latter, however, is related to have 
been son to Canton, a King of Wales or West Britain, which gives reason to 
suspect, that these brothers were sons to different fathers, and that their mother 
had been twice married. According to a statement made,^3 the father of these 
saints, is thought to have been Selyf,^'* Regulus of Cornuaill,^5 in Armorica, 
who first married Gwen,^^ and secondly, Dechtv^r, the mother of the saints 
already mentioned, and thirdly, he married Hauriila.^7 Selyf is said to have 
been the son of Geraint,='^ son to Erybyn,'9 son of Cystennen Llydavv or 
Vendegaid,3° son to Salomon or Salann,3i gQj^ ^f Urbain or Yrb,^^ son to 

'' " In the Manuscript Visitation Book of 
Dr. James Phelan, appointed Bishop of 
Ossory in 1669, is preserved a list of the 
Patrons of tlie Churches of the Diocese, and 
in the deanery of Aghavoe we meet with 
this parish cliurch of Kildelyg, and its patron 
is marked '''' Sanctiis Ernanits sen Senanns, 
Abbas." This can be no other than omx St. 
Sanrtan, or Sanctain." — " Irish Ecclesiasti- 
cal Record," First Series, vol. iv., April, 
1868, pp. 318, 319. 

'^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii ix. Among tlie pretermitted saints, 
P- 358. 

'5 He is said to have flourished a.d. 479. 

^° A gloss on the Feilire of ^ngus, con- 
tained in tlie " Leabhar Breac," gives such 
a statement, and it is quoted from a pro- 
phecy, in the following lines : — 

efpucSAnccAin 1|" mo cheAii 
fllAC SAiinieL CheiToi]'el 
TDecci^A A inAcAi^A cen nieiixj 
liijeii inui]\e'OAi5 mtiiTDei|\5. 

" Bishop Sanctain is my beloved. 
The Sim of Samuel Chendisel, 
Dectir was his mother with stain. 
The daughter of Muiredach Muin- 
It must be observed, here, that Dr. Whitley 
Stokes' translation differs from the fore- 

^' His original name was Doc, or Docus, 
which in tlie Irish and Welsh assumed the 
form of Cadoc, Mocadoc, and phonetically 
Madoc. Matoc, Matauc, Madowg and Ma- 
dog are merely different renderings of the 
same name. See Zeuss' " Grammatica Cel- 
tica," p. 15. 

"^ See vol. iv. of this work, at that date. 
Art. iii. 

'3 By Rev. John Francis Shearman, in 

his " Genealogy of some Cambrian and Ar- 
morican Saints connected with Ireland in 
the Fifth and Sixtli Centuries," Table No. 
9. "Journal of the Kilkenny Historical 
and Archceological Association of Ireland," 
vol. iii., part ii., Fourth Series, 1875. 
" Loca Patriciana," No. viii., p. 381. 

""^ It is asked, if he be identical with 
Samuel Cendissel of the Donegal Martyr- 
ology ? 

"^ This province always had its particular 
Counts, from Theodoric to Hoel, father of 
Alan Cagnart, and those Counts became 
masters of all Bretagne, in the tenth cen- 
tury. See Dom Gui Alexis Lobineau's 
" Histoire de Bretagne, Composee sue le 
Titres et les Auteurs origineaux," tome i., 
liv. i., sect, c, p. 27. A Paris, 1707, fol. 

"^ By this marriage, he is said to have 
been father to St. Cybi or Cubius of Caer 
Gybi, or Holyhead, in Wales. He is vene- 
rated at November 6th. See Ussher's 
Works, vol. v., pp. no, 340. It has been 
stated, also, that she was probably his second 

-^ She was daughter to Hoel, first King 
of Armorica. 

_ ^^ Pie was Regulus of Dyvniant in Armo- 
rica, and he came over to assist King Arthur 
against the Saxons. By these, he was slain, 
at Longborth, A.D. 530. See "Myrvian 
Archaelogy," vol. ii., p. 68. 

^5 He was Regulus of Dyvniant, or Dom- 
onia, in Armorica. See Rev. Dr. James 
Henthorn Todd and Hon. Algernon Her- 
bert's edition of beAbhA|\ biAeAchneAch 
Aiini^o pi% or The Irisli Version of the His- 
toria Britonum of Nennius, p. c. 

3° Called also the Blessed. He was 
Regulus of Gorniu or Cornuaile, in the 
diocese of Quimper, in Armorica. He came 
to aid the Bri:ons, against the Picts and 


Cynan, or Conan Meriada\vg,33 who was grandson to Caradawg ap Bran Ven- 
digaid ap Llyr Llediath.34 During tlie time of St. Sanctan, Britain had to suffer 
from the ravages of war, and from her new invaders tlie Angli and Saxons. 
Everywhere, except in Wales and Cornwall, Saxon paganism had trampled 
down the British Church. 35 Idol temples had sprung up, with their unhallowed 
rites and sacrifices. Even, in the strongholds of British power, the tide of 
invasion, without severe struggles, could not be stemmed back, or the minis- 
trations of religion be kept alive. 3^ To such circumstances, perhaps, may 
largely be attrilDuted the influx of many Britons, who landed and settled, on 
the eastern coasts of our own country. The Saxons fell upon the British pro- 
vinces, wasting them in a terrible manner; towns and fortifications were 
demolished ; churches and houses were burned ; horrible cruelties were 
exercised in all places ; while, great numbers of the Christians, clergy, and 
people, were put to the sword. 37 Both the holy brothers already named left 
Britain, and emigrated to Ireland. According to tradition, Matoc preceded 
his brother Sanctan, in the date for arrival. Sanctan remained some time, at 
the school of Cluain Iraird, now Clonard, in Meath, where, we may expect, he 
made great progress in learning. Afterwards, he set out to join the com- 
munity of his brotlier, ISIatoc, then settled in Inis-Matoc. This place has 
been identified with Inis-Maedhoc, or Inis-Mogue, an Island in Templeport 
Lake, county of Leitrim.38 Other accounts have it, that Inis-Matoc may be 
identified with Inis-Fail.39 St. Sanctain is said to have spent most of his time 
in Ireland, but we know not how long he remained with his brother Matoc. 
It is thought by some,'*° that the present St. Santan, or Sanctain, selected a 
place for his retreat, situated in the wild and picturesque valley of Glenasmole, 
under the Dublin Mountains. From him, it went by the name of Cill 
Easpuig Sanctan. •'^ Whether Cill-da-les is identical with that denomination, 

Irish, in 432. He was elected Pendragon 3? See John Burton's " Monasticon Ebora- 

of Britain, but, he was slain by the Picts, in censa ; and the Ecclesiastical History of 

442. Yorkshire," &c.. Book i., p. 8, York, 1758, 

3' He was King of Armorica, from A.i). fol. 

410 to 421, but, he was slain by his uncle ^s ggg « Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

Grallon, Count of Vannes, who usurped the Academy," vol. vi. Dr. Graves' Paper on 

throne. He was married to a daughter of the Ogham Notes in the St. Gall MS. of 

the Patrician Flavius. Priscian, 2, read on Monday, April 9th, 

3' Count of Nantes. 1855, p. 211. In that " Codex Priscianus " 

33 He was Regulus of Meriodawg, in of St. Gall in Switzerland, at p. 194, there 

North Britain. He went with an army to is the marginal gloss : — "'Oo mi]' in«\t)T0OC 

aid Maxen Wledig, the husband of Elen his 'oiin .1. nieifi'e &'^^X Clioi]Nbhi\e, of Inis- 

cousin, against Gratian, the Roman Emperor, madoc we are, that is myself and Cairpre." 

«';Yrt 383. He got possessions in Armorica, If this indentification be correct, it seems 

where he died, circa 410. See " Myrvian prol)able enough, that St. Matoc's name must 

Archaeology," vol. ii., p. 60. be substituted for St. Maidoc's name of 

3'» See Kees' " Lives of the Cambro-British Ferns, who traditionally passed his earlier 

Saints," p. 89, &c. days on the Lsland of Templeport Lake. 

35 Rudburn asserts, that the Cornish 39 gt. Mo-chatoc, a disciple of St. Patrick 

people submitted to the humiliation of pay- and of St. Eiecc, choose Inis-Fail for his 

ing tribute to the Saxons, in the time of monastci-y ; and, perhaps from the founder, 

Ceidic, in order that they might be allowed it was afterwarrls called Inis-Madoc. See 

to observe their religious rites without moles- "Irish Ecclesiastical Record," vol. iv , 

tation. April, 1S68. Hymn of St. Sanctan, pp. 321, 

3"' " Cerdicum ssepius cum Arthuro con- 322, and n. 2. Ibid. 

fllxisse, pertaesum Arthurum cum Ccrdico •'° Others suppose, that St. Santan of Kil- 

deinceps prailia inire foedus cum illo pepi- nasau tan was more properly commemorated, 

gisse, et concessisse Cerdicum Cornubiensi- at the 17th of September, 

bus ut sub annuo tributo ritum Christiana; •" See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

religionis obscrvarent." — '' Chronicon," lib. Four Masters," record of the Obit of Caen- 

ii., cap. i. — Usshcr, " De Primordiis,'' chomraic, abbot of Cill Easpuig Sanctan, at 

cap. xiii. A.n. 952, vol. ii., I'p. 668,669. 

May 9.] 



or otherwise, has not been very clearly demonstrated. In mediaeval times, 
that place among the Dublin Mountains acquired the name of Temple- 
Sanctan ;i2 and, it also bore the designation of Kill Sanctan, Kilmesantanj'fs 
or Kilmasanctan. In our own day, it still retains the correct rendering Kilna- 
santan.''4 It lies within the ancient territory of Hy Dunchada. Here, a reli- 
gious community appears to have flourished, at least to the middle of the 
tenth century.'ts That church is alluded to, by Archbishop Alan,'*^ where he 
gives a copy of the " Concessio," in the 20th year of Henry II., a.d. 1173, 
and another, at a.d. 1193 ; as also, in the Bull of Innocent 111.^7 Killnasantan 

Kilnasaiitan Old Church, County of Dublin. 

is situated in the barony of Rathdown, and county of Dublin. Interments here 
are on the south and west of the present ruined church,4^ with some few 
graves visible at the east side. The old church of Killnasantan is now almost 
completely destroyed, only a fragment of the south side wall remaining.^? 
There is a ruined window, with an interior splay in this wall. 5° The founda- 

^'^ In 1547, in the Taxation of the Dio- 
cese of Dublin, it is called Temple Sauntan, 

'•'^ In the Register " Crede mihi," written 
in the thirteenth century, it is so called. See 
William Monck Mason's " History and 
Antiquities of the Collegiate and Cathedral 
Church of St. Patrick," Appendix, p. Ixvi. 

44 This historic name, however, is not 
given on the Irish Ordnance Survey Town- 
land Maps. 

45 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 668, 669, and 
n. (t). 

4^ See " Repertorium Viride," fol. 20, a. 
''^ These charters mention the churches be- 

longing to the See of Glendalach, and in 
which Cill-ma-Santain is named. 

4^ There, too, were to be seen the remains 
of a huge massive granite block, hollowed in 
the centre, to serve probably the purpose of 
a holy water font. It lies upturned in the 
cemetery, and formerly it must have be- 
longed to the old church. It is about 12 
inches, in depth ; and, about 3 feet, 4 inches, 
in diameter. The hollow is of a horse-shoe 

49 Visited and measurement taken by the 
author in May, 1873. 

s° The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the spot, by the writer, in May, 1873, 



[May 9, 

tions of a nave, levelled with the ground, measure 43 feet in length, 
interiorly, and 16 feet in width. The walls run about 3 feet in thickness. The 
cemetery around is well enclosed with a wall, and a hedge is on an elevated 
yet sloping knoll, some little distance from and high over the right bank of 
the Dodder River, about a mile or two miles below its source. The scenery 
around is truly magnificent, while the church itself nestled under the higher 
slopes of the Dublin Mountains. Near it is the locality of Bohernabreena, 
which is Anglicized, " the road of the Britons.s' Here, St. Sanctan probably 
founded a community ; and, perhaps, many of the religious brethren were Bri- 
tons, living under his rule. Moreover, St. Sanctan composed a celebrated hymn, 5» 
in the Irish language. Copies of this are yet preserved, in the " Liber Hymno- 
rum," belonging to the Fransciscan Convent, Dublin, and in another Codex, 
bearingthe same title, among the Manuscripts of Trinity College, Dublin. 53 An 
introduction to this hymn, as found in the Franciscan copy, states, that it had 
been composed, on his way from Cluain-Irard, to Inis-Matoc. It is also 
remarked, that before this time, Sanctan was completely ignorant of the 
Scottish language ; but, that he miraculously obtained the gift of Irish metri- 
cal composition. Yet, the time when he composed that hymn is uncertain. 
The cause assigned for composition of this poem was, that he might be pre- 
served from his enemies, and that his brother might admit him among his 
religious in the island. The Irish of this hymn, Avith an original translation 
into English, has been published, in the First Series of the " Irish Ecclesias- 
tical Record. "54 It breathes a fine devotional spirit throughout, and it con- 
tains a pious invocation, to the three persons of the Most Adorable Trinity. 

has been transferred to the wood, by 
William F. Wakeman, and it has been en- 
graved, by Mrs. Millard. 

5' Boher-na-Breena is an old historic 
locality, and its etymon has been otherwise 
derived. Here, from the earliest times was 
one of those houses of hospitality, maintained 
at the public cost. Legislation regarding 
them may be seen in the old Brehon laws. 
These hospices were erected on the principal 
roads of this countrj', for the reception and 
entertainment of travellers. In this same 
hospice, in the first century of the Christian 
era, was slain the Monarch of Ireland, 
Conaire-mor, by the sons of Dondesa, whom 
he had for their crimes banished into Britain. 
After spending some years in acts of piracy, 
they returned to Ireland, in company with 
Ancel Caech, the son of a British regulus, 
and who was a free-lance like themselves. 
Landing at Turvey, in Fingal, they marched 
to Tara, and there, not finding the king, they 
followed him to his retreat at Boher-na- 
Breena. The marauders avenged them- 
selves, by the violent death of the monarch, 
and the total destruction of the Bruighean, 
or palace ; and thence, it is said, the place 
takes its name, i.e., the Road of the Palace, 
or Hospice. 

5' This hymn is published in the " Goidi- 
lica," edited by Dr. Whitley Stokes, and in 
the " Irish Ecclesiastical Record," vol. iv., 
pp. 322 to 325. 

53 In that preserved, among the Trinity 
College Manuscripts, Dublin, it is classed, 
E. 4, 2, No. 21. 

5* See vol. iv., April, 1868, pp. 317 to 325, 
55 The following is the text of this 

hymn, with an English translation, and 

notes : — 

ei'cojD SdnccAn f ocIa' fpuchib* 
iiiitit) Anjebb cbochglAH geL 
'|\ot)oei\A mo coi\p f0]\ coibniAin 
]^o11cebA3 mAnniAin ^oj\ mem. 

Ilombiuh oyvoic leAC AmAii\e 
l\ob c]\ocAi^e |\unine 'oun 

<\p gum A]\ 5UA|V\CC A^ JAbuT) 
A ClMfCCOp ■00nAT3U'0'''0Ut1. 

Aceoch in im ■poe]\ ■puchAin 
oen5eiriiie5'DeT)iA]\ Vechim 
]\t)mniAin a|\ gAbchib 5e]\Aib 
mAc ]\o genAi^N imbechiL. 

" Bishop Sanctan, illustrious among the 

Angel-soldier of pure, bright fame ; 

My body is enslaved on Earth, 

May he receive my soul in Heaven. 
" Ofter a prayer forme, O Mary ! 

May the mercy of the mystery be 
unto us ; 

Against wounding, against danger, 
against suft'ering, 

O Christ ! aftbrd us thy protec- 
" I implore the noble, everlasting King ; 

^Iay the Only-Begotten of God 
plead for us ; 

Against sharp torments may 

The Son who was born in Bethle- 
hem defend me." 


In the St. Isidore Manuscript, " Liber Hymnorum," after this hymn follows a 
short poem, in the Irish language, in honour of Bishop Sanctain, and it is 
couched in three stanzas. ss These'are also preserved, in the '' Liber Hymn- 
orum,5^ which belongs to Trinity College, Dublin ; and, this contains some 
verbal different readings from the former. Wliile the hymn of St. Sanctan has 
been published in the " Goidilica ;"57 the hymn in praise of Bishop 
Sanctain has been omitted, 5^ although preserved in the " Liber Hymnorum," 
belonging to Trinity College. It has been stated, that an Irish Abbot, 
named St, Sennen, accompanied St. Burianna into Cornwall, where in the 
fifth and sixth centuries many holy Irishmen and women were engaged, in 
propagating the faith, while leading religious lives. 59 There is in Cornwall a 
small port town and parish, named from St. Sennan ; and, tradition says, 
that this saint went thither from Ireland. Having died there in his hermitage, 
a church was believed to have been erected over ]iis remains. In his Life of 
St. Wenefreda, John Capgrave states, that this hoiy virgin was interred there 
and near St. Sennan. According to one opinion,^° it is not improbable, that 
the present saint was identical with the Cornwall St. Sennan. To us, how- 
ever, it would seem more likely, that Sanctain passed his latter days in Ire- 
land. He flourished, during the sixth century ; but, no record appears to 
have been preserved, to determine the date for his death. St. Sanctain's 
well is still extant, at Glenasmole ; but, by a very curious misconception of 
a name, derived from the original founder, Killnasantan has been converted 
into Kill-St.-Anne. Thus, the memory of the ancient Cambrian Saint has 
been displaced, within the present century; although, it seems to have 
remained for ages previous, in popular veneration. The ancient patron has 
been now forgotten, since, by a facile adaptation of sound, Sanctain has been 
converted into St. Anne. During late years, a beautiful Catholic Gothic 
Church has been erected in the neighbourhood ; and, under the prevailing 
error, it has been dedicated to St. Anne f'^ although, as being near the ancient 
site, it is obvious, that it should have been dedicated to the patron St. Sanc- 
tain. A well-informed writer ^^ has observed, that there is unfortunately, 
now-a-days, an unhappy tendency, to pass over the old historic landmarks, 
regarding the veneration of our old Irish saints. To cultivate an acquaint- 
ance with their lives, and with the history of the times in which they flourished, 
should be the best means to keep alive a wholesome spirit of nationality and 
of faith, the preservation of which, under the most adverse circumstances, is 
the chief glory of our native land. Another church, connected with St. 
Sanctan, was Cill-Sanctan, near Coleraine, in Antrim, and now called Mount 

1. The MS. has fCA with the double sign itself only contains 10 stanzas, 
of contraction : hence we have supposed it ^7 At p. 92, first edition. 

to stand for -pociA, which is the characteris- ^s This presents some important readings, 

tic epithet applied to our saint by ^ngus. differing from the text already given ; but, 

2. T^uchib, abl. pi. of riwiicli. The Milan it has been published in the " Irish Ecclesi- 
Psalter has iniiA fyvticne as the gloss of astical Record," First Series, vol. iv., April, 
veterum. 3. ixonceoA — |\o-n-cebA, the n 1868, at p. 325. An English translation 
being the infixed personal pronoun, 3rd accompanies it. 

sing. In the next line, we have |\oinbich 59 See J. T. Blight's " Churches of West 

also for i\o-ni-bich, the m being the infixed Cornwall," published in 1865, p. i. 

pronoun ist sing. 4. "OonA-otTO for -oo *° See " The Irish Ecclesiastical Re- 

fnA'ou'o, the f being aspirated, and hence cord," vol. iv., April, 1868. Hymn of St. 

(as often occurs) omitted after the poss. pr. Sanctain, p. 317. 

■DO. 5. oengeinne is manifestly derived ^' By his Eminence Paul Cardinal 

from the Latin unigenitus. Cullen, Archbishop of Dublin, in the month 

5* The Manuscript, classed E 4, 2, No. of May, 1868. 

21. It is comprised in 13 stanzas, with the *^ Whose communication appears in the 

additional laudatory hymn. The Hymn " Nation," for June 6th, 1868. 


Sanctan.^3 The old church site is extant, in the townland of Fishloughan.^'» 
At the 9th of May, Marianus O'Gorman has recorded the festival of St. Sanctan. 
We read in the Martyrology of Donegal,^5 that on this day was venerated, 
Sanctan, son of Samuel Ceinnisel, Bishop of Cill-da-les. We are told, like- 
wise, that Dechter, daughter to Muireadhach Muinderg, King of Uladh, was 
his mother, and that she was also mother of Matoc, the pilgrim. ^^ Under the 
respective headings of Cill-da-les, and of Druim Laighille,^? Duald Mac 
Firbis^^ enters Sanctan, Bishop, at the 9th of May. The labours of our 
saints, the sowing time, the reaping, and the harvest, were begun and ended, 
often with uninterrupted prayer and earnest contemplation, in their secluded 
places for physical and spiritual toil. They prayed together, when circum- 
stances permitted it, or when the rules of a religious life enforced such 
obligation. In the Life of St. Patrick, Jocelyn states, that St. Fiech, his dis- 
ciple, sent to Heaven before him no fewer than sixty saints.^9 These were 
numbered among his own disciples ; but, we may rest assured, that the influ- 
ences the great Apostle spread throughout Ireland had the result of raising 
up other great masters of the cloister, to emulate his holy work, and to bring 
with them many pious imitators, to enjoy the rewards of eternal life. 

Article II. — St. Mumboi-us, or Mombolus, Hermit and Abbot of 
Lagny, France. [^Seventh Century.'] In the time of this holy man, a pious 
emulation seized the Christian Irish and Scots to leave their homes, and to 
become evangelists, among people living on the Continent.' St, Mumbolus 
or Mombolus was born in Ireland, probably in the seventh century. After- 
wards, he went over to France. Tliere, he entered the Monastery of Lagny, 
as a disciple to St. Fursey.^ But few particulars regarding him have been 
recorded, by Miraeus 3 and Molanus,^ who place his festival, at the i8th of 
November. 5 After the death of his master, although third ^ in succession, he 
became principal over this monastery.7 But, his government of the inmates 
seemed to them rather austere ; and, a confederacy of many among the com- 
munity having been formed against him, he withdrew, in company with some 
fervent companions, to a place called Condrynus, near the River Isara, now 
known as LTsere.^ Here, he lived the life of an anchorite, and he happily 
departed to a better state, towards the close of the seventh century. At the 
9th of May, Dempster 9 has the Deposition of Mombulus, Abbot of Lagny.'" 

®3 Near wliich are the remains of the 654. sect, xi., p. 3S2. Venetian edition, 

Castle of Cill Sanctan, built in 1179, by 170$, c/ scj. fol. 

John De Courci. ' See his Life, at the l6th of January, 

^* See Dr. Reeves' '^Ecclesiastical Antiqui- vol. i. of this work, Art. i. 

ties of Down, Connor and Dromore," pp. 3 3ee "Fasti Belgici et Burgundici," p. 

74. 324- 688. 

's Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. •• See "Nitalcs Sanctorum Belgii," pp. 

122, 123. 265, 266. 

^ A term, by which the Irish were 5 Further notices of him may be found in 

accustomed to designate holy persons, com- this work, and at that date, 

ing to Ireland from loreign parts. ^ According to some, he was fourth abbot 

'^ The Editor, Mr. William M. Ilenncssy, of Lagny, in the order of rule. 

in Notes attached, states, that both these ' See L'Abbe Rohrbachcr's " Histoire 

places are unknown. Universelle de I'Eglise Catholique," tome 

68 ggg "Proceedings of the Royal Irish x., liv. xlix.,p. 279. 

Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., ^ A river, rising in Savoy, and running by 

part i., pp. 94, 95, 108, 109. Grenoble, in France, and which discharges 

•*' See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," itself into the Rhone. 

SextaVita S. Patricii, cap. cxvii., p. 92. ' See " Menologium Scoticum." 

Article ii. — ' See Cardinal Baronius' '° See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

" Annates Ecclesiastici," tomus viii., a.d. Scottish Saints, " p. 199. 


It is probable, he died, on the glh of May ; and, at the same date, Wion, 
Dorgan, Ferrarius, as also an Irish authority," have noted his feast. The 
Bollandists '^ commemorate him at this day ; but, as they state, these authori- 
ties cited, and most of the other saint-writers, have another feast for him, at 
the 1 8th of November. The relics of this saint were removed, from his place 
of deposition, by the Bishops of Cambray and of Noyon, about the year 831. '3 

Article III. — St, Colman, Banban, the Wise, supposed to have 
BEEN Scribe of Kildare. \_Sri^enth and Eighth Centiirigs.'] By Colgan, 
the holy Colman is identified with a Banban, or a Banan, venerated at the ist 
of this month. There, his pedigree has been given, and as has been stated, he 
belonged to the Nan-Decies race.^ However, this does not seem to be very 
certain. Referring to the Martyrology of Tallagh, and to other Irish 
Martyrologies, the Bollandists ^ commemorate Banbhanus or Banuanus 
Sapiens, at this day. He is thought, by Colgan,3 to have been a relation of 
St. Patrick,^ and to have been that faithful prophet alluded to in the Acts of 
the great Irish Apostle. In the Martyrologies of Tallagh s and of Donegal,^ 
his name is simply entered as Banban, " the sage,"? or " the wise." It is 
probable, this was the name by which he was best distinguished ; but, he 
appears to have been known as Colman, likewise, and as there were many 
saints so denominated in our calendars, his skill as a scribe may have deter- 
mined the additional appellative. He died, on the 9th of May, a.d. 720 f if, 
as seems probable, he was the St. Colman Banban, scribe of Cill-dara.9 The 
Annals of Ulster and Archdall place his death at 724.'° 

Article IV. — Dabreccoc, of Tuama Dreman. On the 9th of May, 
the Martyrology of Tallagh ' records, Dabreccoc, Tuama Dreman. The 
Franciscan copy, however, has entered him as Dabreccoc Tuamma Dercon." 
The Bollandists,3 referring to the same source, have entered Da-Breccocus de 
Tuain Dracon, for the same date. The saint, who is recorded, on this day, 
by Marianus O'Gorman, under the name of Dubricim — the Brussels Manu- 
script has Dabriccin — is thought to be the same. According to the Martyr- 

" See Father Stephen White's "Apologia 122, 123. 

pro Hibernia," cap. iv., p. 41. 7 Dr. Todd in a note says at Sage, "The 

'^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., more recent hand adds, 'Sapiens. Mart. 

Maii ix. Among the pretermitted saints, Taml.' " 

p. 359. ^ See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 

'3 See Mabillon's "Acta Sanctorum Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 318,319. 

Ordinis S. Benedict!," tomus ii., p. 624. 9 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

Article hi. — ' See Colgan's "Acta Appendix Quinta ad Acta S. Brigidas, cap. 

Sanctorum Hibernias," xii. Januarii, Appen- ii., p. 629. 

dix ad Acta S. Itse, cap. ii., p. 73. '° See" Monasticon Hibernicum." In the 

* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii very same sentence and notes, some errors 
ix. Among the pretermitted saints, p. are to be found, at p. 324. 

358. Article iv. — ' Edited by the Rev. Dr. 

3 See "Trias Thaumaturga," Septima Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Vita S. Patricii, pars ii., cap. xxxii., and n. ^ The Irish text is 'OAb|\eccoc CuAniniA 

67, pp. 132, 176. 'Oe^con, at this same date. 

■* See his Life, in vol. iii. of this work, at 3 gee "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

March 17th. Maii ix. Among the pretermitted saints, 

s Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. p. 358. 

The Franciscan copy has bAnb^n SAp. ■» Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

* Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 122,123. 



ology of Donegal,* a festival in honour of Cenmar s was celebrated on this 
day. We believe that an error has been admitted, in giving this name to a 
person, rather than to a place.* 

Article V.— Festival of St. Brendan of Birr, King's County. 
\Sixth Cenfiiry.'] We find in the Franciscan copy of the Tallagh Martyrology, 
a festival set down for Brinnaind of Birr,' at the 9th of May. A festival in honour 
ofBrennan Biorroris registered, also, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,^ 
at the corresponding day. He was son to Neman, and the founder of Birr, 
in the King's County.3 He was a contemporary and friend of St. Colum- 
kille.* The Bollandistss refer to the Martyrology of Tallagh, for the festival 
of St. Brendan of Birr, as occurring at this date. His deatli is referred, by some 
writers, to a.d. 544; and, by others, to a.d. 571.* St. Columba? is said to 
have had an immediate revelation regarding his death, and at the very time 
it occurred, while he was residing, at lona.^ However, the true date for his 
feast, is at the 29th day of November.9 

Article VI. — St. Lamhruadh. A record of Lamruaid appears in 
the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 9th of May. From the same authority, 
the Bollandists =* enter Lam-ruadus, at this date. The name of Lamhruadh 
occurs, in the Martyrology of Donegal,3 as having been venerated, and on 
this day. 

Article VII. — St. Cetfaidh. On this day, as we read in the Martyr- 
ology of Donegal,' veneration was given to Cetfaidh. Elsewhere, we do not 
find an entry of him. 

Article VIII. — St. Beatus, Hermit, Lake of Thun, Switzer- 
land. \Probably in the Sixth and Serenth Centuries.'] There seems to be 
some confusion in those accounts, which had formerly prevailed, relating to 
St. Beatus, Hermit of Thun, whose feast has been assigned to the 9th of 
May, in several German and other Martyrologies, but who has been con- 
founded apparently with another holy man, and similarly named, Beatus of 

5 In a note, Dr. Todd says at Cenmar, ^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

"The more recent hand adds, ' T3<\b|\icin, Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 206, 207. 

Mar. Videtur esse quern. Mart. Tanil. vocat ' See his Life, at the 9th of June. 

'D^b]\ec65 Cuahia ■Ol^e<^nlAn, 9 Maii." ^ g^g j^g^ j^,.^ Reeves' Adamnan's ' ' Life 

^ The reader is referred to the quotation, of St. Columba,"tlib. iii., cap. xi., pp. 209, 

from the Franciscan copy of the Tallagh 210. 

Martyrology, in the former account of St. » See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Iliber- 

Santan of Cill-da-leis, which latter is pre- nice," Februarii xxviii., Vita S. Aidi, Epis. 

ceded by the word Cent)in<\]\. et Confessoris, n. 6, p. 422. 

Article V. — ' The Irish text appears to Article vl — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

be bT\irinAinT) or bjAeniiAinx) bii\oi\. Kelly, p. xxiii. The Franciscan copy also 

' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. enters LAm|\udi'o. 

3 SeeRev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's "Life - See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

of St. Columba," lib. iii., cap. iii., and nn. Maii ix. Among the pretermitted feasts, 

(b. c), pp. 192 to 194. p. 358. 

* See his Life, at the 9th of June. 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 122, 125. 

Maii ix. Among the pretermitted saints, Article vii. — ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

p. 359- and Reeves, pp. 122, 123. 

May 9.] 



Vendome,' sometimes called St. Beat or Bie.^ This latter is said to have 
come into Gaul, at a very early age, having been sent by St. Peter. It has 
been conjectured, 3 some ancient writer, having found on record, that he had 
a mission from the Apostolic See, thought he should ascribe that act to the 
first of the Apostles. Therefore, it seems likely enough, that incidents in the 
lives of both Beati have been ascribed, and in a mistaken way, sometimes to 
one, or sometimes to another, of these holy persons. The Bollandists '< have 
Acts 5 of St. Beatus, at the 9th of May.^ A Life of St. Beatus was pub- 
lished at Basle, in 151 1, by Daniel Agricola ;7 and, this has been the autho- 
rity for subsequent statements made regarding him, by the Cartliusian George 
Carnefelt,^ and by the learned Beatus Rhenan, 9 born in the year 1485,'° while 
he died, a.d. 1547.'' According to some, he was at first called Suetonius, 
and he is said to have had a companion, named Achates ; both of whom were 
sent into Helvetia, at the instance of St. Peter.^^ By Dempster,'3 who makes 
him a Scotchman by birth, Suetonius is resolved into Setonius, or Scton, the name 
of a Scottish family illustrious in rank. Michael Alford "* will have it, that Sue- 
tonius was the son of a British nobleman, and that he had been converted to 
the Christian Faith, by the earlier preachers of the Gospel, in Britain. After 
Baptism, he is said to hare been called Beatus. 's In his English Martyrology, 
at the 9th of May, John Wilson states, that the Pontiff, St. Linus,'* conse- 
crated St. Beatus, as a Priest. However, this holy man came from Ireland, 
most probably, as a companion of St. Columbanus,'? St. Gall,'^ and other 
devoted missionaries, when they visited Switzerland. Others have it, that 
Beatus came from Britain ;'9 which, after all, may not be inconsistent, with 
the accident of his nativity in our Island. However, it is generally allowed 

Article viii. — ' He was also an 
anchoret, at Laon, in the third century. 

^ For the history of this latter holy person, 
the reader is referred to Dom Lelong's " His- 
toire du Diocese de Laon," a.d. 17S3, 4to, 
as also to " Les Petits Bollandistes," Vies 
des Saints, tome v., Mai ix« jour, pp. 407 to 

3 By Rev. S. Baring-Gould. 

'» See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Mail 
ix. De Sancto Beato Vindocini in Dioecesi 
Carnotensi, ]ip. 364 to 368. 

5 These comprise a preliminary disserta- 
tion, in six paragraphs, with Vita ex MSS. 
Bodecensi et VUrajectino, in seven para- 
graphs, with notes, as also Appendix de 
Veneratione S. Beati apud Heluetios : et 
num alius Beatus fidem Christi illis annun- 
tiarit, which is comprised in six para- 

* These have been edited, by Father 
Godefrid Henschenn. 

7 According to this writer, when St. Bar- 
nabas preached in parts of Scotia and Bri- 
tain, Suetonius, a young man, believed in 
Christ, was baptized, and called Beatus ; 
then he went to Rome, whence he was sent 
by the Apostle St. Peter to convert the Hel- 

® He writes : " Fecit ille opus suum annis 
aliquot strenue, et post amore solitarige vitee 
inflammatus, in eremum secessit, draconem 
interfecit, obiitque feliciter anno Christi 
CXII., circiter setatis xc. Et puto eumdem 

esse de quo Martyrologium Romanum ix 
Maii, Molanus, Canisius, alhque." — " De 
Vitis Eremitarum," lib. iv., cap. i. 

' In the work : *' Rerum Germanicarum 
Commentarii,"lib. iii., p. 161, of the edition, 
published in 1531, or p. 172 of the edition 
published in 1551. 

" At Selestad. 

" At Strasburgh. 

" See Franciscus Guillimann, " De 
Rebus Helvetiorum sive Antiquitatum Libri 
v.," lib. i., cap. xv. 

'3 See "flistoria Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Scotorum," tomus i., lib. ii., num. 159, 
p. 90. 

'■' See " Fides Regia Britannicos, sive An- 
nales Ecclesise Britannicoe," &c., tomus i., 
ad annum 59, num. 10, 11, 12. 

'5 Then, he is thought to have been sent to 
St, Peter, at Rome. 

'* " On donne douze ans a S. Lin, et toute- 
fois il est plus vraisemblable qu'il ne sur- 
vecut aux apotres qu'un an on deux, et par 
consequant qu'ils I'avoient etabli eveque de 
Rome, pour la gouverner sous eux, comme 
ils en usoient dans les autres eglises." — 
L'Abbe Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesiastique," 
tome i., liv. ii., sect, xxvi., p. 192. 

^^ See his Life, at the 21st of November. 

'^ See his Life, at the i6th of October. 

'5 See J. S. Buckingham's "Belgium, the 
Rhine, Switzerland, and Holland," vol. ii., 
chap, v., p. 78. 

^° Dempster writes : " Frustra Personius 



[May 9. 

he was a Scot.^° Like many of our Irish ascetics, he desired to serve God, 
in sohtude ; and, accordingly, he selected a spot where he might live, and 
still enjoy the most romantic scenes of nature. Along the borders of the 
deep Lake of Thun,^' he found a series of high precipices, and high up on 
the face of these rocks was a cave, about thirty feet above a large stream, 
which spouts from the rock, and which afterwards forms a fine cascade of 800 
feet. This plunges into the still mirror of the lake, which it strews with bub- 
bles. ^^ There is a supposition, that Beatus came from Rome to Vindonissa,^3 
the ancient Castrum Vindocinum, identical with the modern town of Win- 
disch, in Switzerland. According to one account,'4 St. Beatus is regarded as 
the first Bishop of Windisch ; yet, this does not tally, with the more reliable 
histories. The ancient Vindonissa was formerly one of the most important 
towns of the Romans, in Helvetia ; but, it was destroyed by the Germans, in 
570.^5 After its destruction, the seat of the bishopric was transferred to 
Constance,^^ a delightfully situated city on the Rhine, and near the beautiful 
lake so named.^7 Near this lake of Thun, St. Beatus lived in a cave, yet to 
be seen on the face of a steep rock, high over that sheet of water. The 
scenery around is most glorious and sublime.-^ The cave itself is now 
screened by a fir-wood, which clings to the ledges of rock. Formerly, its 
wide entrance was walled up, so as to leave only a door and a window ; but, 
the stones have now fallen. ^9 According to a popular legend, before St. Beatus 
settled in this cave, it had been occupied, by a monstrous serpent, which 
he precipitated into the lake beneath. His secluded habitation contained an 
altar, which is now overthrown. If we are to believe Dempster, he died a.d. 
112, and in the ninetieth year of his age. 3° At the 9th of May, this same 
writer 3' notes the festival of the holy man, Beatus, in Helvetia.^^ After the 

eum Anglum facit, cum et Vita ejus et 
Georgius Garnefelt disei te Scotice asserunt 
lib. iv. de Vita Eremitarum cap. i. Ad hos 
accedit Beatus Rhenanus, lib. iii. Rerum 
Germanicar. Stumfius Chron. Helvetior., 
lib. vii., cap. xxii. Gul. Eisengrin, par. v., 
distinct ii., cent, ii., et prKter hos etiam 
hsereticus Pantaleon de Viris Germanise par. 
iii. et Scotis favet Georg. Wicelius lib. v., cap. 
xxxiii." — ''Historia Ecclesiastics Gentis 
Scotorum," tomusi., lib. ii., num. 159, p. 90. 

^' The Lake of Thun is about ten miles 
long, and from three to four wide, with a 
depth of at least two thousand feet in the 
middle ; and mountains of from four to five 
thousand feet high rise on each side, beauti- 
fully clothed with lawns, woods, cattle, and 
dwellings ; presenting several views of the 
snowy Alps, in openings on the south side of 
the Lake." — J. S. Buckingham's " Belgium, 
the Rhine, Switzerland, and Holland," vol. 
ii., chap, v., p. 78. A very beautiful engrav- 
ing of Thun, from the cemetery, is presented 
as an illustration. 

" Thus is the scenery described, by the 
Rev. S. Baring-Gould. " The sun set, as I 
sat in the door of the hermit's cave ; and as 
I walked back to Unterseen, its orange fires 
fell and touched with flame every while and 
heaven aspiring peak ; and the spotless Jung- 
frau seated amidst a glorious company of 
mountain forms, each with its flaming brow, 
called up a thought of the events of that first 

Whitsun day, when — 

" The fires that rushed on Sinai down 
In sudden torrents dread. 
Now gently light, a glorious crown, 
On every saintly head." 
^3 Allusion is made to it, by C. Corn. 
Tacitus, in " Historiarum," lib. iv., cap. Ixi. 
-^ See " Chronicon Episcopatus Constan- 
tiensis," edited by Joannes Pistorius, and 
brought down to the year 1607. 

-5 See " Gazetteer of the World," vol. xiv., 

P- 505- 

'* See Dr. William Smith s " Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Geography," vol. ii., 

p. 13"- 

-' See William Coxe's " Travels in Swit- 
zerland, and in the country of the Grisons," 
&c., vol. i.. Letter 3, pp. 14 to 16. 

=^ The Rev. S. Baring-Gould thus 
describes the appearance of this place, which 
he visited : " Tufts of pinks clung to the 
rock, and bunches of campanula dangled 
their blue bells at dizzy heights over the 
still water. Yellow cistus, golden poten- 
tilla, and spices of blue salvia made glorious 
harmonies of colour in the little dells that 
sank in green grassy slopes to tiny coves 
where nestled cottages, and a gaily painted 
boat was moored.' 

'9 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of 
the Saints," vol. v., May the Ninth, pp. 136 
to 138. 

3" See " Ilisloria Ecclcsiastica Gentis 



death of the saint, crowds of pious pilgrims used to visit his cave, and this 
continued until after the so-called Reformation. Having violently forced 
heresy on the reluctant peasants of Haslithal and Interlachen,33 in the inte- 
rests of Zwinglianism, the authorities of Berne were obliged to drive the 
Catholics away from the cave of their Apostle, at the point of the spear.34 
The Deposition of St, Beatus, Confessor, is noticed at the 9th of May, in the 
Roman Martyrology, and as a commemoration, at Windisch.3s At Lungern, 
where the ancient faith still maintains its ground, loving hearts have built a 
little chapel, dedicated to Beatus. It is on the nearest point in the Canton 
of Ob-walden.36 At this place, on the 9th of May, in each year, a sermon is 
preached by one of the Capuchin friars of Sarnen, when great crowds, who 
still honour the memory of their Apostle, visit there each year. 37 

Article IX. — Reputed Festival of St. Nicholas, Bishop and 
Martyr, Scotland. {Third Century.'] According to Dempster,^ there 
was one Nicholas, a Culdee, among the early bishops of Scotland, and it is 
said, that he suffered martyrdom, a.d. 296, during the persecution of the 
Emperor Maximianus. His body is said, to have been cut into pieces, and 
to have been deposited in a stone sepulchre, which was buried in the earth. 
On it, " S. Nocolai Episcopi," is stated to have been inscribed.^ His sacred 
remains are related to have been found,3 on the vii. of the May Ides — corres- 
ponding with this date — a.d. 1262.4 At the instance of the Bishop of Glas- 
gow, Alexander III.,s King of Scotland,*' raised a magnificent church, at 
Peebles, in honour of St. Nicholas, and which was formerly much frequented 
by the faithful. In Dempster's "Menologium Scoticum,"? this feast is entered, 
as the Finding and Elevation of Nicholas, Bishop and Culdee, at the 9th of 

Scotorum," tomus i., lib. ii., num. 159, an account of him in Rev. Alban Butler's 

P- 90- , " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other 

3' See " Menologium Scoticum. " principal Saints," vol. v. , Maii ix. It seems 

3^ See BishopForbes' " Kalendars of Scot- to us, however, that the feast of St. Nicholas 

tish Saints, " p. 199. of Myra had been observed, on this day, in 

33 This town is romantically situated, Scotland, where some of his relics were pro- 

between two Lakes, " with high mountains bably received and preserved, 

all around, and the snowy masses of the Ber- 3 Yox an account of the Finding of St. 

nese Alps full in front." — J. S. Buckingham's Nicholas' relics, and of a certain " magnifica 

" Belgium, the Rhine, Switzerland and Hoi- crux et venerabilis apud Pebles," and the 

land," vol. ii., chap, v., p. 79. subsequent foundation of the conventual 

3-* See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's " Lives of Church of the Holy Cross, by King Alex- 

the Saints," vol. v.. May the Ninth, p. 137. andcr IH,, a.d. 1261, the reader is referred 

35 " In Castro Vindecino depositio sancti to Goodall's edition of Fordun's "Scotichro- 

Beaticonfessoris." — " Martyrologium Roma- nicon," tomus ii., lib. x., cap. xiv., p. 96. 

num," Maii 9, p. 208. t Said to have been the thirteenth year of 

3* Obwalden and Nidwalden are two divi- Alexander Ill's reign over Scotland, 

sions of the present Canton of Unterwalden. s He ascended the throne in 1249, and he 

In 1870, Obwalden had a population of died A.D. 1286. See an account of his ex- 

14,415 souls. See Elisee Reclus' " Nou- ploits, in James Taylor's "Pictorial History 

velle Geographic Universelle," tome iii., of Scotland," vol. i., chap, vi., pp. 75 to 

liv. iii., chap, i., sect, x., p. 127. 82. 

37 See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives * According to " Respublica sive Status 

of the Saints," vol, v.. May the Ninth, Regni Scotas et HiberniK, Uiversorum Au- 

p, 137- torum : " ipse ab equo lapso excussus fractis 

Article ix. — • See " Historia Eccle- cervicibus interiit, anno Christi 1285, vixit 

siastica Gentis Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. annos 45, regnavit 37." — Scotise Descriptio, 

xiii., num. 952, p. 501. p. 131. Lugd. Bat. Elzivir edition, a.d. 1627, 

° A St. Nicholas, Bishop and Confessor, of 24mo. 

Lincopen, in Sweden, was venerated, on the ' See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of Scot- 

9th of May. He died, a.d. 1391. See tish Saints," p. 199. 



[May 9. 

May. Ferrarius, too, takes his notice, on the authority of Dempster, as the 
Bollandists observe,^ at this day, while they remark, the latter has been a 
faithless guide.9 It is amusing to read Dempster's truthful avowal — at least 
in the present instance — that he could not find whether or not this early 
bishop and martyr in Scotland left any writings. '° 

Article X.— Feasts of the Translation of St. Andrew, Apostle 
OF Scotland, and of the Translation of St. Nicholas, Bishop and 
Confessor. In the Breviary of Aberdeen, on this day, as also in the Roman 
Martyrology,^ there is the festival of the Translation of St. Andrew, Apostle, 
and the Patron of Scotland.' His remains were removed from Achaia to 
Constantinople ; and, a long time afterwards, they were brought to 
Amalfi.3 It is said, a certain St. Regulus carried portions of his relics to 
Scotland from Patra, a.d. 369, and that they were deposited in a church, 
where St. Andrew's ^ now stands. In Ireland, St. Andrew is venerated as 
patron in a parish and church, dedicated to him in Dublin. There is a com- 
memoration of the Translation of St. Nicholas, Bishop and Confessor, in the 
Roman Martyrology,5 and in other Festilogies.^ He was a native of Patara, 
in Lycia. From being an Abbot, he was chosen to be Archbishop of ]\Iyra. 
He died there a.d. 342, and was buried in his own cathedral. His Life was 
written by Methodius, Patriarch of Constantinople. His chief feast is on the 
6th of December. 7 The feast of this day refers to the removal of St. 
Nicholas' relics from Myra,^ to the city of Bari,9 in the year 1087. John, 
Archdeacon of Bari, wrote an account of this transfer, which was intended to 
remove his remains from the power of the Mahomedans. Both in the Greek 
and Latin Churches, his memory was held in great veneration ; while, in Ire- 

* See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii ix. Among the pretermitted saints, 

p. 358. . ^ , 

9 They add regardmg him, "multa ex sue 

cerebro confinxisse convictus." 

'" See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 

Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. xiii., num. 952, 

P- SOI. 

Article x.— 'Thus: " Constantmopoli 
Translatio Sanctorum Andrew Apostoli, et 
Lucse Evangelistse de Achaia, et Timothei 
discipuli beati Pauli Apostoli ab Epheso : 
corpus autem sancti Andreae longo post tem- 
pore Amalphim delatum, ibi pio fidelium 
concursu honoratur : ex cujus sepulchre 
liquor ad languores curandosjugiiur manat." 
— " INIartyrologium Ronianum," at Maii 9, 
p. 208. 

' His chief feast is held, however, on the 
30th of November. See an account of this 
holy Apf)Sile and Martyr, in Rev. Alban 
Butler's "Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other principal Saints," vol. xi., November 


3 See Les Petits Bollandists, " Les Vies 
des Saints," tome v. ix« jour de Mai, 
p. 406. 

■♦ Nearly the whole First Volume of Rev. 
J. F. S. Gordon's learned work " Scoti- 
chronicon," besides this account of St. 
Andrew's relics, gives the History of St. 

Andrew's See, with the Lives of its Bishops. 

s Thus : " In Apulia Translatio sancti 
Nicholai episcopi ex Myra civitate Lycise." — 
" Martyrologium Romanum," Maii 9, p. 208. 

* We are told, by Cardinal Baronius, that 
Bede, Usuard, and more recent writers, have 
the feast of St. Nicholas, at this date. How- 
ever, it is not to be found in the Rev. J. A. 
Giles' "Complete Works of Venerable Bede, 
in the original Latin, collected with the 
Manuscripts, and various printed editions, 
&c., at iSIay 9, in " Martyrologium de Natali- 
tiis Sanctorum ; cum Auctuario Flori et 
Aliorum," &c., tomus iv., p. 65. But, at the 
7th of this month, we read, " Eodem 
die translatio S. Nicholai in Barrensem 

' See an account of him, at this date, in 
Rev. Alban Butler's " Lives of the Fathers, 
Martyrs and other principal Saints," vol. 
xii., December vi. 

® A city of Lysia. 

5 Its situation, on the Adriatic Sea, in the 
province Terra di Bari, and former kingdom 
of Naples, is shown on the fine Map of Italy, 
engraved from the original of G. A. Rizzi- 
Zannoni, and prefixed to the Rev. J. C. 
Eustace's " Classical Tour through Italy. 

'" This church was of an early foundation 
in Dublin, as appears from the charter of 


land, he is the Patron of Gahvay town and diocese, as also of St. Nicholas 
parish and church,'° in the city of Dublin. 

Article XI. — The Translation of St. Brandan, Bishop and 
Confessor. \_Sixth Century.'] At the 9th of May, the Bollandists ' quote 
Greven's written additions to the Carthusian Manuscript of Bruxelles, for the 
festival recorded, " S. Brandani Episcopi et Confessoris Translatio ;" and 
afterwards, they refer us to the i6th of this month, for his chief feast.^ It may 
be questioned, however, if that former feast may not have reference, rather to 
St. Brandan, or Brendan, Abbot of Birr,3 who is said to have been miraculously 
translated to the skies in his chariot or coach,'* like Elijah, s and whose depar- 
ture from this world ^ was revealed to St. Columkille.? His chief festival is 
kept, on the 29th of November.^ 

Article XII. — Feast of St. Michael, the Archangel. In the 
Irish Church, was celebrated, at this date, a festival of the Archangel St. 
Michael, as we find it noted, in the Feilire of St. ^ngus, and in the Martyr- 
ology of Tallagh.' The commentator, on this line, explains, that it was 
Michael's great manifestation,^ in the mountain of Garganus, which had been 
the occasion for establishing this commemoration. In the Roman Breviary, 
however, the day for this feast is set down, at the 8th of May. 3 

Article XIII. — Feast of St. Cyril, Martyr. The festival of St. 
Cyril, Martyr, is entered in the Feilire of St. ^ngus,' at the 9th of May. 
There were many martyrs in the church, bearing this name ; but, it seems to 
be a difficult matter to find the time, place, and manner of this saint's death, 
or to establish his identity with any one of them. 

Article XIV. — Reputed Feast of Ken-marus. Quoting from the 
Martyrology of Tallagh, the Bollandists ' record Ken-marus, as having a fes- 
tival, at the 9th of May. However, we cannot find such a feast in the Fran- 
ciscan copy of that Martyrology. 

Archbishop John Comyn, in William Monck * See, also, Art. v., at this date. 

Mason's "History and Antiquities of the Article xii. — ' Here it is entered as 

Collegiate and Cathedral Church of St. tleuelAuio micliAel ^^xchAnjLi. 

Patrick, near Dublin," Introduction, sect. ^ He gives the following Latin explana- 

ii., p. 3, and Appendix i.,pp. i., ii. tion : " quando quaesiuit aliquis suum tau- 

Article XI. — ' See " Acta Sanctorum," rum et quando misit sagitam in taurum et 

tomus ii., Mail ix. Among the pretermitted suasagita ad semet ipsum rediuit et per hoc 

saints, p. 358. signum manifestatus est Micahel occidenti." 

' See also the present volume, at the same — Notes from the Leabhar Breac, on the 

date. Calendar of St. Oengus. See " Transactions 

3 See his Life, at the 29th of November. of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu 

^See Thomas Lalor Cooke's " Early His- script Series, vol. i., part i. , p. Ixxxv. 

tory of the Town of Birr," &c., chap. Ii., ^ it is celebrated in Ireland as a Duplex 

p. 13. Majus, with Nine Proper Lessons. 

5 See IV. Kings ii., 11. Article xiii. — ' See " Transactions of 

' In the ' ' Chronicon Scotorum, " edited by the Royal Irish Academy, " Irish Manuscript 

William M. Hennessy, his death is twice set Series, vol. i., part i., p. Ixxix. 

down, at A.D. 565, and at a.d. 573. See Article xiv. — ' See "Acta Sancto 

pp. 56 to 59. rum," tomus ii., Maiiix. Among the pre- 

' See his Life, at the 9th of June. termitted saints, p. 358. 


Cent!) IBap of i¥lap» 





IN earliest times, our Irish monasteries were the chief agencies, in civiliz- 
ing and evangelizing the people. The inmates were instructors of the 
ignorant, the houses refuges for the oppressed, and the monks were almoners 
to the needy. The monasteries were centres of Christian life and light, like- 
wise, in the midst of heathen darkness. Nor could it be said of them, as in 
after time?, when an alien tithes' establishment had been imposed on Ireland, 
that not only was a tax levied by the inmates on industry, but even on the 
industry that feeds mankind. On the contrary, the religious maintained 
themselves by voluntary endowments, contributions and labour ; while they 
gave employment to the poor, and even ministered disinterestedly, in a 
charitable manner, to the classes, who most required protection and main- 
tenance. Sympathy through every fibre of social relations bound the monks 
and the people together ; not, as in our own age, when a hostile people 
groaned under the legal and unjustifiable exactions of a hostile clergy, with 
demoralization, outrage, and bloodshed resulting, as the natural consequence 
of Irish misgovernment and oppression.' 

That the Acts of St. Comgall ^ were well known, in the early Irish Church, 
can be proved from the copies, which even yet remain in various repositories 
of learning. Thus, Trinity College Library,3 Dublin, contains one of these 
treatises. Also, Marsh's Library, Dublin, has a Life of St. Comgall, in Manu- 
script.* At Oxford, some, Manuscript Lives of this saint are preserved. s 
Among the Manuscripts in the Burgundian Library, at Bruxelles, there is a 
Vita S. Comgalli.^ The Franciscan Librar)-, Dublin, possesses a Latin Life 

Article i. — Chapter i. — • See William niensis, fol. 91 to 94. 

Edward Hartpole Lecky's " Leaders of Pub- s These are contained, in the Bodleian Li- 

lic Opinion in Ireland," Daniel O'Connell, braiy, among the Rawlinson collection. One 

pp. 261 to 263. is classed, B. 485, in a vellum 4to of the four- 

' Father John Colgan quotes a Life of St. teenth century, at fol. 224; another is classed, 

Coemgell, which he attributes to the author- B. 505, in a vellum folio, at fol. 21-24 5 'ino- 

ship of St. Euinus, or Evin. See "Acta ther is to be found, among the Ilarleian 

Sanctorum MiberniK," xxix.Januarii. Vita Manuscripts. This latter is classed, No. 

S. Gilda; Badonici, &c., n. 13, p. 192. 6,576, and it is intituled, Vita Sancti Con- 

3 In the Manuscript, clissed IC. 3, li, at galli et Passio animx sure — it is a 4to paged 

fol. 57, is a Vita S. Congalli. It is marked. Manuscript of the fifteenth century, at fol. 

No. 792, of the " Catalogus Manuscriptorum 337-366. 

Anglix et Hibernix\" " In the Manuscript, classed vol. xxii., at 

* See the vellum, intituled Codex Kilken- fol. 195. 

May io.] lives OF THE IRISH SAINTS. 153 

of this saint.7 Father Fleming ^ has pubh'shed Acts of the holy Abbot Com- 
gall. They have been transcribed from a Codex Ardmacanus. John Bale,9 
Pits,'° and other writers, treat about an imaginary St. CongeUus, who is sup- 
posed to have founded or ruled the ancient monastery of Bangor, in North 
Wales ; but, they are most certainly under a mistake, as, if better informed, their 
statement should have referred them to the present St. Comgall, and to liis 
Irish Monastery, at Bangor," in the county of Down. The BoUandists have 
published Acts of this holy Abbot, from two different lives :'^ the first and 
the shorter Acts '3 resulting from a collation of three distinct Manuscripts.'* 
The Acts, as furnished by Father Hugh Ward, are edited, from an Irish 
Manuscript, and compared with those published by Thomas Sirinus, or 
O'Sheeran, in his commentaries on the Life of St. Columbanus.'S The latter 
Acts, praised by Archbishop Ussher,'^as deserving of credit, are given more at 
length ; and, they contain some statements, which appear to have been taken 
from those accounts first given. The Life of thib samt appears to have been 
prepared for publication, by Father John Colgan, at the loth of May.'? 
Among other writers, Bishop Challenor,'^ Rev. Alban Butler,'9 and the Rev. 
S. Baring-Gould,=^° have special notices of St. Comgall, Abbot of Bangor. 

It shall be our endeavour, to present a faithful record of our saint's Ufe, from 
those various published sources, by referring for confirmation of several state- 
ments given, to authorities bearing on the subject. It is stated, in St. 
Patrick's Life, by Jocelyn,^' that this holy Apostle had predicted St. Comgall's 
birth, and the foundation of his Abbey at Bangor, sixty years before accom- 
plishment of the former event." On the day before our saint's birth, holy 
Macniseus,^3 Bishop of Connor, is said to have had a vision regarding him. 
For, on hearing the noise of horses and of a chariot passing, he said to his 
assistants, " This chariot carries a king." They immediately went out to 
satisfy their curiosity, after such announcement; but, they soon returned with 
word to their Bishop, that the chariot contained only a man, named Sedna, and 
his wife Briga. Both of these humble persons were well known to them. The 
Bishop rephed, " My children, do not think I have spoken falsely to you, in 
this case. For that woman bears a king, who shall be born on to-morrow, at 

^ In the paper Manuscript Vitse Sancto- May loth, sect. 3. 

rum ex Codice Inisensi. Vita S. Comgalli, '5 His Life occurs, at the 21st of Novem- 

pp. 46 to 50. ber. 

^ See " Collectanea Sacra," &c. The Vita '^ In his " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 

S. Comgalli is in seventy paragraphs, pp. Antiquitates," cap. xiii., p. 237. 

303 to 316, but mispaged. '7 See " Catalogus aliquorum Sanctorum 

9 See "Scriptorum Illustrium Majoris Hibernise quas in MS. habentur." 

Britannise," &c., cent, i., cap. 53, p. 452, '^ See "Britannia Sancta," part i., pp. 

cap. 6. 283 to 285. 

'° See " Relationum Kistoricarum de "' See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs 

Rebus Anglicis." and other principal Saints," vol. v., 

" See Bishop Challenor's "Britannia May x. 

Sancta," part i., p. 283, note. =° See " Lives of the Saints," vol. v., May 

"SeetheBollandists' " Acta Sanctorum," x., pp. 141 to 145. 

tomus ii., Maiix., pp. 579 to 58S. "' He stales: " Annorum sexaginta circulo 

'3 This is characterized, by Rev. Dr. Lani- complete, nascetur quidam filius vitae, Com- 

gan, as "a trifling one." See " Ecclesias- gallus nomine, quod interpretatur Pulchrum- 

tical History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., pignus ; erit enim dilectus Deo et homini- 

sect. xii., n. 190, p. 64. bus, atque ob morum meritorumque pulchri- 

'* One of the latter was left for the editor's tudinem prospere jirocedet et regmabit cum 

use, by Father Henry Fitzsimons of the Christo, inter ipsius pignora couiputandus. 

Society of Jesus ; another was sent to them, Ipse vero in loco luce prteostenso ecclesiam 

from the College of Salamanca ; while the Sanctorum asdificabit, in qua innumera 

third had been communicated to them, by agmina filiorum lucis et vitas Christi servitio 

Father Hugh Ward, the Franciscan. See mancipanda coadunabit." 

the BoUandists' Commentarius Proevius, at " See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga, " 



[May 10. 

sunrise f^ he shall be adorned with all virtues, and the world shall be 
illuminated, with the lustre of his miracles.^s Not only shall many thousand 
monks obey him as a king, but also a great multitude of princes and people." 
During a whole night antecedent to that morning of our saint's birth, a great 
light was seen by many persons, in the country. This radiance appeared 
around the place of his nativity.^^ Although there is an anachronism in it,^7 
this story, with some slight variations, is told in the Life of St. Mac Nesse.'^ 
Although of humble parentage, yet, it seems that St. Comgall descended from 
the race of Irial, son to Conall Cearnach.=9 His father Sethna was a soldier 
attached to the Prince of Dailnariade. He was a descendant from Aradius, 
the founder of that renowned family. Following the family pedigree, he was 
ninth in descent from Fiacha Araidhe. According to some accounts, St. 
Comgall was born, a.d. 506,3° 510,3' or 511 ; others have a.d. 513 ;3=^ while 
some writers place his birth, at a.d. 516,33 or 517.34 This latter date 33 is 
probably the most correct, in the opinion of the Rev. Dr. Lanigan,36 ^nd it 
agrees better than the other computation, with some transactions of Comgall's 
Life.37 His birth occurred, in a northern part of the province of Ulster 3^ — 
in a region known as Dailnaraidhe, or Dalaradia.39 The place itself is 
denominated Mourne,4° and it now gives name to an estate, in the parish of 
Glynn. The true place of our saint's birth, was in the territory of Maghera- 

Sexta Vita S. Patricii, cap. Ixxxvd. 

*3 His Acts occur, at the 3rd of Septem- 

'* In the Vita Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo 
et editione Sirini, cap. i., num. 4, p. 582, is 
added, " Ipsa jam mulier Brigh crastino die 
oriente sole filium reverendissimum, cujus 
nomen dicetur Comgallus, pariet in oppido 
de Mourne," <S:c. 

"5 After quoting a Latin passage, referring 
to the prediction of St. Macnissius, before 
the birth of St. Comgall, and taken from the 
Marsh MS., called Liber Kilkenniensis, the 
Rev. Dr. Reeves adds : " Fleming, who has 
printed this Life from a MS. of Armagh, 
reads Murue instead of Meurne." See, too, 
" Collectanea Sacra," num. 5, p. 304. 

^* See "Acta Sanctorum," tome ii., x. 
Maii. Vita Comgalli ex tribus Codicibus 
MS. n. i., p. 580, Vita S. Comgalli ex MS. 
antiquo et editione Sirini, cap. i., n. 4, pp. 

582, 583- 

'7 Mac Nisse died in 514, whereas Com- 
gall was not born till 517, yet it serves to 
show, that the Mourne of Antrim, and not 
that of Down, was the birth-place of St. 
Comgall ; Connor being about thirteen 
miles distant, westwards, from Maghera- 

"* See the Boliandists' "Acta Sancto- 
rum," tomus i., Septembris iii. De Sancto 
Macnissio. Vita auctore incerto, num. 8, 
p. 665. 

^9 See the " Martyrology of Donegal,' 
edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
122, 123. 

3° The Annals of Inisfallen have, at A.n. 
51 1, " Nativitas Comgaill Benchair." — Rev. 
Dr. O'Conor's " Rerum Hibernicarum 
Scriptorcs," tomus ii., p. 5. 

3' \Vc read from a calculation, made by a 

writer in the O'Clerys' Martyrology, regard- 
ing St. Comgall's birth, "ergonatus 10 Maii 
an. 510." 

3^ See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 
Sexta Vita S. Patricii, n. no, p. 113. 

33 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- 
cum," p. 106. 

3-» See Rev. Dr. Reeves' "Adamnan's 
"Life of St. Columba," lib. i., cap. 49, n. 

(e), p. 93- 

35 It is the one found in the Annals of 
Tigernach. See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 
"Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus 
ii., p. 129. 

3* He remarks, that in the supposition, St. 
Comgall has been born before 516, he should 
have been more than thirty-two years old, 
when he entered as a monk at Clonenagh, 
and still, by some additional years, he must 
have been younger than his master, St. 

37 See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. ii., cliap. X., sect. xii. , n. 192, pp. 
64, 65. 

3^ For the place of his birth, see Rev. 
William Reeves' "Ecclesiastical Antiqui- 
ties of Down, Connor and Dromore," p. 

39 The Vita S. Comgalli states: " De 
aquilonali Hiberniie regione, nomine Dail- 
nary naraidhe, quce est contra mare in 
aquilonari Provincias plaga Ultorum, Sanctus 
Abbas Comgallus ortus fuit," &c. — "Collec- 
tanea Sacra," &c., ThoniK Sirini, num. I, 

P- 303. 

•»" It is generally — but mcorrectly — sup- 
posed, that St. Comgall was born in a part of 
that country, bordering on the sea, and 
in a town of Mourne, near Carlingford 

■♦• This district lies to the south of Inver 


morne/' It was situated, near the Irish Sea/* and in the eastern part of Antrim 
County. Extending south-westwards to Lough Neagh, that district was the head- 
quarters of the Irish Picts, or Crutheni.'^s At Rathmore, near Antrim, is said 
to have been the fort of their kings. At a time, when his father was advanced 
in years, this birth is stated to have occurred. Being an only son, Comgall 
was much loved by his parents, from the very moment of his birth. 44 It is 
said, this infant was brought to receive the baptismal sacrament, at the hands 
of a priest, who by some accident had been deprived of sight. Yet, he dis- 
tinctly recollected the ritual words, serving for administration of this first 
sacrament. The name of this priest 45 was Fedelmid 4^ or Fedlimin.47 At the 
infant's approach towards that place, where he was to have been baptized, a 
fountain of water issued from the earth. In it, the child was regenerated, 
whilst Angels were in attendance. The holy priest rejoiced greatly, at these 
miraculous portents ; and, bathing his face and eyes, in the water of this foun- 
tain, with full trust in the Lord's mercies, he miraculously recovered the use 
of sight. 

After this incident, the ceremony of baptism is said to have been per- 
formed. The child received as a name Comgall, 4^ in accordance with St. 
Patrick's prediction. The boy's parents dedicated him to God's service,49 
thus imitating the action of Anna, with regard to Samuel,5° and from the very 
moment of his birth, he seemed to grow in grace and wisdom. One day, 
while our saint reposed near a heap of stones, and in a field where he laboured, 
a deep slumber ensued. Then his mother, who came to the place, saw a 
pillar of fire, resting on the boy, and extending towards Heaven. She was 
alarmed at this portent, and knew not what she should do ; she feared to 
approach, and yet she felt very unwilling to leave her son. While waiting to 
learn the result, her child awoke, his face emitting an extraordinary brilliancy. 
Then, Comgall said to his anxious guardian, " Fear not, mother, for I am in 
no manner injured, by this celestial fire. Yet, take care, you do not relate this 
vision to any person,'during these days.''^^ This command his mother observed, 
for a time ; but, she related what she had seen, at a subsequent period.s^ Ano- 
ther time, Comgall is related, to have said to his father, while they were walk- 
parish, with which it is in juxtaposition. 4? " Fedelmidum " is in Father Fitz- 
The denomination Magheramorne signifies simon's Manuscript, and in the other Life 
"the plain of Mourne." Originally it had " Fedlini." Tliere is a " Fedlimius in the 
been written nni5-6Ai\n, which is pronounced Irish Calendar, at the 9th of August. But, 
Mourne. This is a lake, which is ninety he appears to have been a bishop, 
acres in extent, and it is situated, in the 48 xhis is interpreted to mean " carum 
north-east of Carrickfergus parish. See pignus," in the Life, taken from the three 
" Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for the Codices. 

County of Antrim," sheet 46. 49 " Parentes vero ejus ambo in mandatis 

4=Accordingto the Manuscript, desip;nated Domini ambulantes sine querela, et in tertio 

Codex Kilkenniensis, in Marsh's Library, gradu Catholicse EcclesiK, quod est legiti- 

Dublin, at fol. 90, b, a. num matrimonium conjugum, continenter 

43 The Rev. Dr. Reeves remarks, that " in stantes," &c. — "Acta Sanctorum," tomus 
allusion to his parentage, Adamnan intro- ii., x. Maii. Vita S. Comgalli ex tribus 
duces St. Columkille addressing St. Com- Codicibus MSS., num. 2, p. 580, and ex 
gall, in these words : " tui secundum carnem MS. antiquo et editione Sirini, n. 5, p. 583. 
cognati Cruthinii populi." — "Ecclesiastical 5o ggg i_ Kings i. 

Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," S' This direction was probably intended for 

Appendix n. (u), pp. 269, 270. extension to the term of his natural life. See 

44 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. Maii. Vita 
Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. et antiquo S. Comgalli, ex trilsus Codicibus MSS. num. 
et editione Sirini, cap. i., num. i, p. 5S2. 3. p. 580. 

45 The identity of this priest has not been == See ibid. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. 
ascertained. antiquo et editione Sirini, cap. i., num. 6, 

■»* The Manuscript of Salamanca reads p. 583. 
"Fedelmidium." ss See ibid. Vita S. Comgalli, ex tribus 


ing, through a field, "Father, we should leave this- land with its cares." His 
father, not agreeing in such opinion, the boy said, " Do you, dear father, 
cultivate this little farm, but I will go and seek from the Lord 53 another 
portion of land, larger and more productive." It is said, that St. Comgall 
was required as a substitute for his father, who was already old, in a war, 
which the Dailnaraidian prince was about to wage against his enemies. 54 
Although, unwilling to engage in warfare, our saint took up arms, to satisfy 
the desire of his parents ; but, willing to save his servant's hands and eyes from 
participating in scenes of bloodshed, so distasteful to the young conscript, the 
Almighty effected peace between both parties, thus preserving the soul and 
body of his chosen one from every danger.55 At another time, our saint being 
in the camp of tlie Dailnaraidan prince, a fall of snow took place, during 
night ; but, it was remarked by all, that tlie snow did not descend over Com- 
gall, and those who were with him. It remained rather heaped up on every 
side around them, after the manner of a small fortification. Hereupon, the 
chief said, " From this day forward, Comgall with his people shall be free 
from me, and from secular power, he being a saint of God." Then, bestow- 
ing his benediction on the chieftain, Comgall returned to his own home.5^ As 
a consequence of the blessing, that chief became great and powerful. 

When St. Comgall resolved on abandoning the secular habit, and on 
assuming that of an ecclesiastic, he received the rudiments of learning from 
a cleric, who lived in a country house. However, the life of this tutor did 
not tend to edification. The pupil undertook to correct the irregularities of 
his master, in the following symbolical manner. While the professor spent 
one of his nights in the commission of sin, Comgall betook himself to prayer, 
and practised other pious exercises • he then met his teacher, on the follow- 
ing day, with a garment purposely soiled. On being reproved for this want 
of cleanliness, he returned the following reply: "Is it more dangerous, 
master, to have our garment soiled, than our soul ? That defilement of soul 
and body, in which you spent last night, is worse than the condition of this 
habit." Although it silenced, this reproof, however, did not correct the vices 
of his master ; and, hence, our saint resolved on leaving him, and those scenes 
of his early youth. Comgall wished to place himself under the direction of a 
most holy instructor.^? Having directed his course toward Leix territory, in 
a northern part of the southern Leinster province, he there found an asylum, 
in the celebrated monastery of Clonenagh. 

It has been calculated,5S that our saint was at least thirty-two years of 
age, when he became a disciple of St. Fintan,59 as this latter had been a dis- 
ciple of St. Columba,^°son of Crimtliann, afterwards abbot of Tirdaglas, and 
that he had not founded the monastery of Clonenagh, until about the year 
548.^' Again, according to the earliest computation, Columkille was not 
born, until the year 519, and this enters as an element of chronology, bearing 
on this enquiry. Most probably, Comgall would have looked out for a 
superior, not so much younger than himself ;^^ since, in assuming any other 

Codicibus MSS., num. 3, p. 580. In this editione Sirini, cap. i., num. 2, p. 582. 

Life, instead of walking through the field, ss By the Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 

it is said, " patre suo in proprio agro labor- ^9 See his Life, in vol. ii. of this work, at 

ante, dixisse fcrtur," &c. the 17th of February. 

54 See "Acta S.inctorum,"tom ii., x. Mail. °° See his Life, at the 13th of December. 
Vita S Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo el editione This Columba had been a scholar to St. 
Sirini, cap. i., num. I., p. 582. Finnian of Clonard. 

55 .See il'id. *' Admilling that St. Comgall was received 
5* Sec ibid., num. 7, p. 583. there, in that very year, it seems to follow, 
57 See "Acta Sanctonnn," tomus ii., x. that he was at least thirty-two years old, 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et when he assumed the monastic habit. 


case of setting his birth before a.d. 516, the disparity of years, between the 
abbot and the novice, niust appear to be too great, at the time of his entrance 
to Clonenagh. There, St. Fintan ruled over that monastery, at the foot of the 
Shebh Bloom Mountain range. Having placed himself under direction of St. 
Fintan, Comgall entered upon a course of penance and labour. But, the 
devil tempted him strongly, to regret the choice he had made, in embracing 
this course of life, and in leaving his own part of the country. However, he 
related this temptation to St. Fintan, and the latter prayed for his disciple, 
who at that time stood near a cross, on the western side of Clonenagh monas- 
tery. Tears fell down his cheeks, and while intent on prayer, suddenly a 
light from Heaven surrounded him. Comgall's heart was filled with spiritual 
joy, and from that time forward, he felt no recurrence of his former tempta- 
tion. ^3 When residing at Cloneagh, a blind man was brought to him, with a 
request from himself and friends, that our saint would pray for his restoration 
to sight. Comgall applied saliva to this man's eyes, in the name of Christ ; 
when immediately, they were opened, and the blind man returned home 
rejoicing.^'^ He spent a considerable time in Clonenagh. ^s At length, St. 
Fintan required our saint to revisit his own part of the country, that he might 
found religious cells,^^ or houses, and preside over their inmates. St. Com- 
gall remained without sacred orders for many years, he being unwilling 
through humility to receive them. Having obtained St. Fintan's benediction 
and prayers, with some companions, he set out on a visit to St. Kieran ^7 of 
Clonmacnoise. With him, it is said, Comgall remained for some time, and 
while there, he was greatly distinguished for his sanctity. ^^ This, however, 
may have been only a temporary visit, occasioned by some special circum- 
stance, and the nature of which cannot now be known. Afterwards, St. Com- 
gall directed his course homewards,^^ where he was ordained a deacon, with 
the advice of numerous clerics, by St. Lugid, whose identity has not been dis- 
covered. Although it was thought by Dr. Lanigan, 7° that our saint had been 
ordained at Clonmacnoise ;7^ yet, he more shrewdly remarks, that by Lugidus, 
the ordainer of Comgall, was probably meant the bishop of Connor, who 
might have been otherwise called Lugadius,?^ and that he was the more 
inclined to be of that opinion, since Lugadius is spoken of, as having had 

*^ See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical our saint left Clonenagh. Dr. Lanigan also 

History of Ireland," vol. ii., cap. x., sect. observes : " I do not know how this can be 

xii., n. 192, pp. 64, 65. reconciled with the directions given him by 

*3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. St. Fintan to proceed forthwith to his own 

Mali. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et country, or with its being related that he 

editione Sirini, cap. i., num. 8, p. 582. actually set out for that purpose. I suspect 

^"t Ibid., num. 9, p. 583. that Clonmacnoise has been mistaken for 

^5 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan deems it very Connor." — " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
probable, that Comgall had not in the year land," vol. ii., chap. x. sect, xii., n. 195, p. 65. 
552 completed one-half of his monastic °9 The Life of St. Comgall, in Father 
studies at Clonenagh. See "Ecclesiastical Fleming's " Collectanea Sacra," &c., has it, 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x,, sect. that he returned from Clonenagh ordained, 
xii., n. 199, p. 66. with other ordained disciples. See num. 11, 

"^ According to the Life, in Father Flem- p. 305. 
ing's "Collectanea Sacra," &c., num. 11, 7° See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

p. recteTp<). land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xii., n. 96, pp. 

^^ See his Life, at the 9th of September. 65, 66. 

*^ However, this statement has been con- '' He adopts this statement, made by Sir 

tested by Rev. Dr. Lanigan, who observes, James Ware, in his work " De Scriptoribus 

that as St. Kieran died a.d. 549, and as St. Hibernias," lib. i., cap. ii., p. 13. 
Comgall could not have been received at '- See notices of him, in Rev. Dr. Lanigan's 

Clonenagh, at the earliest, before a.d. 548, "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. i., 

while he spent many years there, the founder chap, ix., sect, xiii., p. 494, and n. 195, pp. 

of Clonmacnoise must have been dead before 495, 496, ibid. 


verbal communication with Comgall, after his return to Ulster, such as a 
bishop of Connor might have had with a person, living in that district, in 
which Bangor is situated.73 After some interval, our saint, having been ad- 
vanced to the sacerdotal grade, went around his own part of the country. Every- 
where he preached the Gospel among the people. ^-^ Wishing to lead a life of 
greater perfection, St. Comgall became the inhabitant of an Island,75 in Lough 
Erne, where he led a most austere life. 7^ Placing themselves under his direc- 
tion, certain monks endeavoured to emulate his austerities. But, in this 
effort, seven of them died, through the effects of cold and hunger. Hearing 
of such circumstance, other religious men entreated our saint, to relax his 
excessive rigours, towards himself and those monks under his charge. Yet, 
while he permitted his monks to live, after the manner of other religious, Com- 
gall refused to indulge personally in like relaxations, thus continuing his usual 
austerities.77 After remaining for some time in this place, the holy Abbot 
felt a desire to pass over into Britain, with the intention of remaining there ;73 
but, the earnest entreaties of St. Lugidus, from whom he had received ordina- 
tion, with those recommendations, given by other holy saints, induced him to 
abandon this design. Thus he remained in Ireland, to continue that great 
work of monastic propagandism, on which his thoughts had been earnestly 



Those pious persons brought St. Comgall forth, from the place of his retreat, 
that he might commence a work, for which he seemed specially destined. 
The pious servant of God began to found cells and monasteries, in different 
parts of the country. Especially did he regard that beautiful site, where the 
Inver-Beg,' or the " Little River Beg,"^ falls into Belfast Lough,3 at its open- 
ing towards the sea. It is stated, that the stream — formerly known as the 

" Dr. Lanigan remarks, in continuation : seems very difficult to identify the exact 

" It is true that Lugadius of Connor is said situation of this island, at present. 
to have died in 538, and therefore long be- " See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii.. Mail 

fore he could have ordained Comgall. Are x. Vita S. Comgalli ex MS. antique et edi- 

we, however, certain that he died so tione Sirini, cap. i., num. 11, p. 583. 
early ?. And, admitting it, there might be ^^ Dr. Lanigan observes : "It would be 

in this case one of those anachronisms so usual difScult to reconcile this narrative with the 

in the Acts of our saints. For I do not mean account given of Comgall having returned 

to say that Comgall was ordained by that to his own countiy, in compliance with St. 

bishop of Connor, but merely to observe that Fintan's advice, for the purpose of forming 

as Lugadius lived in the sixth century, and some religious establishment. I am very 

not far from Comgall's residence, he might much inclined to think, that it is founded 

have been guessed at as the ordainer." — more on conjecture than on fact. The prac- 

Ibid., chap. X., sect, xii., n. 96, p. 66. tice of going to foreign parts, which became 

7< .See " Acta Sanctorum,"' tomus ii., Maii so general with our Irish saints towards the 

X. Vita S. Comgalli ex MS. antique et edi- close of Comgall's life might have induced 

tione Sirini, cap. i., num. 10, p. 583. an opinion that he also had intended to quit 

75 "Perrexitad stagnum Erne et intravit Ireland, particularly as some of his own 

in quadam insula, quas dicitur Custodiaria disciples, .md among others the great Colum- 

insula." banus, had done so." — " Ecclesiastical His- 

-" From the Latin name, which may be tory of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xii., 

interpreted in English " Keeper's Island," it n. 197, p. 66. 

May lo ] 



strand of Inver Bece * or Inver Becne s— had its name from a curious legend.^ 
On its banks did St. Comgall resolve to found his great establishment, 
which in after times became so renowned as the monastery of Bennchor.7 
This was the place, now known as the town of Bangor,^ situated at the inden- 
tation of a bay,5 bearing the same name.'° The parish to which it gives title is 
within the baronies of Castlereagh and Ards, in the most northern part of the 
present county of Down, This locality was in the region, called Altitudo 
Ultorum " — now known as Ards '^ — in the province of Ulster. In a short 
time, so great a number of monks flocked to his establishment, that they 

Chapter ii. — ' Thought, by Rev. James 
O'Laveity, to have been its most ancient 

^ It now runs into the sea, opposite the 
Bangor Baths. 

3 Anciently known, as Lough Laoigh, or 
the " Lough of the Calf," thus called from 
an old tradition. 

■* It is said, in Cormac's "Glossary," to 
have been so named from Bece, a favourite 
dog of Brecan, that was drowned with his 
master, in that celebrated whirlpool, called 
Coirebreacain or Corevrecan, " the caul- 
dron of Brecan." It lies between Ireland 
and the Island of Rathlin, being now called 
Sloghnamara, "the gulf of the sea." 

5 This name is said to have been derived 
from Bicne, a servant to Conal Cearnach, 
who was drowned there, while driving some 
cows, which had been carried off, from Scot- 
land. This incident is related in a romantic 
story, which has for title Tain-bo- Fraich, or 
the " Spoil of the Cows of Froech," as found 
in the " Book of Leinster." 

* This is found in the Dinnseanchus or 
" History of Forts," of which romantic tract, 
there are various Irish copies, all of which 
are still unpublished. 

' At the dissolution, Bangor was found to 
be possessed of the temporalities and 
spiritualities of thirty-four townlands, to- 
gether with the tithes of nine rectories or 

** In some loose sheets, which the writer 
has examined, at the Ordnance Survey 
Office, Phoenix Park, Dublin, John O'Dono- 
van has given the varied orthography for this 
town, from ancient and modern authorities, 
quoted by him. These sheets are intituled, 
"Correspondence, &c., concerning Names 
of Places, Antiquities, &c., in the County 
Down." The following is a digest : i. 
Bangor — Ecclesiastical Annals, 1623 ; His- 
tory of the County of Down, 1744 ; L'Abbe 
Ma-Geoghegan, 1758 : Hibernise Antiquse 
et Novoe Nomenclatura, 1771 ; Beaufort's 
Memoir, 1792 : Seward, 1795 ; Archdall's 
Monasticon, 1786; Dubourdieu's Stat. Sur- 
vey, 1802 ; Carlisle, 1810 ; County Map, 
l8n ; Abstract of Population, 1821 ; Post 
Office List, 1825 ; Lanigan's Ecclesiastical 
History, 1829 ; Irish Ecclesiastical Register, 
1830. 2. Banchor — Sir James Ware, 1600; 
L'Abbe Ma-Geoghegan, 1758; Hiberniae 

Antiquce et Novos Nomenclatura, 1771 ? 
Lanigan's Ecclesiastical History of Ireland, 
1829. 3. Benchor — ^Jonas, a monk of 
Bobbio in Italy, Vita Columbani, c. 3, 
Codex MS. Vaticanus seculi noni (7th cen- 
tury) vide O'Conor's Annals of Ulster, p. 35 ; 
Life of St. Finian, ex Codice MS. Salmati- 
censi, AA., SS., p. 393 ; Lanigan's Ecclesi- 
astical History, 1829. 4. Beanchor — Vita 
Comgalli. 5. Beanchair — L'Abbe Ma- 
Geoghegan, 1758. 6. Bennchor — O'Fla- 
herty's Ogygia, 1685. 7. Bennchair — Col- 
gan, 1647. 8. Benchorensis — O'Donnell, 
lib. ii., 24, 1520. 9. Bennchoria — Dr. 
O'Conor, in Annals of the Four Masters, 
1826. lo. Bennchorum — Hiberniae Antiquse 
et Novae Nomenclatura, 1 77 1. II. Bencho- 
rium Monast. — Colgan, 1647. 12. Ben- 
chorense Coenobium — Ussher, Primordia. 

13. benncoijA — Cormac Mac Cuilenain, 
908, Annals of the Four Masters, 1636. 

14. benncAii\ — Tigernach, 1088, Annals of 
Boyle. 15. ben'ochAH\ — Tigernach, 1088, 
Annals of the Four Masters, 1636. 16. 
benchAij\— Tigernach, 1088. 17. benc4n\ 
—Old Book of St. Caillin, 1516. 18. ben- 
choi|\ — Annals of Inisfallen. 19. be<in- 
chui|\ — Annals of Ulster. 20. "bennchAi^ — 
Annals of Ulster, Annals of the Four Mas- 
ters, 1636. 21. ben'ocAiA. 22. ben'oc^nA. 
23. beiTochui^A. 24. bennclniii\ — Annals 
of the Four Masters, 1636. 25. beAnnchAiyv 
— Jeoffrey Keating, 1629. 26. beAnncAH\ — 
Duald Mc Firbis' Pedigrees, 1666. 27. 
benco|A — Haliday's Map, 181 1. 

9 In the First Life of St. Comgall, as pub- 
lished by the Bollandists, it is alluded to, as 
"ad ostium fluvii, nomine Bice." See 
num. 7, p. 581. 

'° The fullest and best account of this re- 
nowned place, and of its associations, we 
now possess, is in the Rev. James O'Laverty's 
learned work, " An Historical Account of 
the Diocese of Down and Connor, Ancient 
and Modern," vol. ii., under the heading, 
The United Parish of Newtownards, Bangor, 
Donaghadee, and^Comber, pp. i to 155, and 
Appendix, pp. iv. to xlv., containing a re- 
print of the Bobbio Missal and the Antipho- 
narium Benchorense. 

" After citing the Latin, from our saint's 
Second Life, the Rev. Dr. Lanigan observes : 
" By regione UlLorum in this passage is to be 
understood the particular territory anciently 



[May io. 

could not find accommodation in this monastery. Our saint thereupon was 
obh'ged to build other houses, not only in the northern province, but, even in 
other provinces of Ireland. Many thousand monks are said to have lived, 
under his rule and discipline. '3 Of all these houses, however, Bangor monas- 
tery was the most celebrated, and the largest ; and here, in course of time, a 
city grew around this hive of religious wisdom and sanctity.'* The parish of 
Bangor 's is bounded on the north, by Belfast Lough ; on the east, by 
Donoghadee parish ; on the south, by Newtownards parish ; and on the west, 
by a portion of this latter parish, as likewise by that of Hollywood. The part of 
the parish,'^ in the barony of Lower Castlereagh, is divided into seven town- 
lands and by a part of Bangor Bog townland. That part,'? in the barony of 
Ards, is divided into twenty-two townlands, and the remaining part of Bangor 
Bog townland. The Copeland Islands also belong to this part of the 
parish. Sir James Ware says, that the place got its name from a Beautiful 
Choir,'^ which is the same as Banchor, in Irish. '9 This statement has been 
repeated by Walter Harris, who states, that Bangor took its name, a Puldiro 
Choro, or from its fair and white choir ; it being called so, owing to the 
elegance of the building, erected of lime and stone, which is said to have 
been the first of the sort, built in the province of Ulster.^° However, this 
does not represent at all its original denomination.^' The name Bangor is 
in reality a modification of Banagher, and the two forms of denomination are 
frequently exchanged.^^ The root of the word seems to be Beanna^'^'i the 
Irish for " Horns," or local appearances, having the character of peaks, or 
crests of hills, or of mountains. According to some accounts, St. Comgall com- 
menced the foundation of a monastic institute and church, at this place, in 
the year 551 ^t or 552 ;'5 others have it, at 554,^^ ^^^^27 ^^^^^s ^^8,^9 559,30 

called Ulidia, and by other provinces of 
Ireland various districts in the northern 
parts," &c. See " Ecclesiastical History of 
Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xii., n. 201, 
p. 67. 

'-Sir James Ware renders it, "nunc 
vulgo The Ardes." — " De Hibernia et Anti- 
quitatibus ejus," cap. xxvi., p. 180. 

'3 Such is the account of St. Bernard, in 
his " Vita S. Malachire," cap. vi., sect. 12, of 
the Benedictine edition. 

••t See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 
Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, in MS. antiquae et 
editione Sirini, cap. i., n. 12, p- 583. 

'5 See it shown, on the " Ordnance Survey 
Townland Maps for the County of Down," 
sheets i, 2, 3, 5,6, 

'6 Containing 4,069 acres, 3 roods, i perch. 

'7 This portion contains 12,957 acres, I 
rood, I perch — the total area of the parish be- 
ing 17,027 acres, o rood, and 2 perches. See 
the Name Sheets of Bangor Parish, County 
of Down, now in the Ordnance Survey 
Office, Phccnix Park, Dublin. 

"8 He says "a pulchro choro." — " De 
Hibernia, et Antiquitatibus ejus," cap. xxvi., 
p. 180. 

'9 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan shrewdly re- 
marks: "But if the name was originally 
Benchor, will this etymology be correct ?" — 
*' Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. ii., 
chap, x., sect, xii., n. 198, p. 66. 

'"' See "Ancient and Present State of the 
County of Down," p. 64. 

-' Having recorded this statement of 
Harris, the Rev. Mr. Reeves appositely re- 
marks : " The building referred to is that 
which St. Bernard states was erected by 
Malachi ; and thus by an event of the twelfth 
century, Harris accounts for a name that 
existed in the sixth !" — " Ecclesiastical Anti- 
quities of Down, Connor and Dromore," 
Appendix H, p. 199. 

^' See what has been already stated, in 
vol. ii. of this work, at 28th of February, 
Art. i. 

*3 In the Irish characters, written 'beAnnA. 

-■* See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
iiise," xxix. Januarii. Vita S. Gildse 
Badonici, Abbatis et Confessoris, &c., n. 13, 
p. 192. 

=5 At the year 552, " the church of Benn- 
char was founded, by Comhgall of Bcann- 
char," according to Dr. O'Donovan's "An- 
nals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. l88, 

^* The erection of this church is en- 
tered in the Ulster Annals, at the years 554 
and 558. 

=Mn Harris Ware, the foundation of this 
monastery is placed at A.D. 555, vol. ii., 
" Antiquities of Ireland," chap, xxxviii., p. 
265. Archdall has also the same date, in 
" Monasticon Hiberaicum," p. 106. 

°* The Annals of Inisfallen state, that 
Bangor was founded in 557. 

'9 The Rev. Dr. Lanigan remarks : 
" From what has been seen concerning the 

May io.] 



and 561.3' Tlie primitive monastery here is said to have been in tlie grave- 
yard, now seen at Bangor ; and, a sHght depression there is thought to indi- 
cate that circular valhun, which once surrounded the building. Along its 
western site flows a stream, through the centre of the town. This turned the 
Abbot's mill, in former times, as has been conjectured. It passes an ancient 
well, overshadowed by a huge old thorn, and the water in it is popularly sup- 
posed to possess healing powers. 3^ A learned authority 33 has apparently 
referred the site of the ancient church, founded by St. Comgall, at Bangor, 
to the exact locale of the present Protestant church j34 but, perhaps, it might 

be safer to aver, that 
its location could 
not have been very 
remote from the spot 
indicated by him. 35 
It was known, in 
former times, as the 
Vale of Angels ;36 
nor, could such a 
designation fairly 
apply to the site in- 
dicated, since the 
Protestant church 
rises on a conspicu- 
ous eminence, which 
overlooks the town. 
The latter is spread 
along a narrow skirt 
of sea-coast. 

Here, for fifty 
years, the holy su- 
perior ruled over his 
large community, 
with great sanctity, 
and keeping a most 
perfect monasticdis- 
cipline. He wrought 
many miracles, and 
some of these are 
given, in different 
Acts, as published 
by the Bollandists. 
At one time, being 
in a retired place, 
after fasting for three 
whole days, he felt weak and thirsty; when a certain mendicant leper came 
to him, and seeking relief from his necessities. This man observed the saint 

Church at Bangor, County of Down. 

time that Comgall may have arrived at 
Clonenagh, and the number of years which 
he is said to have spent there, the founda- 
tion of Bangor cannot consistently with these 
and other circumstances, be carried fur- 
ther back than the year 558." — •" Ecclesias- 
tical History of Ireland," vol, ii., chap. x. , 
sect, xii., n. 199, p. 66. 

3° According to Rev. Dr. O'Conor, 
Bangor was founded in 555 or 559. See 
" Rerum Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus 
ii., Tigernaci Annales, n. 19, p. 129. At 
the year 559, Ussher says, " Benchorensis 
Ecclesia in (jltonia fundata." Index Chro- 
nologius, " Britannicarum Ecclesiavum An- 
tiquitates," p. 531. Elsewhere, he states, 


engaged in prayer, with his eyes and hands directed towards Heaven. Having 
faith as to the result of a certain action, that man found himself cured from his 
leprosy. With great joy, he afterwards informed the saint about Avhat had 
occurred. Comgall desired him to give thanks to God, to go in peace, and 
to inform no person regarding what had happened. But this latter admonition 
was not observed, by the man, whose heart was too full of gratitude, for the 
favour he had received. One night, a certain young monk, named Meldan,37 
came to St. Comgall, who was there in his cell, to relate something of im- 
portance. When Meldan approached, he saw the whole inner part of Com- 
gall's cell filled with a bright flame, which burst forth through the windows,^^ 
and with all the lustre of a noonday sun. The young man did not dare to 
approach, but signing himself with the cross, he retired ; and, on the follow- 
ing day, having a knowledge of what had occurred, Comgall called the monk 
to him. The holy superior requested Meldan to conceal during his life, what 
had been seen, on the previous night. As in the former instance, however, 
this admonition was not obeyed. 39 Cuimine of Coindoire states, it was every 
Sunday only, that Comgall used to eat food.''° However, such statement 
must be understood to mean, that only on this day did he partake of a full 
meal, or take generous nourishment. One day, Comgall, with his own hands, 
was engaged in making a wooden coffin, in which the brethren were to be 
placed, when death approached. One of the monks, Enan,'*' by name, said, 
" Father, you do a good work for the brethren, about to repose in this coffin, 
since it must aid them to obtain salvation ; would that I were permitted to 
depart this life in it." Comgall replied, " Be it so, brother, according to thy 
wish ; as, from this coffin thou shalt depart to Heaven." It so happened, 
that brother was sent to a place, far distant from Bangor monastery, and 
while there, he died. However, St. Comgall ordered his body to be conveyed 
to Bangor ; where, through the prayers of our holy Abbot, the monk was 
restored to life. The resuscitated brother frequently told his fellow-monks 

" Circa annum vero dlv. vel DLIX. Bean- See " An Historical Account of the Diocese 

chorensis Ecclesise fundationem," &c. Ibid., of Down and Connor," vol. ii., p. 124. 

cap. xvii., p. 494. 36 This was derived from the vision of St. 

3' In the Annals of Clonmacnoise, it is re- Patrick, who beheld while on a hill a great 

fcrred to the year 561. number of angels descending from Heaven 

3^ The Rev. James O'Laverty, who records to a valley that was beneath it. See Colgan's 

the foregoing local features, adds, this " may " Trias Thaumaturga," Jocelyn's Sexta Vita 

be only the last remains of a tradition that S. Patricii, cap. xcviii., p. 88. 

St. Comgall, or one of his sainted successors, '' His identity has not been ascertained, 

pronounced over it the benediction which is ^s This allusion furnishes us with some 

still preserved in the old Irish Missal found idea of the manner in which monastic cells 

at Bobbio, which has been published by were formerly lighted, although the windows 

Mabillon." — "Historical Account of the were probably apertures, unprotected from 

Diocese of Down and Connor, Ancient and the admission of external air, especially dur- 

Modern," vol. ii., pp. 124, 125. ing the day-time. 

33 See the Rev. William Reeves' " Eccle- ^' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

siastical Antiquities of Down, Connor and Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 

Dromore," p. 13, and n. (p), ibid, editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 13, 14, pp. 

^ It is represented in the accompanying 5S3, 5S4. 

illustration, draw on the spot by W iJliam F. ■♦° Thus he says, in the poem which is thus 

Wakeman, and transferred by him to the translated: — *' Patrick of the fort of Macha 

wood, engraved by Mrs. Millard. loves," &c. : — 

33 In vol. iv. of this work, at the 8th of 

April, in Article i., treating about St. Cenn- " Comhgall, head of Uladh, loves, 

faoladh. Abbot of Bangor, some reasons are Noble is every name that he named, 

given for another site, there described, as A blessing on the body of the sage, 

being more probably the monastic residence, Every Sunday he used to eat." 
in olden times. However, the Rev. James 

O Laverty states, that it was there a more See " Martyrology of Donegal," edited by 

modem Augustinian monastery had stood. Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, p. 122, 123. 


what he had seen and heard, after his first departure from hfe. " I was," 
said he, " brought towards Heaven, by two Angels, sent from God ; and, 
whilst on the way, behold other Angels came to meet us, saying, " Bear this 
soul to its body, for Comgall, God's servant, hath asked it. Therefore, bear 
it to Comgall, with whom the monk shall live, unto an old age."'*^ He lived, 
for many subsequent years ; and, at the close of life, his soul ascended to 
Heaven, while his body reposed in that coffin, made by our saint. 

Some thieves were in the habit of stealing vegetables and fruit, raised by 
the monks, who laboured with their hands, while praying with great fervour.'is 
The monks complained to their Abbot, that the brethren and their guests 
were thus deprived of the produce procured by their labours. On the follow- 
ing night, Comgall made a sign of the cross over his garden. At the same 
time, he said, " O Omnipotent God, who art able to do all things, deprive of 
their sight those thieves, who enter here, that they may wander about inside 
of this garden, until induced to confess their guilt." Accordingly, on that 
night, when those robbers entered the enclosure, they became blind ; and, 
they wandered about the garden, in ignorance of a place, where they might 
find an exit. At last, moved to penitence for their crime, they called for help, 
and then brought their ill-acquired store to the monks. The robbers made a 
public reparation for their crimes. Afterwards, becoming true penitents, and 
assuming the monastic habit, they embraced St. Comgairs rule.44 St. Comgall 
is described in the Martyrology of Donegal,45 as being a man full of grace and 
of God's love, who fostered and educated very many other saints, as he 
kindled and lighted up an unquenchable fire of God's love, in their hearts and 
in their minds. ^^ A holy anchorite and a venerable old man, named Critan,47 
visited St. Comgall, at the Easter festival. While the Abbot was offering up 
the Holy Sacrifice of Mass, his visitor saw a bright vision of Angels. These 
celestial spirits sometimes touched the hands, mouth, and head, of our saint, 
as also the altar and chalice, while they joined in his benedictions. Feeling 
a sensation of thirst, and after a long fast, Critan desired in heart, that he 
might be able to allay this thirst, by taking some liquor, which had been first 
tasted by our saint. Through the spirit of prophecy, our Abbot knew the 
desires of his friend. Having ended the Holy Sacrifi.ce, Comgall entered the 
house, where having tasted some liquor, he called a servant, named Segenus. 
The saint then said to him, " Bear this liquor to the holy old man, Critan, 
who is thirsty, and let him drink with thanks to God. Say to him, from me, 
that he is a faithful and a patient man." For this mark of our saint's atten- 
tion, Critan gave thanks to God-^^ A brother of the monastery, named 
Crimacthan,49 who was servant to the Abbot, having left the latter in his cell 
for the night, afterwards shut the door. He then retirfed to his own dormi- 

*' His identity is not known. past the baths." — "An Historical Account 

*^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii.. x. of the Diocese of Down and Connor, An- 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et cient and Modern," vol. ii., p. 129. 

editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 15, p. 584. "* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

■♦3 Speaking of the varied occupations of Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et 

the monks living at Bangor, the Rev. James editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. i6, p. 584. 

O'Laverty writes : " Some delivered in the ^^ See Drs. Todd and Reeves' edition, 

schools those lectures that attracted the pp. 122, 123. 

crowds of students, who, in turn, diffused ■** This is stated to be evident from the old 

gratuitously, in some distant land, the books of Erin. 

knowledge which they had gratuitously re- "'' Who he was is not known. 

ceived ; while others were engaged in manu- "^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

facturing the various articles required by the Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et. 

brethren, or were tending the mill, which editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 17, p. 5S3. 

we may fairly suppose, was turned by the Also, Vita S. Comgall;, ex tribus Codicibus 

stream, which now, sadly diminished, flows MSS., num. 5, p. 581. 


toiy. Wishing to see if the saint slept, he returned after a short interval. 
While standing at the door of the cell,5° he was enabled to discover that the 
saint slept ; but, in a short time, the whole apartment seemed brilliantly 
illuminated. Comgall arose immediately, when his face beamed with a 
wonderful beauty and witli a serene expression. He next engaged in prayer. 
Afterwards, our saint said to the brother without, " O Crimacthan, why art 
thou there ? Depart instantly, telling no person what thou hast seen ; and, 
for such presumption, on to-morrow, a penance shall be imposed on thee." 
The brother departed, with much fear; and, on the day following, he was 
subjected to a penance, in expiation for his fault.s' 

Owing to the great number of disciples that embraced his institute, Comgall 
has always been regarded as one of the principal fathers of our Irish Church. 
His numerous miracles have greatly added to his celebrity. It has been observed, 
that our saint drew up a particular rule for the direction of his institution, and 
that it was reckoned among the principal codes 5^ prevailing in Ireland. Comgall 
is named among eight chief framers of monastic rules. 53 The other seven men- 
tioned are St. Patrick, St. Brigid, St. Brendan, St. Kieran, St. Columkille, St. 
Molassius, and St. Adamnan. We may observe, that several other Irish saints 
are stated to have composed similar rules.s* One day, while St. Comgall was 
walking, he met a man on the way, named Borgan, carrying in his arms his little 
son, and he bore the name of Glassan, w^howas dead. He requested the Abbot 
to restore the child to life, trusting St. Comgall would be able to obtain from 
God any request he might make. Raising his eyes to Heaven, our saint 
prayed to the Lord. Afterwards, he said to the father of tliat deceased child, 
" If God will it, thy son shall live, but wait here, until the holy Abbot, Canni- 
cus, come to you, and then present your son to him, that he may bless your 
child with a sign of the cross, for to-day Cannicus will pass this way." St. 
Cannic approached, in course of an hour ; when the afflicted father requested 
him, to sign his child who was dead, with a sign of the cross. Turning to 
the man, and with his eyes elevated towards Heaven, Cannic said to him, 
" Thy son shall now live, for that is granted by God, to his servant Com- 
gall." The child was immediately restored to life ; while both the parent and 
the boy leturned home, with expressions of grafeful thanksgiving.55 

There was a certain man, named Croidhe, who betrayed an avaricious, a ma- 
lignant, and a tyrannical disposition. His mother was named Luch, which in 
Latin signifies mus, in English, " mouse." This man was a descendant of Tur- 
taraide ;5^ and, at one time, when the monks were at a loss for corn, they said 
to their Abbot, " Behold that silver vessel, which was sent us as a present ; if 
thou approvest, let it be sold for corn, that thy brethren may live." Accord- 
ingly, St. Comgall had an interview w ith Croidhe, who had abundance of corn. 

^* Nothing more seems to be known re- 5' See " Act.i .Sanctonmi," tomus ii., Mail 

gardinghim, than what we find in St. Com- x. Vita S. Comgalli ex MS. antiquo et edi- 

gall's Life. tione Sirini, cap. ii., num. i8, p. 583. 

5° The Rev. James O'Laverty slates — and ^- See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

probably with great accuracy — that a vast History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 

number of small oval-shaped cells stood at xii., jip, 62, 63. 

r.angor, in the sixth and seventh centuries. 53 yee Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

These cells were "made of wood and wattles, Acta S. Columbse, p. 471. 

covered with thatch, or at times even with S4 geg Ussher's " Primordia," cap. xvii., 

skins, scattered in every direction, and in- p. 919. 

terspersed with gardens, from which, in part 55 gee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

at least, the great monastery derived a sus- Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo ct 

tenance for its numerous inmates." — "An editone Sirini, cap. ii., num, 19, p. 584. 

Historical Account of the Diocese of Down s* No doubt the territory of Ily-Tuirtre is 

and Connor, Ancient and Modem," vol. ii., here meant. A very full account of its posi- 

p. 127. tion and annalistic references will be found 



Comgall asked him to take the silver vessel, in exchange for some provisions. 
But, the man replied, in a disdainful manner, " I want not what is yours, nor 
shall you have what is mine. I had rather the mouse should eat my corn than 
you." He alluded, by the term " mouse," to his mother. With some warmth, 
Comgall said, " Be it, as you say ; for, the mice shall eat all your corn, so 
that it shall not profit you." Thus, it likewise happened ; for, the mice 
devoured two heaps of corn, which belonged to that avaricious man. In these 
were fifteen waggon-loads, but nothing remained to him, on the third day, 
only chaff and straw. s? 

The well known Dempster, who places our saint among writers of the 
British Scots, attributes to him the authorship of the following works, viz., 
Regularis Vit£e Methodus, lib. i. ; Ad Coenobiorum Patres, lib. i. ; Epistolae 
plures, lib. i.s^ In Harris Ware,S9 we are told, that he wrote Institutions for 
Monks, which were then extant, as also some Epistles, besides the Acts of 
his cotemporary, St. Columkille. Besides the rule he drew up, a learned 
writer ^° would not undertake to assert, that Comgall was the author of other 
tracts, attributed to him.^' Some of our saint's brethren advised, that he 
should accept an offer made to him of certain places, where he might be able 
to erect small monasteries. These it was supposed might be useful for oppor- 
tunities afforded, in the way of fishing, or otherwise. But, the saint replied, 
" A large army is stronger, fighting under its chieftain, in one spot, than dis- 
persed in many places, and without a leader." At another time, tliey asked 
him, that certain brothers might be allowed to fish, in a particular lake. This 
was a journey of two days from the monastery. To such suggestion, he 
replied, " You have the sea near you, why do you not fish in it." On answer- 
ing him, that this sea-fishing was not a productive one, the brothers were 
sent thither with their nets. Then, they took a great abundance of fish. A 
contest having arisen between some seculars, at a certain place, regarding the 
capture of fish ; by his prayers, our saint removed the cause of their conten- 
tion, so that afterwards, a fish was rarely caught in the same waters. When 
Comgall had a great number of monks, subject to his rule, an Abbot, who 
was his senior, and under whose roof our saint had dwelt for some time, 
came to his monastery. When they sat down to table, and rejoiced in the 
society of each other, in order to test Comgall's humility, and to find if his 
former spirit of obedience yet remained, the senior began to chide him 
severely. Comgall then arose, and prostrating himself on the earth, he began 
to pour forth copious floods of tears. Being asked, why he wept, the holy 
man replied, " Because I am grieved, I have not had such an opportunity of 
practising humility, for many years past."°^ At another time, when the Abbot 
was on a visit to a certain monastery under his rule; it chanced, that some 
of his companions preceded him. Attended by one person, the saint advanced 
slowly. Turning off from the high road, both entered a small house. Having 
offered prayers, they remained there until evening. Then, a pious man came 
to them, and hastening towards his own house, that person brought water to 
wash their feet, and a covering, under which they might rest. Having struck 
a light, he placed food before them. When they had partaken of this food, 
they gave thanks to God, and to their entertainer, according to the usual 

in Rev. William Reeves' "Ecclesiastical 59 See vol. ii., " Writers of Ireland," Book 

Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dromore," i., chap, iii., p. 17. 

Appendix BB., pp. 292 to 297. ^° Rev. Dr. Lanigan. 

57 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. ^^ See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et land," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xii., p. 63. 

editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 20, p. 584. *- See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

s'* See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- Mali. Vita S. Comgalli, ex tribus Codicibus 

torum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 254, p. 152. MSS., num. 4, pp. 580, 581. 


manner. A time for sleeping next approached, and both felt wearied. The 
Abbot commanded his subject to occupy the bed. In obedience, his attendant 
did as he had been required, while our saint continued his vigil. After a part 
of the night had been spent in sleep, the brother awoke. He saw the whole 
house briUiantly illuminated, and this light continued, until break of day. But 
our saint ordered his companion not to reveal this vision, during the lifetime 
of his Abbot. This command the brother religiously obeyed. On the following 
morning, the man who had provided for their accommodation the night before, 
became their guide to the monastery, towards which they were proceeding.^3 
From the O'Clerys^'* welearn, likewise, how a very old vellum book ^5 states, that 
Comgall of Bennclior, in habits of life, was like unto James the Apostle. 

It chanced, while Comgall was once absent from the monastery, one 
of his monks took sick. At that time, the brethren had no other food for 
their sustenance, only some vegetables with esculents of an inferior quality. 
Being moved with compassion for the condition of the sick man, the monks 
advised him to visit certain religious, belonging to the same order, who lived 
in another place. There, they said, he should receive better treatment, besides 
obtaining the advantage of being nearer to his own relations.^^ But, when 
the sick man was brought to this monastery, which lay three or four miles dis- 
tant,^7 he shortly afterwards died. A vigil was kept over his body, according 
to a usual custom. On the next day, his corpse was brought to the monas- 
tery. Friends and kinsmen of the deceased accompanied the remains, with 
tears and lamentations. Their wailing disturbed monastic quiet. When St. 
Comgall returned to the monastery, a short time afterwards, the steward 
humbly confessed his negligence, in not taking due care of the patient. 
Approaching the bier, our Abbot offered up his prayers to God, when the 
dead man was instantly restored to life. Afterwards, he lived fifteen years, in 
the same monastery. This monk was wont to relate, that when he wished to 
ascend a ladder, extending towards Heaven, with others preceding him, he 
heard a voice saying, that Comgall would not then suffer him to ascend. 
Another day, according to their usual custom, the brothers being at work ; 
being overcome with fatigue and thirst, one among them sunk to the earth, 
and from the middle of the day, to the ninth hour, he was lifeless. But, the 
Abbot, taking compassion on him, prayed to our Lord, when he was imme- 
diately restored to life.^^ 



In the seventh year, after the foundation of his monastery at Bangor,' St. 
Comf^all went over into Britain,^ to visit some holy men. It seems very proba- 

'3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. ** This anecdote serves to show, that 

Mail. Vita S. Comgalli, ex tribus Codicibus change of air and scene had been prescribed, 

MSS., num. 5, p. 581. at an early period, for those monks, whose 

'* See " Martyrology of Donegal," Rev. licalth happened to be in a languishing con- 

Drs. Todd and Reeves' edition, pp. 122, dition. 

123. *' This seems to have been a house, under 

'5 Already referred to in St. Biigid's Acts, St. Comgall's rule, and thelocntion of which 

at the 1st of February. must have been very near Hangoi-. 


May io.] 



ble, that the Britain, to which went, was no other than Great Britain.3 How- 
ever, there appears to have been a mistake in chronology, if on this occasion, 
he there visited St. Columba,4 unless, indeed, we refer the foundation of 
Bangor to A. D. 559.5 He proposed remaining in Britain, for some time.^ 
It is likely, that on the occasion, when he went to Britain, in company with 
St. Brendan and others, he paid a visit to St. Columkille, then living in one 
of the western Isles.? The names of four saints, who visited St. Columkille, 
are Comgellus AIocu Aridi, Cainnechus Mocu Dalon, Brendenus Mocu Alti, 
and Cormacus Nepos Leathain.^ The Island, where St. Columkille then 
resided, is stated to have been Hinba,9 although, according to another 
account, it is called Rechra. The latter may be supposed to have reference 
to one, among the many islands of Ireland, called Rathlin f° and, the most 
probable of these is that parish and island of Rathlin," or Raghery,'^ in the 

** See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 
Maii. Vita S. Conigalli, ex tribus Codicibus 
MSS., num. 6, p. 581. Also Vita S. Com- 
galli, ex MS. antiquo et editione Sirini, cap. 
iii., num. 30, p. 586. 

Chapter hi. — ' In 555, St. Comgall 
founded liere an Abbey for Regular Canons, 
according to Mr. and Mrs. Hall's " Ireland, 
its Scenery, Character," &c., vol. iii., 
p. 19. 

* According to the Second Life, chap, ii., 
sect. 21, pp. 584, 585, in the Bollandist col- 

3 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 
xii., p. 63. 

* The Rev. Dr. Lanigan remarks, that 
supposing our saint paid a visit to St. Colum- 
kille, in one of the Western Isles of Scot- 
land, Bangor could not have been founded 
so early as the year 555, because the seventh 
year following it should have been 562. He 
says, that Columkille did not leave Ireland 
until 563 ; and that he spent not a very short 
time in the western isles, before he had been 
visited there by St. Comgall. See ibid., n. 
206, pp. 68, 69. 

5 This is the year assigned for its estab- 
lishment, in Fleming's "Collectanea Sacra," 
Vita S. Comgalli, cap. 22, p. 307. 

* Archbishop Ussher has it, " volens quos- 
dam Sanctos ibi visitare et ibi manere ad 
tempus ; et constituit ibi monasterium in 
quaddam villa in regione Heth : ait Vitas 
Scriptor ; de monachis ibidem a Pictonum 
quorundam piratarum incursione ab ipso 
vindicatis narrationem postea adjiciens." — 
" Britannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," 
cap. xvii., p. 494. 

7 See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 
xii., p. 63. 

* See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Vita 
S. Columbse," lib. iii., cap. 17, pp. 219 to 
222, and notes accompanying. 

9 This island has not yet been identified, 
but it is supposed to have lain north of, and 
not far distant from, Hy. 

'" The most celebrated of these is Rath- 
linn or Raghery, on the north coast of 

Antrim County. Reachra is supposed to 
have been an ancient name ofLambay. This 
island lies off the east shore of Dublin County. 
See ibid., pp. 164, 165, n. (b), pp. 86, 87, n. 
(b), pp. 219, 220, nn. (a, b). 

" See it described, on the "Ordnance 
Survey Townland Maps for the County of 
Antrim," sheet i. 

" In the year 1786 appeared a description 
of this island, contained in the first edition of 
Rev. William Hamilton's " Letters con- 
cerning the Northern Coast of the County of 
Antrim, containing a natural History of its 
Basaltes : with an Account of such circum- 
stances as are worthy of notice respecting 
the Antiquities, Manners and Customs of 
that Country. The whole illustrated by an 
accurate Map of the Coast, Roads, Moun- 
tains, &c. In these Letters is stated a plain 
and impartial View of the Volcanic Theory 
of the Basaltes," Dublin, 8vo. This only 
contained Twelve Letters, pp. 195. This was 
followed in 1790, by a greatly improved edi- 
tion of that work, and bearing for its title, 
"Letters concerning the Northern Coast of 
the County of Antrim, containing such cir- 
cumstances as appear worthy of notice re- 
specting the Antiquities, Manners and Cus- 
toms of that Country. Together with the 
natural History of the Basaltes, and its 
attendant Fossils, in the Northern Counties 
of Ireland. The whole illustrated by an 
accurate Map, and Engravings of the most 
interesting objects on the coast." In two 
parts. By the Rev. William Hamilton, 
B.D., and M.R.I. A. In these Letters is 
stated a plain and impartial View of the 
Volcanic Theory of the Basaltes." Dublin, 
8vo. Each of the parts contains Eight 
Letters ; both parts constituting 227 pp. 
The engravings on copper have reference 
solely to the mainland of the Antrim Coast. 
Long after the author's death, which took 
place in the year 1797, his son William 
llamiltonpreparedareprintof the last edition, 
with a Memoir and Profile shade of his father 
prefixed, and this, as also the second edition, 
was dedicated to the Right Honourable 
James Earl of Charlemont, President of the 
Royal Irish Academy, &c. It bears the title, 



[May 10. 

barony of Carey, and county of Antrim. In ancient times, it is said '3 to have 
been called Ricnea, by Pliny, Ricina, by Plotomy, Riduna, by Antonius, 
Recarn and Recrain, by the Irish historians, Raclinda, by Buchannan,''* and 
Rachri, by M. M'Kenzie. It has an area of nearly 3,400 acres ; of which 
over 30 are under water. 's Here, it is stated — but incorrectly — that the 
illustrious St. Columkille had built a church, about a.d. 546, and had estab- 
lished near it some sort of Culdean establishment ; and, these are said to have 
been placed, under the government of Deacon Colnian,'^, son of Roi. How- 
ever, we can find very little of a reliable nature, regarding those ecclesiastical 
settlements, in the very early ages. It is only known with certainty, that 
St. Columkille visited Rechrea ^,^^ but, it is stated, in the Irish Annals, that 
Segineus, Abbot ofHy, was the first erector of a church at Rechrainn, a.d. 
635."^ After this period, there are several allusions to its history, in our 
chronicles. At one time, St. Comgall wished to build a cell on the island, called 
Reachraind or Raclin, as we are informed. '9 Situated off the extreme northern 
shore of Ulster, it is not always an easy matter to reach that Island, from the 
mainland. The site of the ancient ecclesiastical establishment here is not 
indicated ; some mound of remarkable formation, and Bruce's Castle,^° being 
the only ruins, now to be seen on the Island. This latter fortress rises on a 
bold head-land, at the extreme eastern point of the Island, immediately front- 
ing Scotland ;^' and, it is so called, because the illustrious fugitive Robert 
Bruce, afterwards King of that country,^- was obliged to seek shelter there, 
when his fortunes were at a very low ebb, in the winter of 1306^3 About 
one-fourth of the entire island surface consists of rocks and poor pasturage, 
while the remaining three-fourths contains tolerably good arable land.^^ Very 

" Letters concerning the Northern Coast of 
the County of Antrim ; containing observa- 
tions on the Antiquities, Manners and Cus- 
toms of that Country. With the Natural 
History of the Basaltes, illustrated by an 
accurate Map of the County of Antrim and 
views of the most interesting objects on the 
coast." In two parts. This edition is enriched 
by a Memoir of the Author — and an Itinerary 
and Guide to the Giants' Causeway." Bel- 
fast, 8vo., pp. 265. To this latter edition 
reference is made, in the quotations here 

'3 See ibid., Part i., Letter i., n. p. 3. 

'■• He classes it among the EbudK or 
Western Isles of Scotland. See " Rerum 
Scoticarum Historia," lib. i., p. 24. 

'^ See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 
land." vol. iii., p. 134. 

'* However, it seems more probable, that 
he belonged to Rachrainn, or Lambay 
Island, off the east of Bregia. See Dr. 
O'Donovan's "IrishGrammar,"pp. 155, 281. 

''See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaiurga," 
Adamnan's Vita S. Columl)as, lib. ii., cap. 
xli., p. 361. 

'^ See Ussher's " Index Chronologicus," 
at A.D. Dcxxxv., " Britannicarum Eccle- 
siannii /Vntiquitates." 

'9 According to the account of James 
Drummond ^iarshall, M.D., St. Comgall 
landed here belore St. Columba. See Notes 
on the Statistics and Natural History of the 
Island of Rathlin, off the Northern Co.ast of 
Ireland, in " Transactions of the Royal Irish 

Academy," vol. xvii., p. 47. This interest- 
ing Paper is found under the head of "Anti- 
quities," extending from pp. 37 to 71. It is 
preceded by an excellent and accurate Map 
of the Island, now regarded as a separate 
parish, with its various townland denomina- 
tions ; as also, beautiful copper-plate views 
of — I. Rathlin Island, from Ballycastle. 
2. Limestone Rocks in Church Bay, Raihlin 
Island. 3. Ruins of Bruce's Castle, Rath- 
lin Island, and 4. Doon Point, Rathlin 

'° A woodcut representing this castle, and 
the cliff on which it stands, over the sea, 
may be seen in "TheDublin Penny Journal," 
vol. ii.. No. 56. A letter-press description 
accompanies it. See pp. 25, 26. 

" Angus McDonnell, in the beginning of 
the fourteenth centur)-, was regarded as King 
over the Western Islands, and Raheny was 
deemed to be a part of his sovereignty. 
See ibid, 

" See an account of this heroic king, in 
John Hill Burtons "History of Scotland," 
vol. ii., chap, xxii., xxiii., xxiv., pp. 344 
to 432. 

^3 " Bot in to Rauchryiie, nocht forthi 
Thai arywyt ilkane sawffly : 
Blyth, and glaid, that thai war sua 
Eschapyt thai hidwyss waivis fra." 

— Barbbour's " Bruce." Buke Thyrd, v. 187. 

''^ So late as the miiklle of the eighteenth 

century, the tenants on Rathlin paid their 

May 10.] 



remarkable Basaltic columns, and in contorted forms ^s — resembling those on 
the Giant's Causeway and on the opposite Antrim coast — are here to be seen, 
especially at Doon Point.^^ Several very curious antiquities have also been 
discovered on this Island.^? That marine sweep or large indentation, between 
Bull Point and Rue Point, is called Church Bayf^ ^-^^^^ probably, because of 

Church Bay, Raghery Island, County Antrim. 

a church standing there,^9 and it is the chief landing place.3° Both this Bay, and 
the channel between it and the mainland of Ireland, are scourged by a power- 
ful current, and by a conflux of tides, chafing in recesses and recoiling from 
headlands. The waves are continually in agitation, and often they are very dan- 
gerous.3' St.'Comgall was opposed in the design of settling here, by thirty sol- 
diers. These bound his hands, and expelled him from the Island. In punish- 

Academy," vol. xvii. James Drummond 
rents in kind ; most usually in pullets and 
sheep. See Rev. George Hill's " Historical 
Account of the Plantation in Ulster, at the 
commencement of the seventeeth century, 
1608-1620," chap, vi., p. 242, n. 84. Belfast, 
1877, 4to. 

-5 Allusion is made to this Island in the 
Poem of Rev. William Hamilton Drum- 
mond, D.D. : 

" Where Rathlin braves the surge that 
round her rolls. 
With chalky bastions, and basaltic 
moles," &c. 
— "The Giant's Causeway," Book Second, 


** A very remarkable copperplate illustra- 
tion of this scene, will be found in the Tliird 

Edition of Rev. William Hamilton's " Let- 
ters concerning the Northern Coast of the 
County of Antrim," &c.. Part ii., Letter iv., 
p. 131. 

^7 See tbid., Part i., Letter ii., pp. 20, 21. 

^^ A view of this scene is here presented, 
drawn on the wood, by William F. Wake- 
man, Esq., and engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

^5 In Ballynoe was the site of an old 
church, on which was built a new Protestant 
church, by Act of Council, dated April 20th, 
1722. See Harris' Ware, vol. i., "Bishops 
of Down and Connor," pp. 215, 216. 

3" "The form of the; island has been com- 
pared, like Italy, to that of a boot, the toe 
pointing to the coal works of Ballycastle — 
the heel, where Bruce's Castle is situated, to 
Cantire — and the top to the great Western 
Ocean." — "Transactions of the Royal Irish 


ment for such impious conduct, they all died within the course of a month.3^ In 
times subsequent, the religious foundation of St. Columkille was ravaged and 
destroyed by the Danes, here, in 790; and again, in 973, these freebooters 
made another visitation, when they put tlie abbot to death. 33 While absent from 
Ireland, St. Comgall built a monastery, in a certain village of the territory of 
Heth.34 There was a place having such denomination in Britanny, and it 
is mentioned in the Acts of St. Brendan of Clonfert.33 However, as it appears 
more probable, that the Britain, to which Comgall repaired, was Great Britain, 
a conjecture has been offered, that Heth, instead of being the proper name 
for a territory, may mean a tract lying near the sea. Thus, Hit/ie, the name 
of a place in Kent, has been explained, 3^ as signifying coast, or sea-shore.37 
The Heth, in which Comgall is said to have been, was probably a maritime 
district ;38 and it is thought to have been in some part of Northern Britain,39 
rather than in Gallic Britanny.''" 

About this time, the Picts of Scotland were often engaged, on marau- 
ding excursions ; and, it would seem, that Brude, son of Maelcon, 
called King of the Cruithne, had waged a victorious war, against the 
Albanich, or Southern Scots, so as to expel them from his territories.^' 
His prowess was acknowledged over the northern parts of Scotland, 
where he ruled for several years. One day, while the saint was working in a 
field alone, he left a chrismal resting upon his garments. It chanced, that 
some Pictish robbers, who were Gentiles, made an irruption into a village, 
which they plundered ; but, on coming to where St. Comgall was at work, 
and seeing the chrismal placed upon his garments, supposing it to be the God 
of the saint, they did not dare to touch it. Comgall was much disturbed, on 
account of this barbarian irruption, and he cried out, " Lord, thou art my 
strength, my refuge, and my deliverer." Then, having prayed, he signed the 
Heavens, earth and sea, with a sign of the cross. Immediately the Pagans be- 
came blind, and the sea swelled in boisterous manner, so that the invaders' ves- 
sels were thrown back on the shore. Many among the crew suffered even bodily 
injury. The pirates, hereupon, relinquished their prey, and asked forgiveness 
from St. Comgall. Owing to his prayers, their sight was restored; and, the 
sea becoming calm, these rovers returned without any booty. After this, at the 
entreaty of many holy men, St. Comgall repaired to Ireland.-*^ 

It was a custom, in the monastery of our saint, if any one among the brethren 
should chide another, that person, who had received such reproof — whether 
deserving it or not — was required to go on his knees. Wherefore, at one time, 
while Comgall visite d an island, in the northern part of Ireland, some monks 

Marshall's "Notes on the StatisticsandNatu- 38 As stated in St. Comgall's Acts, some 

ralllistoryofthe Island of Rathlin," &c.,p.3S. British pirates made an attack on the monas- 

3' See the " Parliamentary Gazetteer of tery : and hence, an inference may be drawn, 

Ireland," vol. iii., p. 134. regarding such a situation for it. 

3^ See "Acta .Sanctorum," tomus ii., 39 Eday, one of the Orkney islands, is 

X. Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, exMS. antiquoet called Hethy hy Camden, in his " Britan- 

editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 47, p. 587. nia," at col. 1469. However, Comgall's 

33 See " Transactions of the Royal Irish Ileth is not called an island, but a terri- 

Academy," vol. xvii. James Drummond tory. 

Marshall's "Notes on the Statistics and *° See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

Natural History of the Island of Rathlin," History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 

&c., p. 48. xii., n. 205, p. 68. 

3* See "A Memorial of Ancient British ^' See William F. Skene's Preface to 

Piety," p. 75. " Chronicles of the Picts, Ciironicles of the 

35 See the Life of St. Brendan, at the l6th Scots and other early Memorials of Scottish 
of May, History," pp. ex., cxi. 

36 By Baxter, in his Glossary. *" See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

37 In Lhuyd's Armoric Vocabulary, Atit is Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 
translated "sea-shore," " bank of a river," editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 21, pp. 584, 
&c. 5^5- 


chanced to be sailing on the middle of a lake. A brother, who was steering 
their boat, reproved one of his companions. Not regarding the danger in 
which he was placed, as the boat was small, that brother is said to have leaped 
from it, that he might prostrate himself. But, at once he sunk under the 
water, where he remained buried beneath the wave, from the first, to the ninth, 
hovu- of the day. Full of sorrowfor the accident, which had occurred, the reprov- 
ing monk told St. Comgall about the matter. Without any show of inquietude 
Comgall said, " The Lord is able to preserve our brother alive, beneath 
the water ; return you, and seek him, where he has been submerged." The 
monks accordingly did so, when one of them, who was an excellent swimmer 
and diver, plunged into the water, and he found the young monk lying 
beneath, with his face towards the earth. The diver bore him to the surface, 
alive and well. The monk then said to his companions, " I suffered no more 
inconvenience under water, than if I had been on dry land." This miracle 
confirmed in that practice the brethren, who bore further reproaches with 
humility. There was another young monk, in St. Comgall's monastery ; he 
was so distinguished for humility, mildness, and obedience, that he did what- 
ever was required, and avoided whatever had been prohibited. Commands 
were executed in so prompt a manner, by this monk, that his brethren gave 
him the title of *' The obedient." One day, while Comgall was on a journey, 
accompanied by this young man, and with other companions ; all these came 
to a spot, where a great inundation had taken place. Having received a 
reproof from one of his brethren, that young monk immediately fell upon his 
face, near the sea-shore ; and, as he remained among the last arrivals, his 
action was not observed by the company. The brother, who was much 
attached to the Abbot, bore his shoes ; and, when our saint came to a dry 
part of the shore, he asked for " The obedient." Not being seen amono- the 
other monks, his Abbot enquired, if any of the brethren had reproved him. 
One of them confessed that he had. Comgall ordered the monks to return, 
and to seek him. While doing so, the rising sea-tide had covered the whole 
shore, the brother yet remaining prostrate, although within a very short dis- 
tance from the elevated banks. On raising that obedient religious, his 
brethren brought him to St. Comgall. Then, the whole company returned 
thanks to God. 

One day, being on a journey, St. Comgall repaired to his monastery. 
He there found, that a certain boy had died suddenly, during his absence. 
He then said, " It is my fault, that this boy departed so suddenly, in my 
monastery, and before his allotted time." Approaching the corpse, the Abbot 
prayed fervently, and the boy was restored again to life. Comgall then said, 
" Do you desire, my son, to remain in this life ?" The boy instantly declared, 
he had rather die. Comgall imparting his blessing, this boy tranquilly yielded 
up his spirit. A certain man earnestly entreated the Abbot, to receive some 
possession as an offering, but he refused. Being further urged, our saint 
said, " Why do you wish to cast your leprosy on me ?" Upon which, the 
man left him, with some signs of indignation. A certain prince came to St. 
Comgall. He bore a coffer, filled with gold and silver, as a gift. This prince, 
who was a wicked sinner, stood before the gate, and sent a messenger to our 
Abbot. But, the saint refused his gift, saying, " Why doth the sinner wish to 
discharge his iniquities upon us ? Let him bear his own crimes and their 
fruits." Filled with confusion, this prince also returned with his cofifer.43 
St. Finbarr,44 of Mashbile.^s came to visit St. Comgall. Tlie latter, with his 

■♦3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. ■♦^ He is also named, Finan, Fmnian 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et Fennia, and Findia. The Festivals of this 

editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 22, 23, 24, 25, holy Abbot were kept, on the lith'of Feb- 

P- 585. ruary, and on the loth of September, On 


whole company of monks, felt rejoiced on the arrival of such a guest. Whilst 
all were at supper, some one told the Abbot, that St. Finbar, owing to his infir- 
mity, desired to drink a little milk. Nothing was eaten at table, but bread 
and herbs, as other refreshments were forbidden, by the strict rule of this 
house. Although milk was not kept within the monastery, still St. Comgall 
sent a messenger to the cellar, where a vessel full of that liquid was found. 
The measure was even sufficient for the entertainment of all. This being 
placed before the Bishop, he ordered it to be divided, with the other monks. 
The vessel containing it, although afterwards returned to the cellar, w^as no 
more seen. Owing to the Bishop's persuasion, and to that of other holy men, 
St. Comgall was then induced to allow milk to be used, by old and infirm 
monks residing in his monastery.''^ A certain boy, learning to write, made 
no progress in this art, for several days ; when, coming to St. Comgall, he 
received a blessing on his eyes and hands. This tended to perfect him in 
penmanship, so that in a short time, he excelled all others, and became a 
celebrated professor of writing himaelf.47 One night, when his brethren assem- 
bled at the church, Comgall said, " Let us pray, dearly beloved, for the soul 
of our Father, the Bishop Findbarr. He is now borne to Heaven, by the 
Angels." On the following day, word was brought, regarding St. Finbarr's 
death. 48 

On a certain occasion, when St. Columba had sailed in a vessel from 
lona Island, to the monastery of Bangor; it happened, that one of his brethren 
died on board. When landed at the mouth of a river, and at a port, named 
Iniver Beg, the whole company hastened towards Bangor monastery, where 
they were received with much joy. ]\Ieantime, their deceased companion was 
laid with the baggage, in a secret part of the vessel. When the voyagers 
had received a kiss of peace, Comgall washed their feet, and asked, if they 
had any person, besides the assembled number, during the voyage. St. 
Columba replied, that one remained on board ; Comgall requested, he might 
be sent for, that he might have an opportunity of enjoying their community's 
conversation and society. " For," said he, " after the labours of this voyage, 
the hands and feet of all must find rest, and the vessel with its effects must be 
taken under our care." St. Columba replied, " That brother will not come, 
unless you go to him." Without delay, Comgall went to the vessel ; but, not 
immediately finding the brother, he searched among the luggage, where he 
thought the monk might be sleeping. There, however, he was found dead. The 
servant of God was astonished, but betaking himself to prayer, Comgall said, 

the former day, there are some aUusions to and Modern," vol. ii., pp. 10 to 28. 
him, in vol. ii. of this work, at Art. xvi. '•^ See " Acta Sanctorum,"- tomus ii., x. 

However, the Acts of this saint are reserved Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 

for the lOth of September, which seems to editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 26, p. 585. 
have been his chief feast. The name, Fiubarr, ^^ This anecdote shows, how the profes- 

or Findbarr, applied to him, means " white- sion of a scribe was one anciently cultivated 

head," in English; and, proliably, it arose in the Irish schools. "Though prayer was 

from the circumstance of his locks having the principal, it was by no means the only, 

been white originally, or because they had duty of a monk. Labour was scarcely 

become venerably hoarj', in his advanced secondary — much of his time was devoted to 

years. the Scriptorium, where there were written 

^5 Now Movilla, or Moville, in the parish and illuminated those m?nuscripts that are 

of Newtown Ards, barony of Lower Ards, the glory of that age and the wonder of this." 

in the county of Down. An abbey was — Rev. James OLaverty's "Historical 

founded here, so early as 540, by St. Finbai r, Account of the Diocese of Down and Connor, 

and consequently, it had been erected before Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., p. 129. 
St. Comgall's, at Bangor. A very interesting *^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

accountofSt.Finnian, or Findbarr, and of his ^^aii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 

monastery, at Moville, will be found in Rev. editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 27, 28, p. 

James O'Laverty's "Historical Account of 585. 
the Diocese n'Di.wn an<l Connor, Anciviu -".See "Acta Sanclorum," tnnuis ii,, x, 


" In the name of our Lord Jesus Christ arise, and hasten with me to thy 
brotliers." As if awaking from sleep, the dead man arose, and coming with 
our Abbot to his monastery, the latter observed, that his companion was de- 
prived of one eye. The saint declared, that as he had prayed to God for a 
perfect restoration, in all his limbs and body, the monk should not labour 
under such a defect. At the same time, a fountain of water sprung from the 
earth, whereon they stood. In its water, the Abbot ordered that monk to 
.bathe his face, when he recovered the eye, which he before wanted. Its 
lustre continued undiminished, even in his old age. While St. Columba 
remained with our saint, they entered a church together, to recite Hours. 
Afterwards, returning to the monastery for supper, St. Comgall ordered a 
brother to bring some food, which it was thought the house did not contain. 
But, on going to the cellar, that brother brought the required viands, which 
were placed before both great saints. These pa*-took thereof, giving thanks. 
Knowing this to be the gift of God, St. Columba said to St. Comgall, " O 
holy father, this food is not to be taken with indifference, for it has not been 
provided by men, but by God's Angels." Those, who were present, imme- 
diately said, " Blessed be God for his gifts. "^9 It is recorded, that on another 
day, while these two great saints were at table, they saw the devil placed in 
a seat reserved for the cook of the monastery. s^ Surprised at this sight, the 
saints entertained suspicions, regarding the virtue of this cook. On being 
sent for, seeing his place occupied by a demon, the cook cried out with a 
stern voice, " Wretched demon, what brings you here ? or what folly induces 
you to occupy this seat ? Certainly, from my youth I have never served thee, 
and if otherwise, declare it : fly therefore to the sea-depths, or to the desert 
solitudes, where thou canst hurt no person."^' The demon then fled in 
silence. St. Columba and St. Comgall did penance for harbouring unjtist 
suspicions, concerning that brother. 

Being in some necessity, the Abbot one day required a monk to cross 
over the strait of the sea, in a direct course. This brother, we are 
told, passed over with dry feet, and returned safely to the saint. At 
another time, he required one of the monks, to go into the workshop 
of a smith, who was absent, and to make a frame, on which fishes might 
be boiled. At the same time, Comgall blessed his hands. That brother, 
hitherto unskilled in the smith's art, made the article as required, together 
with many other useful things, on the same day. St. Comgall had three 
nephews, who were saints, and his sister's children. These lived in a monas- 
tery, apart from his own. They sent to Comgall, requesting a cymbal, which 
they are said to have received, through the hands of an Angel. Then, they 
gave thanks to God, for this present. Again, our saint \i said to have procured 
alms for a poor man, in a miraculous manner. When, too, in a spirit of obe- 
dience, one of his monks bore a hot stone from the fire to St. Comgall, his 
hands were preserved from being burned, for which singular favour he 
returned thanks to God.s^ Although in the course of time, Comgall's rule 
might have been observed far and wide throughout Ireland ; yet, it is to be 
supposed, that during his lifetime, it did not extend very much beyond such 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex tribus codicibus the Saints," vol. v., May 10, p. 144. 

MSS., num. 7. pp. 5S1, 582. Also, Vita S. 5= gee "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

Comgalli, ex MS. antique et editione Sirini, Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 

cap. iii., num. 29, 31, p. 586. editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 32, 33, 34, 35, 

5° From this quaint legend, we may glean, 36, 37, p. 586. 

that special places were reserved for the 53 ^ee Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

monks, in the refectories of early monastic History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect, 

establishments. xii.,n. 201, p. 67. 

5' See Rev. S. Baring-Gould's "Lives of S4 ggg Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life 


places, as it could have been convenient for him to visit in person. 53 One of 
these subordinate monasteries seems to have been at Cambos,?'* now Camus,s5 
on the River Bann, in the barony of Coleraine. Thither, after the royal con- 
vention at Drumceat,5^ St. Columba came, and he had an interesting inter- 
view, with St. Comgellus. There, too, he predicted a battle, which should 
take places? between the Hy-Neill and the Cruithni, at the celebrated fort of 
Dun Kehern.s^ This was called after Cethern, one of the Red Branch heroes, 
who flourished in Ulster, about the Christian era's commencement. That 
prophecy of St. Columba was afterwards fulfilled. A doubt has been 
expressed,59 as to whether Comgall of Bangor was the same as St. Comgeli 
of Cambos, or Cambas. We find, however, that Comgallus, or Comgellus,^° 
is sometimes written Congellus. There can be no doubt, regarding our St. 
Comgall being the person spoken of, in Adamnan's Life of St. Columba, and 
in that passage, to which reference has been made.^' 



One day, when with his disciples passing near the shore of Lough Feabhail,' 
the Abbot heard and saw some swans singing melodiously, while floating on 
the water. There, the brethren asked their holy senior, to bring the swans to 
them, that they might touch them with their hands. At this time, the monks 
should have partaken of the refection, which had not yet been prepared. The 
Abbot replied to their request, if it were the will of God, that they should be 
gratified ; when, immediately, the swans flew towards the servants of Christ. 
One of them even alighted on the breast of their Abbot. Again, when on 
another occasion, this holy man had a revelation, regarding the approach of 
St. Columba and his disciples ; while these were labouring at the oar, Com- 
gall besought our Lord to send him food for his guests. Whereupon, an Angel 
collected a shoal offish in the sea, and brought them towards the shore, quite 
near to the saint's dwelling. Knowing what had occurred, the Abbot ordered 
his monks to bear these captured fishes towards his monastery. There, the com- 

of St. Columba," lib. i., cap. xlix. a St. Comgeli of Cambos, as if distinct from 

55 See Archdall's " Monasticon Hibenii- the great St. Comgall of Bangor. See ?W</. 

cum," p. io6. "Index Chronologicus," at a.d. dlxxx., p. 

5* The " Annals of Ulster " place it, at 533. 

a.d. 574, which is supposed to be the true *" In Colgan's edition of Adamnan's Vila 

date. Other accounts have it so late as S. Columbre, we have not Congell but Com- 

590. gell ; and, in his notes on that chapter, he 

57 This was fought a.d. 629. The "Annals supposed, and indeed justly, that he was no 

of Ulster " have it A. d. 628. other than Comgall of Bangor. 

5** In Irish written TJun Ceichii\n, and ^' There is no reason for admitting any 

Latinized Ahinilio Ccthirui. This fortifica- distinction, as Rev Dr. Lanigan shows, in his 

lion has been identified, by John O'Donovan, " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. ii., 

with the Sconce, about four miles west of chap. x.,scct. xii., n. 201, p. 67. 

Coleraine town, in the parish of Dunboe. Chapter iv. — ' Now Lough Foyle, near 

59 See Usshcr's " Britannicarum Ecclesia- Derry, and mentioned by Prince O'Donnell, 

rum Antiquilates," cap. xiii., p. 237. In as having been passed, when St. Columkille 

consequence of this doubt, Usshcr mentions set out on his journey to lona. See Colgan's 

May io.] 



nuinity and guests, on tlieir arrival, partook of them. ^ Diarmad, Kino-of Lein- 
ster, had a son named Cormac, who was a native of that part of the country 
named Hy-Kinselleach.3 He was kept as a prisoner for some time, by Colum 
or Colman,4 King of North Leinster, until released, at the intercession of St. 
Fintan, Abbot of Clonenagh. That prince received his blessing, and after- 
wards ruled over the principality of South Leinster.s It seems probable 
enough, that he and St. Comgall were fellow-students and intimate friends, 

Castle of Carlow. 

while both studied together at Clonenagh.^ This Cormac is mentioned, in 
the Life of St. Fintan, 7 and the circumstance of his having become a monk of 
St. Comgall.^ This prince relinquished the sceptre,, in his more advanced 

"Trias Thaumaturga," Sexta Vita S. 
Columbse, lib. iii., cap. xxi., p. 434. 

' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 
Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS., aiitiquo 
et editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 38, 39, 
p. 586. 

3 It was so called, because its people were 
regarded as the descendants of Eanna Ceinn- 
sealach, who was fourth in descent from 
Cathaier, monarch of Ireland, about the 
year 358. 

■» He died at Slieve Mairge, a.d. 576. 
See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four 
Masters," vol. i., pp. 208, 209, and n. (t). 

s Comprising the present counties of Wex- 
ford and Carlow. 

* From two different sources has the pedi- 

gree of St. Comgall been obligingly trans- 
cribed, by Mr. J. J. MacSweeny, Librarian's 
Clerk to the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 
On the father's side, it shows his descent 
from Conall Cearnach, head of the Leinster- 
men. Thus it occurs in the Book of Leacan, 
at fol. 141, col. 3, line 27 : — ComgAtl, 
t)e4iToc]iAi|v, 111 AC Seen A, 111 ac eAcliAic, 
111AC ■bi\oni, 111AC Voi^co, niAc epiAifC, 
11U\c CiMfnchAint) liic .h. Ch)\inichAinD 
Chtnb Aguf minp'OAm <\e|\nA, tllAc 

OAchAIC, 111 AC tuj'OAch, 111 AC UofA uy 

CoiiaII CeiMiAch hi^xet 5UiniiiA]A, iriAc 
CoiiAibL Ce]\nAcli Ajuf LoiiT)chuit)i injeAn 
echAtc echbeoit. According to the same 
authority, the name of St. Comgall's mother 
was Dealbai ; thus, "OeAibAi a IIIacai^ 


years, in order to lead a religious life. 9 He presented, as an offering to God 
and to St. Comgall, himself and three castles. These forts were situated in his 
own district of Leinster. These three castles were denominated Catharlach,'° 
now Carlow," on the banks of the River Barrow, Foibran,'^ and Ardarema.'3 
Coming to the province of Ulster, he became a monk, under the rule of St. 
Comgall, and he remained in the monastery of Bangor. Afterwards, he 
suffered from temptations suggested by the devil, and felt concerned about the 
welfare of his children, relations, patrimonial possessions, and country. In 
great agitation of mind, this prince had an interview with St. Comgall, and 
declared, that he could not remain at Bangor, without visiting his native 
country. Finding he would not be restrained from this desire, Comgall sent 
him on his way with some brethren, as companions. At their departure, the 
Abbot offered up his prayers. Cormac felt oppressed with sleep, on a high 
hill '4 — where the Asylum of Benchor '5 was established — and slept there 
from the first, to the ninth, hour of the day. Here, in a dream, he 
thought he had walked over the bounds of Leinster, and had beheld many 
cities and castles. This imagining had conduced him through many flour- 
ishing fields and pleasant meadows. He seemed, even to have possessed 
his favourite chariots and kingdom, while chiefs, magistrates, and magnates, 
belonging to his kingdom, appeared to sit around him, with all the insignia 
of royalty. When satisfied with this vision, he awoke. Through the grace 
of God, he felt a tedium and dislike, for all he had seen in that dream. '^ He 
then returned to the Abbot Comgall, with a relation of what he imagined, and 
he remained under religious rule, to the very day of his death.'? 

While walking, St. Comgall and his disciples, entered a deserted house on their 
way. The monks, who were suffering from cold, brought some faggots, which 
they found, to their superior, and asked him to kindle a fire. He blew them 

•mei]\co'Lpn do we find the entry. Again, been made on the wood, by William F. 

on the father's side, we have the following Wakeman, and the engraving is by Mrs. 

]">edigree from the copy, contained in the Millard. 

Koyal Irish Academy, of Duald l\Iac Fir- '- This place has not been identified, 

bisigh's valuable " Book of Genealogies, "in There was a Faebhran or Foibhren monas- 

the TlAOiiti]'eAiicu]', at p. 736 : — ConigAlL tery, in the territory of Graighrighe, com- 

benc<Mi\ ULjiIX) tllAoi. 10, IIIac SeutariA, prising the present barony of Coolavin, in 

tllAC eAcliAC, lIlAc biMuin, tllAC ■{:oi\5A, the county of Sligo and a great portion of 

tllAC e^MUMne (no e]\cnAi|'5), mAC Cy\ein- northern Roscommon. See Dr. O'Donovan's 

cliAinT), niAC eAcliAC, 111 AC Lu5t)AC, 111 AC "Annals of the Four Masters," vol. i., n. (t^, 

llofA, rilAC lowcA'OA, lllAC ITe-obimce, HI AC p. 357, and pp. 424, 425, nn. (y, z). 
CAif, 111 AC pAchAC A^AAi-oe (ecc). '3 Its location does not seem to be known, 

1 At the 17th of February, in vol. ii. of under this ancient name ; but, probably, it 

this work. must be sought for, within the bounds of 

* See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- ancient Hy-Kinsellagh. 
nise," xvii. Febniarii. Vita S. P'intani de '•• The second Life of St. Comgall has it 

Cluain Edneach, cap. xviii., p. 352, and "in collo imminenti Astilo Beunchor," 

nn. 17, 18, 19, p. 354. num. 40. 

9 See De liurgo's " Officia Propria '5 The text of the Life is thus corrected at 

Sanctorum Hibernia:," Die x. Maii. In note (d), by Father Godefrid Henschenn, 

Festo S. Congalli, ii. Nocturno, Lect. vi., " Idem asylo Benchor." 
p. 53. '* See "Acta Sanctorum, tomus ii., x. 

'" This is probably one of the earliest Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo 

notices on record, of a castle having existed et ediiione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 40, and pp. 

there at a remote period. Mr. D'Allon tells 586 to 588. 

us, that in a.d. 634, an alibcy had been here '' Father John C'olgan supposes, that he 

founded. Sec " Irish Penny Magazine," was the St. Cormac, who was venerated at 

vol. i., No. 40, p. 313. Achadh-Finnich, in Leinster, at the 7lh — 

"The accompanying illustration of the rcct€\\\\\ — of May. See " Acta Sanctorum 
existing remains of Carlow Castle has been llibernia?," xvii. Fcbruarii. Vita S. Fin- 
taken from a hitherto original point of view, tani, Abbatis de Cluain-Ednech, cap. xviii., 
and from a Photograph ; the drawing has n, 19, p. 354. 


into a flame, and thus the brothers \varn:\ed themselves. On another day, in 
company with his monks, a dark and cold night fell upon them, in a desert 
valley. The brethren, in like manner, benumbed with cold, asked our saint, 
in God's name, to afford them the solace of a fire. With his breath, Com- 
gall again kindled some dry wood, before their eyes, whereby the darkness 
around them was dispelled, and they became warmed. On the following 
day, no trace of fire was seen, where the pile of wood had been kindled, but 
the place seemed full of leaves and branches. This was a subject for admira- 
tion to the brethren, who returned thanks to God. At another time, our 
holy Abbot fasted '^ during the night, against a certain merciless chieftain, 
who lived in a castle, named Trachim.'9 In the middle of the night, this 
castle shook to its very foundations. Weapons and other matters fell from 
its walls. Terrified by such w^onderful portents, die tyrant did' penance, to 
the great joy of our saint. ^° Again, Comgall fasted against a prince, who 
dwelt in Mae-mad Castle f'^ but, this inexorable king refused to hear God's 
servant. Then, in presence of this king, of his children, and of his friends, a 
large stone appeared rent before them, through the merits of our saint. This 
warning so much alarmed the chief, that he humbly subjected himself to pen- 
ance, granting, at the same time, the particular request of Abbot Comgall. 
A certain young monk, named Conuath,*^ came to the Abbot, that he might 
learn what manner of life Comgall led. That young man supposed himself 
to have followed a more austere life than others, and he requested our saint, 
not to conceal any of his accustomed practices. The latter, in the middle of 
the night, conducted him towards a neighbouring river. The young monk 
felt himself unable to bear certain alternations of heat and cold, in the water, 
when he entered it with St. Comgall. Admiring thenceforth those austerities 
and graces enjoyed by our saint, his former presumption immediately vanished, 
and he became a monk, under Comgall's rule. Another day, while the Abbot 
sailed over an arm of the sea, he reproved a young monk, named Crimac- 
than.23 This devout servant immediately left the vessel. Prostrating himself 
on the sea, it was able to support him, as if he had stood upon dry land. 
There he remained, until the Abbot called him into the bark. This he 
entered, with garments not even moist. The vessel continued motionless, 
meanwhile, in the same place, although the winds blew, and sails were set. 
E.onan,2+ son to Aeda, had a wife, named Brava. She was exceedingly 
beautiful, and much loved by him, until she gave birth to a son, whose face 
appeared blackened. This inclined the chief to dismiss his wife, with her 
offspring ; nor would he even acknowledge the child to be his own. Brava 
then went to St. Comgall, declaring the cause for her ej^pulsion. Thereupon, 
our saint bestowed a blessing, on the boy's face and eyes. At the instant, 
this child became exceedingly beautiful. Such a miracle induced Ronan, to 
receive again both mother and son, with due regard. ^5 On the occasion of 
his visit to Scotland — which is assumed — St. Comgall is said to have con- 

'^ This was done, to molify the wrath or ^- Nothing transpires to identify this reli- 

move to clemency men in power, and the gious. 

practice is often nolicetl in the Lives of our =' Who he was does not seem to be 

Irish Saints. known. 

'9 This place appears to have escaped -■* Elsewhere, his name does not appear in 

identification. history, although he appears to have been a 

'° See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. person of distinction. 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et =5 gee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

editione Sirini, cap. iii., num, 41, 42, Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo 

p. 587. et editione Sirini, cap. ii., num. 43, 44, 45, 

^' The situation of this fort is not further 46, p. 587. 

indicated. -^ See Bishop De Burgo's " Oflicia Pro- 




[May 1 6. 

tributed'^to the conversion of Brideus — odierwise Brudeus^7 — King of die 
Northern Picts, and son of Meilochon.^^ He lived in a great fort,^? where 
the modern town of Inverness, in Scotland, is situated. His reign com- 
menced in 557, and terminated a.d. 584.3° Other accounts have it, that he 
reigned thirty years,^' and possessed great influence, in the northern parts of 
Scotland.3^ At one time, as we are informed, St. Comgall, St.|CoIumba, and 
St. Canice,33 visited that pagan king, named Brudaeus. In most of St. Columba's 
Acts, however, no mention is made about his being accompanied, on the 
occasion of his missionary excursion to Pictland, by either St. Comgall, or St. 
Canice; although, it is stated, in a general manner, that he had a few brethren 34 
with him. That Pictish king ordered the gates of his castle to be closed 
against them. But, St. Comgall signed them with a sign of the cross, and 
they fell in pieces to the ground. After a like action, on the part of St. 
Columba,35 the doors of Brudseus' regal residence were broken. By a similar 
sign, St. Canice caused the hand of this king to witlier, even while it brandished 
a sword to slay them. However, on his consenting to embrace the Christian 
faith, its power was again restored to him.s^ 

There was a certain queen, as we are informed, who was named 
Cantigera, the pious and virtuous spouse of Fiachna,37 a King of Ulidia.s^ 
He dwelt in a celebrated fort, 39 or castle, called Rathmore,^° situated 

pria Sanctorum Hibernije," Die x. Maii. In 
Festo S. Congalli, ii. Noctuino, Lect. vi., 


"' According to the " Scolichronicon," he 
is reckoned to have been the thirtj'-fourth 
Pictish king in succession, from the first 
Cruthnean monarch. See Ussher's " Bri- 
tannicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. 
XV., p. 372. 

^^ According to Venerable Bede's " His- 
toria Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum," lib. 
iii., cap. iv., pp. 272, 273. See Rev. J- A. 
Giles' "CompleteWorks of Venerable Bede," 
&€., vol. ii. 

'9 Supposed to be the present Craig Pha- 
drick, a vitrified structure, near the River 
Ness. There is a sketch and section, with 
an interesting description of it, in John 
Williams' "Account of some remarkable 
ancient Ruins in the Highlands," p. 31. 
Edinburgh, 1777. 

3° According to Tigernach's Annals, MS. 
Bodl. Rawlinson. B. 488. See " Chronicles 
of the Picts, Chronicles of the Scots, and 
other early Memorials of Scottish History," 
edited by William F. Skene, LL.D.,p. 67. 

3' See "Cronica Brevis," MS. Bib. Fac. 
Jurid. Edin., 34, 7.3. — //'/(/., p. 150. 

3^ See James Taylor's '■ Pictorial History 
of Scotland," vol. i., chap, iii., p. 26. 

33 The patron saint of Kilkenny, whose 
feast occurs on the iith of October. 

3* As we are told, " Sanctus cum pancis 
fratribus extra regis munitionem" — Rev. Dr. 
Reeves' Adamnan's " Life of St. Coluniba," 
lib. i., cap. 37, p. 73, and lib. ii., cap. 35, 
p. 151. 

35 The incident is related in the Acts of 
this great Apostle of the Picts, when Brudc 
" shut himself up within tiie walls of the 
royal residence at Iiivcriu-ss, hoping there 
to remain undisturbed from the intrusion 

of the man of God." — "Life of St. Patrick, 
Apostle of Ireland, with those of St. Bridget, 
virgin and abbess, and of St. Columba, 
Abbot and Apostle of the Northern Picts. 
A Triple Leaf just collected from the purest 
sources," chap, iii., p. 125. 

3* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 
Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antique et 
editione Sirini, cap. iii., n. 48, p. 5S7. 

3' He was most probably Fiachna, the son 
of Baedan, the King of Ulidia, who died a.d. 
585. Fiachna's achievements are recorded 
in Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Four 
Masters." Thus, in a.d. 590, he gained a 
victory, at Eadan-mor, " the great Brow," 
or " Face of a Hill " — supposed by Dr. 
O'Donovar to have been in East Meath — 
possibly the ancient name of Edenrath, near 
Navan. There, he defeated Gerthidhe, son 
of Ronan, chief of Cianachta-Breagh, in the 
east of Meath. In 592, Fiachna slew Aedh 
Dubh, son to Suibhne, King of Ulidia. 
Again, Fiachna gained a victory over the 
Munstermen, in 593, at the battle of Sliabh- 
cua, in the north-west of the county of 
Waterford. In 597, he gained the battle of 
Cuil-Cael, "the narrow Angle" or 
" Corner," over Fiachna, son of Deman. 
This place was situated, either in the county 
o( Down or of Antrim. At last, in 604, this 
same Fiachna, designated Caech, or "the 
blind," was slain by the Cruithni. See vol. 
i., pp. 212, 213, and n. (i), pp. 214, 215, 
and nn. (t, u), pp. 216, 217, and n. (c), pp. 
222, 223, and n. (t), pp. 230, 231, and n. (u). 

3** In 592, he succeeded to this position, 
after slaying Aedh- Dubh. 

39 The site is yet marked, by a large irre- 
gular oval-shaped Rath, 138 on the long 
diameter, inside, and 108 feet, in the short 
diameter. It was formerly surrounded, by 
a deep and wide fosse, now partially filled 


in the plain of Linia.^' She belonged to the region of Dailnaraide. Having 
been poisoned, in consequence, she suffered most grievous torments. Igno- 
rant concerning the autlior of those sufferings, her friends called for the ser- 
vices of some physicians, who felt unable to afford her relief. In fine, being 
invited to see her, St. Comgall declared, while giving her his blessing, that 
she should soon be restored to health, and that she should also discover the 
author of her tortures. The queen recovered, and after a short time, the 
devil possessed one of her handmaids. Being deprived of the use of her 
reason, this woman declared, that she had administered poison to her mis- 
tress. All who heard this statement insisted, that handmaid should suffer 
condign punishment for her crime. Yet, the queen desired, that Comgall 
might be assigned, as her judge. Whereupon, sending word by a messenger, 
our Abbot released the accused, not only from death, but even from servi- 
tude. That treacherous woman afterwards did penance, to atone for her evil 
purpose and attempted crime. t^ Once, when St. Comgall came to the cell of 
a pious virgin — who appears to have ruled over a religious community — he 
heard great lamentation, for the loss of some beasts of burden. These had 
been carried away, by a wicked tyrant and robber, who was named Fergus. ''3 
Our saint went to him and said, "Give me those cattle, which you have 
taken from Christ's servant." However, that tyrant not only refused to release 
his unjustly acquired booty ; but, he even loaded the man of God with 
reproaches. On the following night, having entered his bed, the unhappy 
freebooter was found dead, lying beside his wife. This visitation was con- 
ceived to be a punishment, justly due for his crimes. A certain young man, 
Aedian by name — the grandson of Dunlainge — while reading the twelve minor 
prophets, with St. Finell,44 saw in a vision his garments wrapped around an 
afflicted leper, belonging to his race. After arising from sleep, he found his 
own body struck with leprosy. By St. Finell's advice, the young man hastened 
to St. Comgall, to be restored to his former state. At this time, the holy 
Abbot was old and infirm, so that he was obliged to use a bath, to alleviate 
his pains. Comgall ordered the young man to wash himself in this bath, 
from which he had then issued. Then, Aedian plunged his whole body under 
water, and recovered immediately his former health. He returned home, with 
great joy and thanksgiving. Although demons were frequently seen by our 
saint, in great numbers; yet, they were unable to change his mind, from a con- 
stant internal fruition of the presence of our Lord Jesus Christ.'^s 

with earth. tenuit, apud quern reliquiae multorum Hiber- 

^° The Second Life of St. Comgall has nise Sanctorum elevatre sunt, et honorifice 

Rathmore — but this is evidently an error, as reconditas." — " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

it is \^2Xm\zzAAtriui)i-maqnum. In English, x. Maii. Vita S. Comgalii, ex MS. antiquo et 

it is rendered, " the large fort." It was in editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 49, p. 587. _ 

the townland of Rathmore, partly in the '•^ We do not find his name or place in his- 

parish of Dunegore, and partly in the Grange tory. 

ofNilteen, barony of Upper Antrim. It is '*'' Elsewhere, we do not find an account 

shown, on the "Ordnance Survey Town- of St. Finell or Fmellus. Perhaps, we should 

land Maps for the County of Antrim," rather read Sinell or Sinellus. There are 

sheet 50. various saints thus called in our calendars. 

■*' In Latin designated "Campus Linise." About this time, also, a celebrated school 

By the Irish, it was called Magh Line, and was under the direction cf St. Sinell, son of 

also known as Moylinny, a tract represented Mianach, at Cluain-Inish, in Lough Erne, 

by the modern Barony of Upper Antrim, in His feast occurs, at the 12th of November, 

the county of Antrim. See Rev. Dr. Reeves' ^s See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

" Ecclesiastical Antiquities of Down, Maii. Vita S. Comgalii, ex MS. antiquo et 

Connor and Dromore," pp. 62, 63, and n, editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 50, 51, pp. 

(a). Also, pp. 69, 70, and n. (s). 587, 588. 

** It is added: "Supra dictus rex ■** It has been thought, by Colgan, that he 

Fiachna regnum in Hibernia fortissimum was the St. Meldan or Medan, buried in 


As the time of our saint's death approached, he was afflicted with much sufter- 
ing. He specially laboured under a total deafness. He also endured much pain, 
from retention of urine. In such a state of suffering he continued, from the 
commencement of winter to the time of Pentecost, in the year following. Some 
were of opinion, that God thus afflicted him, on account of the intolerable and 
austere rule, he had imposed on his monks. Others said, that these pains 
were unwillingly endured by liim now, owing to tlie excessive and insensate 
rigour he had formerly imposed on himself, by choice; and again, other con- 
jectures of a different kind were hazarded. In the meantime, St. Meldan,'*^ 
an Abbot, who was descended from the Scots' nation, was sent from Heaven, 
to a certain holy monk, named Colman.47 Meldan spoke to him as follows, 
and while he was asleej) : "Not for the reasons men assign are so many pains 
inflicted on St Comgall, however real their causes, but for his love of Christ 
has he suffered, that he may receive an increase of merit. For, as he inno- 
cently suffers pain with men, so in the sight of Angels shall he rejoice, being 
crowned with many unfading joys and rewards. t^ As the last days of our saint 
were evidently fast approaching, the monks frequently requested him, to 
receive Holy Eucharist, and other necessary sacraments. Comgall replied 
to these requests ; " I shall receive the Holy Sacrament from the hands of no 
person, until St. Fiachra's arrival. 49 He is an Abbot of theLeinster province, 
who is sent to me, by God." At this time, the Angel of the Lord visited St. 
Fiachra,5o whose monastery, Airard,^' in Idrone territory, was situated on the 
banks of the River Barrow, s^ and this holy Abbot was sent to our saint, then 
suffering great pain, to administer to him the Body and Blood of Christ.53 
According to other accounts, our saint received the Holy Viaticum from St. 
Fiachra,5+ Abbot of Congbail,55 and afterwards of Clonard.s^ Whether Fiachra 
was only abbot of Congbail, or had already removed to Clonard, when he 
attended St. Comgall in his last illness, cannot well be determined. Having 
arrived at Bangor, he immediately administered Holy Communion to the 
venerable Abbot, who had now attained the eightieth — or according to some 
accounts the ninetieths? — year of his age. According to other accounts, he 
was then in the eighty-fifth year.s^ Then, Fiachra asked St. Comgall for some 

Perrone. See "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Urard — not much differing from the Airard, 

nise," xvi. Januarii, Vita S. Fursai, Confes- as found in the text of St. Comgall's Second 

soris, n. 19, p. 90. If so, his feast was kept Life. 

on the 7th of February. But, there are s^ According to the Second Life of St. 

several other Irish saints, bearing that Comgall. 

name. 53 gee Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 

■•^AColman, son of Coimgallan, died A.D. History of Ireland," vol. ii., chap, x., sect. 

620. See Dr. O Donovan's " Annals of the xii., p. 63, and n. 20S, p. 69. Ibid. 
Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 242, 243. He 5-» His feast is at the 8th of February. See 

lived in Dal-Riada, where .St. Columba at that date, vol. ii. ot this work, Art. vii., 

visited his father's house. See Colgan's for an account of him. 

" Trias Thaumaturga. " Prince O'Donnell's 55 Congbail is now called Conwa'l, and it is 

Vita S. Colunibje, lib. ii., cap. x., p. in the county of Donegal. See Archdall's 

4'I- " Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 96. 

■•* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. s^ According to Father John Colgan :" S. 

M.iii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiipio et Fiachiius abl)as de Congbail in Gleann- 

editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 52, p. 5S8. Suilige in Tirconallia, et ctiam de 

^^ Many holy men, bearing this name, Cluaineraird." Pic places that St. Fiacrius, 

occur in our Irish Calendars. between the years 587 and 652. See " Acta 

5° His feast is at the 2nd of May, and from Sanctorum Ilibernia-," xxiii. Februarii, 

this showing, it should apjiear, he lived Appendix ad Acta S. Finiani, cap. v., 

ill the sixth century. See Art. iii. of the pre- p. 406. 
sent Volume, at that date. 57 See Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves' 

5' Now the old church of Ullard, a parish " Martyrology of Donegal," pp. 122, 123. 
in the barony of Gowran, and county of Kil- ss gee Sir James Ware. " De Scriptoribus 

kenny. It was formerly called Frard, or Hibernix," lib. i., cap. ii., p. 14. 



relics. This request the holy Abbot's disciples promised should be complied 
with ; when, in the presence of many venerable men, St. Comgall yielded up 
his spirit to the great Creater.S'^ His demise occurred, on the sixth of the 
May Ides, about the year 6oo,^°or 601.^' The Rev. Dr. Reeves places his 
death, at a.d. 602.^^ If we are to believe Dempster, some writers have stated 
that he lived, in the year 681, and he had the surname of Faustus.^3 He had 
been thirty years, three months, and ten days, in the abbacy of Bangor. ^4 Yet, 
do we find a different account in the " Chronicum Scotoram,"^5 under a.d. 
602 ; in which year, it is stated, that he rested on the 6th of the Ides of May, 
in the fiftieth year, third month, and tenth day, of his government, as also, 
in the ninety-first year of his age. In the first of St. Comgall's Lives, as pub- 
lished by the Bollandists, he is said to have died, in the eiglitieth year of his 
age. Those, who place his birth in 516, tell us, that he departed at the age 
of eighty-five.^^ After placing his birth in 516, and death in 601, Archdall 
makes him die, in the ninetieth year of his age,^? without apparent notice of 
his own inconsistency in calculation. 

In conjunction with St. Columkille,^^ St. Mochuda,^9 and St. Ailbe,7° 
St. Comgall has been regarded, as one of the four chief founders of 
monasticism, and propagators of religious rules, in Ireland. 7' To him, 
Dempster ascribes some works ;72 but, it seems likely, that these are 
altogether the vagaries of his own inventive imagination. With much 
honour, he was interred in his own renowned monastery at Bangor. After- 
. wards, this place was rendered celebrated, owing to the many favours obtained 
from God, through the intercession of its illustrious patron saint. 73 From it, the 
remarkable colony of St. Columbanus went forth to Gaul and Italy, and bear- 
ing with them the liturgy, called the " Cursus Scotorum," and the " Antipho- 
narium Banchorense."74 In this latter, there is an alphabetical Hymn, in 

S9 In the Appendix to the Introduction of *■♦ According to Dr. O'Donovan's " An- 

"The Calendar of the Saints of Ireland," as nals of the Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 224, 

edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, we 225. 

read at p. xxvi. " S. Comgallus obiit an. 600, "^s gee William M. Hennessy's edition, 

Ktalis 90. Fuit abbas Benchoiensis 20 die- pp. 66, 67. 

bus, tribus mensibus, 50 annis ; ergo natus ^° Archbishop Ussher places his death at 

10 Mail an. 510 ; facuis abbas 510, Marlii, the year 601, and says, that he lived only 

vel 12 vel 10 quod videtur " to the eighly-tifth year. See Index Chrono- 

^° In the age of Christ, 600, St. Comhgall, logicus. " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum An- 

of Beannchair-Uladh died, on the tenth day tiquitates," p. 535. 

of the month of May, according to the ^^ See " Monasticon Hibernicam," p. 

account in Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 106. 

Ft)ur Masters," vol. i., pp. 224,225. With ^^ Venerated, at the 9th of June, 

this date for our saint's death, the Annals of *' His feast occurs, on the 14th of May. 

Clonmacnoise agree. 7° He is commemorated, at the 12th of 

*' The Annals of Ulster record his death, September, 

at the year 601. See Rev. Dr. O'Conor's 7' See "The Whole Works of the Most 

" Rerum Hibern'carum Scriptores," tomus Rev. James Ussher, D. D., Lord Arch- 

iv., p. 34. Tlie Bodleian copy of the Annals bishop of Armagh, and Primate of All Ire- 

of Inisfallen have at A. D. 597, " Quies Com- land," by Dr. Elrington, vol. vi., '' Britanni- 

gaill Benchoir." Seeidi'i/.. tomus ii., p. 10 ; carum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. xvii., 

while, in the Dublin copy, at a.d. 601, a p. 483. 

similar entry, in Irish, " Bas Comhghoill '-These are noted, as " Regularis Vitse 

Beannachair," at il?id., p. 18. Rev. Dr. Methodus," lib. i., "Ad Coenobiorum 

Lanigan also agrees with this computation. Patres," lib. i. , and "Epistolce Plures," lib. 

See "Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," i. See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 

vol. ii., chap, x., sect, xii., p. 63, and n. 207, toruni," tomus i., lib. iii. , num. 254, p. 152. 

p. 69. 7' See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. 

^^ See Adamnan's " Life of St. Columba," Mali. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo et 

lib. i., cap. 49, n. (e), p. 93. editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 53, p. 588. 

^^ See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis ''* See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

Scotorum," tomus i., lil>. iii., num. 254, p. Scottish Saints," p. 309. 

•152. "This will be found, in Rev. James 


praise of St. Comgall.75 Sometime having elapsed, after St. Comgall's death, 
the St. Fiachra, already named, came to the monastery of Bangor. The 
remains of Comgall having been disentombed with much reverence, Fiachra 
removed an arm of our saint, which he brought with him, proceeding on 
towards the province of Leinster. While pursuing his journey through this 
province, he stopped at the castle of a chief, who was named Aedus.?^ He 
requested the saint, to baptize one of his cliildren. Fiachra opened his wallet, 
to remove a book containing the Baptismal rite. Immediately, the arm of 
St. Comgall was raised towards Heaven. After Fiachra's fasting and prayer, 
offered on bended knees, it then descended, and disappeared beneath the 
earth. For three days, the soil was searched, by digging over this spot; but, 
the relic could not be discovered. On seeing this, the chieftain Aedus gave 
in perpetuity a donation of his castle and lands ; and here, St. Fiachra built a 
large monastery, ui honour of St. Comgall, and of the Most Holy Trinity. 7? 
On the plundering of Bangor, by the Danes, in the year of our Lord 822, the 
oratory there was broken, and the relics of St. Comgall were shaken from the 
shrine, in which they had been preserved. They were afterwards removed 
to Antrim. 7^ It was only in 1846, that a lease of the plot of ground, on 
Kennedies Hill, near Bangor, had been procured ; this was transferred to 
the Catholic Bishop, and on it the chapel of Bangor, dedicated to St. Comgall, 
was built. It was opened in a solemn manner, on the 14th of September, 
1 85 1, by the Most Rev. Dr. Denvir.79 A beautiful Catholic Church has been 
erected, of late years, in the town of Antrim, and it has been specially dedi- 
cated to St. Comgall. It is not at all improbable, that his blessed relics still sanc- 
tify that parish. A place, belonging to the Archiepiscopal See of Dublin, was 
formerly called Cell. Comgail,**° after this saint. ^' It was known as Saynkill,^^ 
now Shankill, in the barony of Rathdown, and county of Dublin.^3 It is known, 
also, as Rathmichael,and there aretheruins of an ancient church, with thestump 
of a round tower remaining.^+ Near it is a fine rath, extending over an area 
of twenty-eight yards, in diameter, the circumference of which was marked by 

O'Laverty's "Historical Account of the " It will be true, true, by the will of the 

Diocese of Down and Connor," vol. ii., Ap- supreme King of Kings, 
pendix, pp. xxii. to xxv. 

7* He seems to have been a subordinate My bones shall be brought, without 

chief of Leinster ; although, about or soon defect, from the beloved Beanchoir 

after the time of St. Comgall's death, Aedh, to Eantrobh." 
whose son Crimhihann was killed at Ath- 

Gian, in larthar-Liffe, or the west side of See vol. i., pp. 434, 435. 

the River Liffcy, appears to have been King ?' See Rev. James O'Laverty's "Historical 

of Leinster. See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals Account of the Diocese of Down and 

of the Four Masters," vol, i., pp. 250, 251, Connor, Ancient and Modern," vol. ii., pp. 

and nn. (y, z). 153, 154. 

''See '"Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., x. '^'^ See Ussher's " Epistolarum Hibemi- 

Maii. Vita S. Comgalli, ex MS. antiquo carum Vetenim Sylloge," Epist. xlviii., 

et editione Sirini, cap. iii., n. 54, p. 5S8. p. 113. 

'" In Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the '" See Bishop Nicholson's " Irish Histori- 

Four Masters," there is preserved a quatrain, cal Library." chap, iv., p. 34. 

attributed to the saint himself, in prophetic *•' Archbidiop Usshcr writes: "Ab eo 

anticipation of the desecration of his shrine Cell-ComgaiU ad Dubliniensem spectans 

and the removal of his body : — archiepisco])um, nomen olim accepit, quani 

hodie Saynkili appellamus," (S:c. — " Britan- 

t)nf) ]:i'yv, ^ip. 'DO "beoin <iii\-o)M5 n<i nicarum Ecclesiarum Antiquitates," cap. 

IM'g xvii., p.494- 

■be(\toi\ mo CMAtiiA jAn c^\6n, 6 ^^ The chapel of Senekil appendant 

t)heAtit)6ui]\ bA§A •00 eAnct\obh. to the mother church of Rathmichael, a pre- 
bend of St. Patrick's Cathedral. See Wdliam 

These lines are thus translated into Eng- Monck M-ison's " History and Antiquicies of 

li-ih : — the Collegiate and Cathedral Churcii of St. 

May io.] 



a stone circle, now nearly sodded over ; while, in a wider range below, the 
ambit of the hill was cut into a deep fosse, much of which is still discernible. 
A yet wider mound and wall enclosed this portion ; while this fortified post 
was in a most commanding position. ^5 

The ancient office for St. Comgall's feast was one of Nine Lessons, 
as we find entered, in the Antiphonary of the Culdees,^^ belonging to the 
Armagh Metropolitan Church, where the calendar list occurs, at the vi. of 
the May Ides. There is an office,^? with Proper Lessons, and set down as a 
Duplex Majus, in Bishop De Burgo's " Officia Propria Sanctorum Hiberniee."^^ 

Rathmichael Old Church, County of Dublin. 

In all our ancient calendars, we find notices of St. Comgall set down for the 
10th of May. The Feilire of St. ^ngus,^9 has a eulogy and prayer for St. 
Comgall's patronage, at this date. The published Martyrology of Tallagh 
has some specific remarks,y° regarding his age. This text is rendered dififer- 

Patrick, near Dublin," &c., Book i., chap. 
X., sect. XV., p. 65. 

^* The accompanying illustration was 
drawn on the wood, by William F. Wake- 
man, from a sketch taken by him on the spot, 
in August, 1844. It was engraved by Mrs. 

*= See John D'Alton's " History of the 
County of Dublin," from pp. 918 to 929. 
This writer appears to have overlooked 
Ussher's allusion to the place, and in con- 
nexion with our saint's name. 

"* It is classed, B i, i, among the Trinity 
College MSS., Dublin. 

^7 It is, excepting the three Lessons of the 
Second Nocturn, taken from the Common to 
a Confessor, and not a Pontiff. 

^^ At the loth of May. See pp. 50 
to 54. 

^9 In the " Leabhar Breac " copy we 
read : — 

llifit)]:l.Aich inAblcAii\ 
1nibi CAfpm cech cenipuiL 
Roiipn<MT)eA nifUiAj^Ach 
CoiiijAbL buAXJAch ben'ochuijN. 

Thus translated, by Dr. Whitley Stokes : — 
" Into the peace-kingdom of the other 
world, wherein is every temple's noise, may 
the hostful, victorious Comgall of Bangor 
convoy us." 

9° Thus, at the vi. Idus, or loth of May, 
we read: " Comhgall Benchair xci. anno 


ently, liowever, in tlie Franciscan copy .9' Our saint's name and festival are 
likewise noted, in the anonymous list of saints' commemorations, as published 
by O'Sullevan Beare,^^ at a passage where the entry Congalus occurs. On 
this day, we read in the Martyrology of Donegal, 93 that a festival was held in 
honour of Comghall, Abbot of Bennchor or Bangor, Uladh. The festival of 
St. Comgall, Abbot of Bangor, is found in " A Memorial of Ancient British 
Piety,"94 in the " Circle of the Seasons," nt the loth of May, "5 and in tlie Rev. 
Dr. Reeves' Calendar.^fi In Scotland, the Abbot St. Comgall was held in great 
veneration, on the loth of May, as we find recorded, in the Martyrology of 
Aberdeen, 97 and his merits have been extolled with high eulogy.98 This was 
the case, especially at the monastery of Drumcongal,99 which doubtless 
derived its denomination from him. The churches of Dercongal, or Holy- 
wood, and of Durris, were dedicated to this saint. His feast is also entered 
in the Kalendars of Drummond,'°° de Nova Farina,'°' of Aberdeen, ''"^ and of 
Dempster.'°3 The fair of St. Congal is still held at Durris ; but, some of the 
Scottish writters are no doubt mistaken, respecting him, as when Camerarius 
asserts, that he was Abbot of Rathurelfigi,'"^ and where Fordun '°5 states, that 
his body was preserved at Fulda.'°^ 

It has been incorrectly assumed, that in the earlier periods of our history, 
the civilization of Ireland, so far as it arose from monastic institutions, was 
strictly confined within the limits of our monasteries, and that it did not aftect 
the general condition of the people.'°7 It would be difficult to imagine the 
possibility of such a theoretic paradox being true, even if we had not the most 
abundant historic evidence to disprove its incorrectness. We need only refer 
to the single case of Bangor monastery, that diffused civilization and blessings 
among the people, far and near, at home and abroad ; nor were the labours 
of its religious transitory or intermitting, since for a long'succession of pges, its 
missionaries were actively employed, in spreadingaknowledge ofGospel truths, 
and in leading regular lives, which impressed the people with reverence for 
their pious instructors, whose moral practices gave earnestness to the charac- 
ter of their teaching. Popular industries, agriculture, and the mechanic arts, 
received likewise a great stimulus, from our monastic institutes. 

setatis ejus : principatus anno i mo. anno et paciencie posteium prebebat exemplum." — 

mensibus tribus et decern diebus." — Rev. Ibid., pp. 263, 264. 

Dr. Kelly's "Calendar of Iri^h Saints," 59 It has been suspected, that this place is 

p. xxiii. not different from Dercongal. 

9' Thus, C01115.Mll benc1i<iii\ .xci Ann '°° Thus : vi. Idus. " Et apud Hiberniam 

AecAcif eni|' iD]\incip..\cu]' Auceni b. Anno Natale Sancti Abbatis Comgalli."— " Kalen- 

ec nien|"e. 111. Agu^' Dccitno -oie. darium Drummondiense." See Bishop For- 

9^ See " Histori^e Catholicce Ibernire bes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 13. 

Compendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi., '°' Thus : vi. Id. " Congalli Abbatis." — 

p. 50. Ibid., p. 71. 

^^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. '" Thus: iiii. Id. "Comgalli Abbatis." — 

122, 123. Ibid.,\i. 116. 

9* See pp. 74 to 76. '°^ In " Menologium Scoticum," he 

95 See p. 131. writes, under the lotli of May : '' Combas 

9* See " Ecclesiastical Antiquities of monasterio Congelli abbatis, quo Bencho- 

Dovvn, Connor and Dromore," Appendix rensem in Ilibcrnia faniiliani, amplius quam 

LL, p. 378. mill" monachisibi collocatis, fundavit, ML." 

97 This has been edited, by David Laing, — Ibid., p. 199. 

Esq., K.S.A.. Scotland, and it is yniblished, '"■' Lkmical with the Rathmelsigi of 

in " Proceedings of the Society of Antiqua- Venerable Bede. 

ries o( Scotland," vol. ii. '°^ See Goodall's edition of his " Scoli- 

** In this form does the entry occur : " vj chronicon," vol. ii., lib. vii., cap. 28. 

Idus Maji — In Scocia Sancti Conj^alii ab- "" .See Bishop Eorbes" " Kalendars of 

balis apud monasteriuni de Drumcongal Scottish Saints," pp. 308 to 310. 

cuius mcrita longe lateque diffusa miraculis '"' See A. G. Ricliey's " Lectures on the 

non desunt clarere impolluta niente calcauit History of Ireland," Lect. ii.. p. 44. 
et immciito qui prcst-ntis vite infamiam et 






ALTHOUGH the fame of St. Cataldus or Cathaldus has been extended 
beyond the hmd of his birth, and even beyond tlie country of his 
adoi^tion, some grave discrepancies, as to tlie date, when his missionary career 
commenced, and when that for his death took place, occur among writers. 
Yet, the main facts of his history preserve a great degree of accuracy and 
consistency, when we take into account the want of any very ancient domes- 
tic biography, and the remote period, at which he hved. 

Aheady some alhisions have been made to this holy man, who has been 
honoured with different feast-days.^ As we deem the loth of May — if not 
the day for his departure — at least that for his chief festival, we have reserved 
for it, an account of his life, so far as it can be reproduced from the many 
writers, who have undertaken to record his Acts. From a remote time, various 
Manuscripts had been preserved at Tarentum, and relating to its chief Patron.^ 
Materials for the life of our saint are chiefly derived from his office, 3 published 
in the year 1607, ■• and from some old Manuscript records of Tarentum church. s 
Our saint is commemorated by a lawyer, called John Juvenis,^ who wrote a 
History of his native city, in the sixteenth century. Brother Bonaventure 
Moroni, a learned Franciscan, was an Italian writer and a poet, greatly 
esteemed in his order, for genius, piety and eloquence. He died in 162 1. 
Among other elegant poems, he wrote " Cathaldiados, sive Vita Sancti 
Cataldi," Libri vi.7 It was published, at Rome, a.d. 1614.^ He also wrote, 
"Mirandum Panegyricum Super Linguam S. Cataldi. "9 This writer was well 

Article ii.- — Chapter i. — ' Thus, at bernicc," viii.. Martii, nn. i, 2, p. 559. 

the iSth of March, Art. viii., in vol. iii. of s According to the "Vita S. Cataldi," 

this work, there are some notices of him, as, Preefacio. 

also, in the present vol., at the 8th of May, * See "De Anliquitate et Varia Taren- 

Avt. xii. See the " Anonymous Catalogue of tinorum Fortunal" This worlc was com- 

Irish Saints," puljlished by O'Sullevan Beare, posed, in Eight Books, and it was published, 

in " Historite Catholicse Ibernice Compen- at Naples, a.d. 1589. Afterwards, it was 

dium," tomus i., lib. iv. , cap. xi., p. 50. inserted, in "Italia lUustrata," printed at 

^ Among these, the Bollandists mention Fiankfort, A.D. 1600. 

Acts of the Finding of this sainrs relics, ' See " Scriptores Ordinis Minorum qui- 

under the title, '" Tiagoni Archiepiscopi viio bus accessit syllabus Illorum qui ex eodem 

leligioso." — However, Drogoni should be ordine pro Fide Christi fortiter occubuerunt. 

substituted fur Tragoni. These Manuscripts Priores atramento, Posteriores sanguine 

were kept in a sacristy, at Capua, according Christianam Religionem assernerunt." Re- 

to a monk, named Michael. sensuit Fr. Lucas Waddingus eju^dem Insti- 

3 By his chief biographer, Bartholomew tuli Theologus, p. 57 Edition, Rome, a.d. 

Moroni. 1806, fol. 

■* For Permission of this Office, Cardinal ^ In quarto shape. 

Guilielmus Sirletus has subscribed " Nos 5 ,See Uidacus Lequile's " Hierarchia 

Guiliemlus, &c. Item Episcop. Arcin Im- Franciscana," tomus ii., p. 278. This relic 

primatur si placet R. P. Magistro S. Palatii. was then preserved entire, in the sacristy or 

B. Episcop. Arim Vicesq. Item Magister S. treasury of the Metropolitan Church, at 

Palatii Impiimatur F. loan. Maria Magister Tarentum. 
.S. Palatii. " — Colgan's " Ada Sanctorum 1 Ii- 

1 86 


[May io. 

versed, in the Latin,. Greek and Hebrew languages.-" His brother Bartholo- 
mew Moroni wrote the biography of St. Cathaldus, in Latin prose." This 
latter Life is published by Colgan, at the 8th of IMarch ; while, the former is 
omitted, as being perhaps of less importance, in a historical point of view, or 
perhaps, because no perfect copy to print from had been procured." Among 
the writers, who have recorded our saint's Acts, are Laurence Surius,'3 Petrus 
de Natalibus,"! the Abbot Ferdinando Ugheni,'^ in the first '^ and second '? edi- 
tions of his great work, known as "Italia Sacra.'"'^ Philip Ferrarius,'? likewise, 
and Berlengerius of Tarentum, who was a nobleman, and an eloquent lawyer, 
wrote the History of the Finding and Translation of the Relics of St. Catal- 
dus.^° Sir James Ware," and Archbishop Ussher treat of this saint, likewise, 
and at some length." The Life and Miracles of St. Cataldus, Bishop and 
Confessor, Patron of Tarentum city, have been issued, by Colgan, at the 8th 
of March, and drawn from various sources.^3 To tliat published Life of 
Bartholomew Moroni, Colgan has prefixed short Acts of our saint, taken from 
Petrus de Natalibus. He has, likewise, appended the Office of St. Cataldus, 
printed at Rome, a.d. 1607 ; together with four chapters in an Appendix, treating 
on different festivals instituted to his honour ; on the time in which our saint 
flourished; on his country; and on his writings. At the loth of May, the 
Bollandists have published notices of St. Cataldus.'^ These are edited, by 
Father Godefrid Henschenn.^5 We have also accounts of this holy bishop, 
in Bishop De Burgo,^^ in a "A Memorial of Ancient British Piety ,"=^7 in 
" Britannia Sancta,^^ in Rev. Alban Butler,^? and in " Les Petits BoUan- 

'° See " Supplementum et Castigatio ad 
Scriptores Trium Oidinum S. Francisci a 
Waddingo, aliisve descriptos ; cum adnota- 
tionibus ad Syllabum Maityrum eoramdem 
ordinem." Opus Post-humum Fr. Jo : 
HyacinthisBaralere. Minor. Conventual. Sac. 
Theolog. Magistri, p. 178. Roma, fol. 

" This work was intituled, " Miracula S. 
Cataldi, ex vetustissimis Exemplaribus fide- 
lissime desumpta, stylo modice immutato." 
This work was published, at Rome, A.D. 

'= Among the Colgan MSS., in the Fran- 
ciscan Library, Dublin, 1 iind a transcript, 
in Colgan's handwriting, in 12 folio pages- 
only a part of the First Book, written in 
Latin Hexameter verse. 

»3 See "De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," 
tomus iii. 

'•• In "Catalogus Sanctorum et Gestorum 
eorum ex diversis Voluminibus Collectus," 
lib. iv., cap. 142. 

'5 He was born at Florence, March 2ist, 
1595, and he died at Rome, May 19th, 1670. 
He belonged to the Cistercian Order, and 
he was called to several high positions in the 

'* The first edition of " Italia Sacra," ap- 
peared at Rome, in fol., a.d. 1643 to 1662, in 
nine volumes. 

'7 The second edition was enlarged and 
emended by Nicolas Coleti, and it appeared 
at Venice, in ten folio volumes, from A.o. 
1717 to 1722. 

'^ See Tarentina Metropolis, cols. 117 to 
1 25. References are here made to the second 


'' In " Catalogus Sanctorum Italice." 

^° This account has been published by the 
Bollandists, who state, however, that as taken 
from Manuscripts, differing in the order of 
narrative, it was not easy to decide, what 
had been written, by Berlengerius, and what 
had been inserted, by other writers. These 
Acts the Bollandists received from Father 
Nicolas Beatillo, of Naples. 

=' See " De Scriptoribus Hibemiae," lib. 
i., cap. i., pp. 6 to 8. 

^ See " Britannicamm Ecclesiarum An- 
tiquitates," cap. xvi., pp. 392 to 397. 

=3 See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernice," 
Martii viii. Vita S. Cataldi, Episcopi et 
Confessori?, pp. 540 to 562. 

-* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Mali 
X., pp. 569 to 578. 

-'5 lie gives a prefatory commentary of 
two paragraphs, and next introduces His- 
toria Inventionis et Translationis, auctore 
Berlengerio Tarentino, et forsan aliis, ex 
Codicibus MSS., in three chapters, and 
thirty-six paragraphs, with notes. Then 
follows an Appendix, De Inventione Lin- 
gua; S. Cataldi et Libri ab co scripti, two 
adtliiional paragraphs, with notes. After- 
wards, we find, Inquisitio de aetata et gestis 
S. Cataldi in V'ita, in eleven paragraphs. 

'^ See " Officia Propria Sanctorum lliber- 
nix, "at March viii. Officium in Fesio S. 
Cataldi. pp. 1 8 to 27. 

'^ At p. 76. 

^* See part i., pp. 285, 2S6. 

^ See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 
other Saints,'" vol. v., M.iy x. 


distes,"3° as also, in the Dictionary of Christian Biography ;3i besides a great 
number of other writers record various particulars, relative to this holy bishop. 
It is almost universally admitted, that Cathaldus was born in Ireland ; 
for, not alone are there early authorities to quote, in support of this claim, but 
his name seems resolvable into Cathal, which was one common among the 
prelates and princes of our Island. 3^ Wherefore, Colgan thinks, that Cathaldus 
should be the proper Latinized form of his name. Contrary to the most clear 
and convincing testimony, and with contradictions in his statement, suffi- 
ciently notorious to destroy nearly all of his assertions,33 Dempster has falsely 
pretended, that Cataldus was a native of Scotland. After quoting the words 
of Dempster, who says he was born there, that he had been educated in St, 
Fillan's Monastery in Knapdalia, and that having his birth among the moun- 
tains of Scotland, which retained the name of Ireland, gave rise to an opinion, 
that Cathaldus was a native of our Island, although born in lona, &C.34 — 
Ussher remarks, not to mention the absurdity of mountains in lona, which 
have no existence, this Island never obtained the name of Ireland ; and 
moreover, as St. Philan, or Fillan, lived some ages after our saint's time, this 
latter could not have been educated by the former, and who, perhaps, never 
had a monastery, in that place, called Knapdaiia.35 In like manner, Colgan 
repeats these reasons, urged by Ussher, to disprove Dempster's contradictions. 
In addition, the Scottish " Saint Stealer " allows, that Cathaldus passed over 
to Ireland, where he remained for some time; thence, it is asserted, and from 
the Islands, and from Anglia, he took twelve companions with him, to enter 
upon his Apostolic career, which continued until at least a.d. 361, supposed 
to be the year for his departure. In another part of his History, Demp- 
ster likewise admits, that Fillan flourished in the year 703.3^ A much 
greater difference of opinion exists, among writers of our saint's Acts, regard- 
ing the period at which he flourished. According to some writers, 37 during 
the reign of Con, in the second century, Ireland sent forth the famous St. 
Cathaldus, to preach the Gospel of Christ, before he became bishop and 

3° See "Vies des Saints," &c,, tome v,, are sufficient to discredit his account, with- 

Xe Jour de Mai, p. 425. out any additional remarks from Colgan. 

3' Edited by Dr. William Smith and These scarcely increase the weight of his 

Henry Wace, M.A., vol. i., pp. 421, 422. other reasons. For, in labouring to prove, 

3^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- that neither in Ireland nor in Scotland, before 

nise," viii. Martii, n. i., p. 544. Colgan cites A.D. 361, could twelve Bishops be found, he 

many instances, from the Annals of the Four omits the possibility of England in addition 

Masters, for proof of his assertion. being able to furnish this number, and the 

33 See Dempster's " Historia Ecclesiastica fact, after all, that Dempster does not make 

Gentis Scotorum," tomusi., lib. iii., num. 278. Bishops of our saint's companions. Of a far 

s* For these assertions, Dempster cites the different cliaracter is the positive testimony, 

authority of a MS. in the Ambrosian Lib- adduced by Colgan, to prove our saint an 

rary, depending on the statement of Father Irishman, if such proof were at all required. 

George Lesley, a Capuchin. Besides this It will be unnecessary, in this place, to do 

account, Alexander >Iill, in a Preface to the more than merely refer the reader to Colgan's 

succession to the church of Dunkeld, states, dissertation, on the country of Cathaldus, to 

that Cathaldus discharged the duties of be found in the Third chapter of his Appcn- 

Bishop for a long time, in the country around dix. There, it is shown, that not only the 

Dunkeld and Dumblaine, according to authors of this saint's Lives, as published by 

Dempster ; and this statement is said to be him, but a great number of other writers, 

proved, from local Manuscript Acts, and concur in the statement, that Cathaldus was 

from the testimony of Veremund, a Priest. a native of Hibernia. See Colgan's "Acta 

See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Scoto- Sanctorum Hibernia," viii. Martii, Appen- 

rum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 278, pp. 163, dix ad Acta S. Cataldi, cap. iii., pp. 561, 

164. 562. 

35 See " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum An- 3? The Vita S. Cataldi, and Bruodin, p. 

tiquitates," cap. xvi., p. 393. 879, are quoted. 

3* These contradictious and mistatements 38 g^g Ferrar's " History of Limerick," 


[May 10, 

patron of Turentum in Italy. 3^ Some writers will have it, that St. Cathaldus 
arrived from Ireland, in Tarentum, ad. i6o,39 or i66;4o Ughelli ■♦' has the 
latter date ; others have a. D. 170 — such as Bartholomew ■'^ and Bonaventure*3 
Moroni. But, as author?;, who place Cathaldus in the second century, remark 
of him, in their accounts, that he visited the sepulchre of Christ, at Jerusalem, 
before he came to Tarentum ; and, as we do not find, that the Holy Land 
had been much frequented by pilgrims, before the Empress Helena discovered 
Christ's tomb, a.d. 326 ; our saint's arrival at Tarentum must have been 
subsequent to that period.-*^ Whilst advancing this position, Caraccioli^s 
hazards also an opinion, that Cathaldus lived subsequent to the arrival of the 
Goths, in Italy, viz., after a.d. 500. This is also an opinion of Alexander ab 
Alexandro.^^ If we are to credit the accounts, in the Life of St. Cathaldus, 
that before leaving Ireland, when departing for Italy, the- year 500 or 520 
might have elapsed ; about these periods, Ireland must have had, at least, one 
hundred contemporaneous bishops.-*? At or about a.d. 630,4^ after his expul- 
sion Irom Rathen, St. Mocluida,'*^ or Carthage, founded Lismore, according 
to the Annals of Tigernach,5° of Clonmacnoise,5' of Ulster,S2 and of the Four 
Masters. 53 As it is stated, in the same Life, that our saint studied at Lis- 
more,54 and taught in its schools,55 he must have lived even later. Coigan 
thinks, that our saint could not have been a teacher of English, Scotch, Gauls, 
and Germans,56 before a.d. 636, at which time, it is probable, St. Carthage 
died ; and before which period, English and German converts were not found 
in sufficient numbers, to have left their own country for Ireland, to receive 
education at her schools.^? The period of Cataldus has been referred even 
to die eighth century, s^ Again, the Meliridis, mentioned in the Life .md 

pari iii., chap, iii., p. 184. 

^9 In the Preface to his History of Taren- 
tum, Juhn Juvenis states, that Cataldus 
from Ireland effected the conversion ot 
Pagans in Tarentum, about 160 years after 
our Lord's Ascension, Anicetus being 
Sovereign Pontiff, at the time. 

*° In another part of this work, the author 
tells us, that during the same pontificate, in 
the year of our Lord 166, Catlialdus entered 
Tarentum. See Joannes Juvenis "' De Anti- 
quitate et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. 

■♦' See "Italia Sacra," lomusix. Tarentina 
Metropolis, col. 124. 

■••■■ Larlholumew Moroni says, that Cathal- 
dus entered Tarentum, about the year of the 
Incarnation 170, when Pope .\nicetus ruled 
the Church, and Antoninus the Philosopher 
governed tlie I'.mpire. See Bartholomew 
Moroni's Vila .S. Calaldi, ca]). xiv.. in Col- 
gan's "Acta Sanctorum Hibernia;," viii. 
Martii, p. 548. 

*3 " .Syrus Anicetus sacrarum pondera 
Suslinet, ct Princeps Aurelius eminct 
— " Cataldiados," lib. ii. 

** The Bollandists remark, that they found 
a marginal note, referring his arrival there to 
" anno Di.xvi," instead of to " anno ci.xvi," 
whicli connected it v\ilh tlie time of P'ii)e 

^5 In his Neapolitan Annals, published, 
a.d. 1626. 

^* See "Genialium Dierum," lib. iii., 
cap. 15. 

■•' .See Colgan"s " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
mx," viii. Martii. Appendix ad Acta .S. 
Cataldi, cap. ii., p. 560. 

** See Ussliers Index Chronologicus, at 
A.D. ucx.KX., " Britannicarum Ecclesiarum 
Antiquitates. " p. 537. 

« See his Life, at the 14th of May. 

5° These have the date 636. 

5' At A.D. 632. 

5» See at A.D. 635. 

S3 See at A.D. 631, the expulsion from 
Rathen recorded, in Dr. O' Donovan's etli- 
tion, vol. i., pp. 252, 253. 

5-t St. Cartage founded it, when driven 
from Rathen. 

55 According *o Dr. diaries Smith, this 
happened after the death of .St. Carthage. 
See "Ancient anil Present Slate of the 
County and City of Waterford," chap, iii., 
p. 28. 

"Sec " Oihcium S. Calhaldi," Noct. ii., 
Lect. iv. 

5' See Colgan's " .\cta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nice," viii. Martii, p. 557. .Mso, Appendix, 
cap. ii., p. 561. 

5^ .See Thomas D'Arcy M'(«ce's" Popular 
History of Ireland," Book i., chap, viii., 

P- 51- 

59 See Coigan s " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
niie," viii. Martii, Appendix, cap. ii., p. 

May io.] 



Office of our saint,59 appears to have been identical with Moelochtrige, chief- 
tain of Nan-Desii, who bestowed Lismore upon St. Carthage, and who, in all 
probability, survived this saint. ^° It is said, that on the death of this Meltri- 
dis, Cathaldus received the lands of his chieftanry,^' as a grant from the king, 
and that these were divided into twelve Bishoprics, presided over by an Arch- 
bishop.^^ Hence, it might be probable, that Cathaldus did not leave Ireland, 
before the year 640.^^ 

The father of Cathaldus was named Eucho or Euchu,^'* and his mother's 
name was Athena ^'= or Achlena,^^ according to the saint's Acts.^^ According 
to Peter de Natalibus, the town in which he was born was called Cataldus.^^ 
In his Life of our saint, Moroni says, that the name of the town in which he 
was born, was called Rachau, by some writers, and that it was a place of some 
note, in the province of INIunster ; while, by others, it was designated as 
Cathandum. With these latter, he seem to coincide. The name Cathaldus 
Rachau, he supposes, will apply to our saint's episcopal See, and not to the 
place of his birth. It must also be confessed, that to me his wordings and 
deductions, regarding this passage, in our saint's Life, are by no means lumi- 
nous.^9 In the office of Cathaldus, his place of birth is called Catandum, 
which is said to have been a town of Numenia 7° — a mistake ?■ for Mumenia,^^ 
Momonia, Murnonia, Mononia or Munster.73 A place, called Bally Cathal, 
or Cathalstown, which exists in the Diocese of Killaloe, Barony of Ormond, 
and County of Tipperaay, is mentioned by Colgan, wdthout stating, how- 
ever, this to have been the locality for our saint's birth. 74 There is another 
place called Ballycahill, in the same county, at the borders of Kilnemanagh 
and Kinelegourty Baronies. 75 A place, called Kill Cathuil, that is, the " cell of 

'° However, Bonaventure Morini insinua- 
tes, that RIeltridis was a King in Ulster : — 

" Postera fulgebat roseis Aurora qua- 

Cum videt Oltonios consurgere navita 

Fluctibus e mediis ; unde improbus 

ante Tyrannus, 
lUusus Furiis, geminas emiserat 


— " Cathaldiados," lib. i. 

*' See Officium S. Cathaldi, Lect. v. 

*^ See Moroni's Vita S. Cathaldi, lib. i., 
cap. viii. 

^^ See Colgan's 
nice," viii. Martii. 

PP- 547-557, 561- 

*■* Among the Irish, the names Euchu, 
Eucho, Echa, and Eochaidh, frequently 
occur. Thus, in Jocelyn's Life of St. Patrick, 
we find Echu and iluchus. Other hagio- 
graphershave Euchodius and Eucliadius, as 
also Euchus. In the Irish languge dh is 
aspirated and not pronounced, and there- 
fore in Colgan's opinion, the Latin writers 
passed them over, as having no force. 

*5 If instead of Athena, we read /Ethna or 
Ethenea, either of these names were familiar 
tothelrish. Thus, also Ethnea was mother of 
St. Columba, of St. Maidoc, of St. Aid, of St. 
Critan, according to St. ^ngus, in his tract, 
on the Mothers of the Irish Saints, lib. iv., 
cap. 13, 21, 58, 84. 

'Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
Also, Appendix cap. ii., 

*° Achlenna is a name given to the mothers 
of St. Fintan, of St. Columbus and of St. 
Lugdius. See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum 
Hibernice," viii. Martii, nn. 3, 4, p. 544. 

^^ Moroni derives the names of both his 
parents from Greek works, evxi\ and A^rycr;, 
which means "piety" and "wisdom." — 
Vita S. Cataldi, lib. i., cap. i. 

^^ See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Ilibcr- 
niffi," Martii viii. Vita S. Cataldi Episcopi, 
hb i., cap. 143, p. 544. 

69 In " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., cap. i. 

^° " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. iv . 

7' Colgan, who has apparently corrected 
this mistake in the Life, by Moroni, adds in 
a note, that here an error crept in, which the 
author placed among his errata, thus endea- 
vouring to emend it, z-vAiox NuvienicE,\iQ. gives 
Mononia', but even so, it is faulty. For the 
letter n beginning the former is substituted 
for /;/, iu the beginning, and it comes into 
the middle afterwards. 

7- That southern province of Ireland, in 
which St. Cathaldus was born, and in which 
Lismore, where he was educated, is placed, 
was called by ancient writers Mumenia. 

'5 These latter are the more more modern 
names, by which the Province is designated. 
See "Acta Sanctorum Plibernias," viii. 
Martii, n. i, p. 555. 

?■• See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," viii. 
Martii, n. 2, p. 544. 

75 See Rev. Ur. Lanigan's Ecclesiastical 
History of Ireland," vol. iii.,cap. xviii., sect, 
xi., n. 131, p. 125. The Doctor adds : " But, 


Cathald," existed in Munster, besides a castle named Dun-Callaind, near 
Waterford, and a town called Callaind, on the confines of Leinster and Mun- 
ster. But, Colgan does not undertake to decide, which — if any — of these 
places had been identical with Cathandum,?^ nor even to define the spot or 
particular territory, in which the saint was born.77 

We are informed, by Moroni, that in the time of the Emperor Adrian, or a 
little after Tarjan's death, 7^ a certain wise man, named Dichus, gifted with a 
spirit of prophecy, had visions regarding the future greatness of Cathaldus.79 
However, this was a period much too early for any prophet to have lived in Ire- 
land, and who was also said to have been a cotemporary of our saint.^° Hence, 
if we admit this account of such miraculous events, preceding and accompany- 
ing the birth of Caihaldus, Dichus must have lived at a much more recent period. 
This prophetic seer, Moroni tells us, observed a bright light over the house, 
in which our saint's mother resided, and at that time, she was about to give 
birth to her son. Having a Divine premonition, regarding the sanctity 
and actions of the future saint, and his mother's sufferings, Dichus hastened 
to Achlena's house to offer consolation. But, he was refused admission, at 
the time, as Achlena was alone, and her husband absent. However, from 
without, Dichus is said to have addressed Achlena, in these words : " Be of 
good courage, most happy mother, nor reprove the Almighty for his dis- 
regard of you, during the pains of childbirth, nor fear approaching death, nor 
the want of all necessaries; for, you shall bring forth a son, the propagator of 
true religion, and not alone an honour to his parents and country, but even 
an ornament to all Ireland, and, likewise, he will become the continual patron 
of a foreign people."^' Achlena shortly afterwards gave birth to our saint, and 
she died from the pains of childbirth. It is said, her infant, falling on a stone 
within the chamber, impressed the form of his tender head, even on the 
rock,^^ which yielded for a time like softened wax, ^3 and afterwards retained 
its former rigidity. Not appearing to have suffered from the effect of his fall, 
the infant arose, and embraced his parent's lifeless body. Again, it recovered 
animation. With his finger, likewise, he pointed to the impression made in 
the stone. ^-t 

An infancy, thus miraculously commenced, led to a youth of virtue 

besides its being far distant from Lismore, who afterwards embraced a monastic life, a^ 

the name of the saint's native spot is usually Saul, in Ulster. Colgan promised to treat o' 

written Catandum." him at the 29th of April — his Natalis. The 

7° See "Acta Sanctorum Hibernire," viii. same writer is of opinion, lliat this Dichu 

Martii, n. 2, p. 544- must be the prophet here alhided to, as he 

'7 Owing to a similarity of name with flourished in the middle or towards the end 

Cathandum, and because they are in the of the fifth century. The Acts of St. Cathal- 

Munsler province, where the writers of St. dus, he supposes, furnish concurring evi- 

Cataldus' Acts state he was botn, are they dence for this opinion ; namely, that Cathal- 

introduced, and to gratify those inclined to dus taught scliool at Lismore, that he ap- 

offer conjectures. pointed bishops within a certain district, and 

7^ It must be remarked, however, that that in his lime, the Catholic rehgion pre- 

Trajan's death, occurring A.D. 1 19, he was vailed throughout the whole of Ireland. See 

succeeded by Adrian. " Acta Sanctorum IliberniK," viii. Martii., 

'9 See, also, Joannes Juvenis, " De Anti- nn. 3, 4, p. 555, and ibid., Appendix, cap. ii., 

quitate et Varia Tarenlinorum Fortuna," pp. 560, 561. 

lib. viii., cap. 2. **' See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," cap. ii., 

^^ Colgan was unable to discover any pro- p. 546. Ibid. 

phet named Dichus, or any trace of a Chris- "-^ See Dempster's " Historia Ecclesiastica 

tian people living at Catandum, Lismore, or (Jentis Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 

other places in Ireland, at this early period ; 278, p. 164. 

nor could he find any prophet named Dichu *^ See Petrus de Natalibus, "Vita S. 

or Dichus, except one, who was a disciple of Cataldi," lib. iv., cap. 143. 

St. Patrick. He was tlie Dichu who first of "-t See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi,* 

all believed in the Christian religion, on the can. iii. 

preaching of our Irish Apostle in 432, and ^5 " Not few years must have elapsed from 


and of good dispositions. Cathaldus appears to have received his education, 
at the famous scliool of Lismore, subsequent to the year 630, when it was 
first estabHshed. He afterwards taught, in the same school f'^ and, as we are 
informed in his Office, such was the reputation it enjoyed for learning, that 
Gauls, English, Scotch, Germans, and people from adjoining nations, flocked 
thither for instruction.^^ Having been promoted to the priestly office,^^ 
Cathaldus resolved upon the erection of a church, in the name of the Blessed 
Virgin, INIother of God,^^ that in it he might practise frequent devotions, 
towards her, and by his example induce others to act in like manner. ^9 From 
his own experience, he recognised the great advantages to be derived, from 
her powerful advocac}'. Scarcely, however, had he marked out the founda- 
tions, and commenced this work, when the only son of a certain man died a 
natural death,9° or from the effects of a fracture, received at the building. 9' 
At this time, that stone, impressed in a miraculous manner, at the period of 
our saint's birth, had been placed, either at Lismore, or at Catandum,^^ in the 
open air. It was held in great veneration, by the people, not only on account 
of its relation to the time of our saint's birth ; but, because, often as the cavity 
in it had been filled with rain water, numbers of infirm persons, who washed 
themselves therein, were cured of various diseases. 93 A father once brought 
his son's corpse to this stone, hoping he should be restored to life, if washed 
by the water it contained. However, when he came there, he found the 
water exhausted, either through want of late rains, or on account of the num- 
bers, who were accustomed to wash in it. The hope of the father was not 
abandoned, notwithstanding, for he trusted in the power of Cathaldus, to res- 
tore his son to life ; since, it was though his merits, a miraculous gift had been 
transmitted to the water, contained in that stone. He went to our saint, bearing 
the corpse of his son.94 When he had deplored this calamity with tears, the 
father asked Cathaldus, to interpose on his behalf. Our saint replied : " The 
son of these tears ought not long endure bitter death, or afford cause for con- 
tinual grief to a parent, endowed with such faith. Wherefore, being restored 
to life, let him support his father's old age. When dead, he hath burthened 
paternal shoulders, with a pious weight."95 Soon as these words fell from the 
lips of Cathaldus, the young man was restored to life. This caused great 
wonderment to the spectators, assembled on the spot, and many souls were 
gained to Christ. 9^ The report of this miracle increased the fame of Catal- 
dus, throughout all that district of country,97 and he was soon recognised as a 
subject for veneration, among Christ's most favoured servants. 

the foundation of Lismore until Cataldus third place, among eight churches then to be 

began to teach there. He had studied him- found, in Lismore city. See " Acta Sancto- 

selfin that school and spent some years at rum Hibernioe," viii. Martii, n. 6, p. 555. 

it, before lie became qualified to be a pro- 5° According to some old record, seen by 

fessor. In his time Lismore was well known Moroni. 

in foreign countries, which its reputation ^i According to Moroni's " Vita S. 

could not have reached all of a sudden." — ■ Cataldi," cap. v. 

Rev. Dr. Lanigan's "Ecclesiastical History ^^ "Brevissimum enim est inter utramque 

of Ireland," vol. iii., cap. xviii., sect, xi., n. urbem spatium interjectum." — Moroni's 

134, p. 126. " Vita S. Cataldi," cap. v. 

^*See " Ofificium S. Cataldi," Lect. iv. 93 gee Joannes Juvenis, " De Antiquitate 

^' See Petrus de Natalibus, "Vita S. et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., 

Cataldi," lib. iv., cap. 143. cap. 2. 

*^ Officium S. Cataldi, Lect. iv. «■* See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. iv. 

^ Colgan remarks, that in his time, a '= See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," 

church dedicated to the memory of tlie cap. v. 

Blessed Virgin was extant in Lismore ; as ^ Pettus de Natalibus, " Vita S. Cataldi," 

appeared from the Catalogue of the Churches cap. ii. 

of Lismore diocese. After the cathedral '^^ See Joannes Juvenis, " De Antiquitate 

church and another dedicated to our Saviour, et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., 

the church of the Blessed Virgin occupied a cap. 2. 


C H A P T E R I I . ■ 


A sliort time after the performance of tliat miracle, to which alkision has been 
already made, a soldier's son died, in the flower of youth. His father brought 
the body, without assistance, to the Blessed Virgin's Church, that he might 
ask the prayers of Cathaldus, for a restoration to life.' The saint had been 
engaged, at this time, in digging out foundations for the church, and with his 
own hands. ^ To end those passionate entreaties of the bereaved father, and 
those encomiums lavished on himself, he said : " Am I as God, that I can 
raise the dead from the grave ?" But, with firm faith, the soldier laid the bier 
on whicli his son's body rested, near the foundation ; when, either to avoid 
the man's importunity, or to preserve his own Inimility, Cathaldus resumed 
his interrupted labour. While thus engaged, he threw a portion of clay, 
taken from the foundation, over the dead body. The young man was imme- 
diately restored to life ;3 and, at once, he rushed forward to embrace his 
parent. Such was the joy manifested by both, that they remained for some 
time motionless, with wonder and delight, while tears of thanksgiving gushed 
from their eyes, and bedewed their cheeks.-* By the performance of such 
miracles, Cathaldus is said to have effected the conversion of many ;5 and, 
throughout the whole of Ireland none were left, who had not embraced the 
true religion, in consequence of God's grace working through hint.^ But, 
finding his reign likely to be extinguished in the hearts of men, the devil de- 
vised a means, whereby our saint should be prevented from spreading Gospel 
truths, and even be removed from the scenes of his labour and usefulness. 

We are told, that a chief, who is named Meltridis,^ had frequently excited 
against Cataldus the anger of the king, who ruled over that part of the 
country.^ That soldier, whose son had been raised to life, unable to restrain his 
joy, brought the young man for inspection to the king,9 in that part of the country, 
and explained particulars connected with the miracle wrought. At the same 
time, he told the king,'° a great number of people had been present, at Lismore, 

Chapter ii. — ' See Petrus de Natalibus, cap. ii., pp. 560, 561. 

" Vita S. Cat.ildi." lib. iv., cap. 143. =^ John Juvenis says, " Erat dux ille Mel- 

' See Joannes Juvenis, " De -Antiquitate tridis Dominus." — " De Antiquitate et 

et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., 

cap. 2. cap. 2. 

3 See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. iv. ^ Bonaventure Moroni, in the Second 

* See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," Book of the " Cataldias," alludes to him, in 
cap. iv. these following verses : — 

s In the Officium S. Cataldi, it is said : 

" Cumque universam Rachan Provinciam " Sacras parlitur habenas 

prsedicatione ad Christi fidem perduxisset," Bis senis bociis, quos, e tola Meltriade 

&c. — Lect. v. lectos, 

* Colgan remarks, that although St. Egregia virtute amini diademata ncc- 
Cath:ddus, by his leaining and holy labours, tunt." 

powerfully contributed towards the exten- 
sion of religion tiiroughout Ireland, yethe was 9 Petrus de Natalibus ni.\kt's him King 
not its first or jirincipal promoter. For, St. over all Ireland. 

Patrick, and many other holy men, had stre- '"The Rev. Dr. Lanigan states, "if there 

nuously laboured in this portion of Christ's be any truth in the matter, lie must have been 

vineyard, before our saint had been called to rather n King of Munster. The same author 

prosecute the work of God, in the same as well as Moroni and others assign a very 

field. See "Acta Sanctorum Iliberniie," silly cause, not worth mentioning, for the 

viii. Martii, n. 7, p. 555, and /M/., Appendix king's displeasure." — " Ecclesiastical Ilis- 


to witness it. Ascribing the performance of that miracle to magic," and fearing 
lest Catlialdus, taking advantage of his popularity, should aspire to possession 
of the kingdom, its ruler proceeded along the river, towards Lismore." When 
he arrived there, he ordered our saint to be put in chains, and cast into a 
dark prison. '3 But, the Lord, who kept watch for the safety of His servant, 
sent two Angels to the king, by night, and to manifest the Divine will in his 
regard. '■> The queen learned this secret, from an avowal he made, when, 
starting with fright out of sleep, a deep groan ensued. '^ One of those Angels 
appeared, with a drawn sword, his eyes and countenance threatening death 
to the prince ; the other, in a mild manner, persuaded the king, that he should 
release Cathaldus from confinement, and make him the successor of the 
chieftain Meltridis.'^ In a vain endeavour, to find some similitude for the 
name Meltridis in Munster, Colgan tells us about the people, called Clann- 
Moelidhra, in Leinster, deriving their name from a dynast, named Maelidhra. 
But, in their territory, no church called Rachan, Rathan, or Rathen, occurs. 
Hence, he is of opinion, that this was a name pertaining to the chieftain, 
called in the Life of St. Carthage, Malochtrige Dux Nan Desii, and by a 
change in the spelling converted into Meltridis, by the Italians. '7 Calling 
together the chiefs and councillors, to whom he related what occurred, the 
king asked their advice, as to the manner in which he should act. Mean- 
time, a messenger arrived with the news of Meltridis' death, '^ and with a 
request to the king, that he would name the person, who might be appointed 
as successor. Pondering awhile in silence, regarding his dream, the king 
said : " What need is there of counsel? why, my councillors, should that be 
referred to you, which is more manifest, than if it were confirmed by your 
decision ? Now, I am not deceived by dreamy illusions, but I recognise 
counsels of the Divine will, to contradict which would be an excess of folly." 
On saying these words, he ordered Cathaldus to be brought before him, 
and then with tears, the king asked pardon for his former violence. He 
appointed Cathaldus as successor to the chieftain Meltridis, at the same time, 
although our saint felt extremely reluctant to assume this office. Contrary 
to the statement of the writer,'? who tells us, that Cathaldus was a Priest, at 
the period he commenced building the Blessed Virgin's Church, Moroni says, 
our saint was only a Deacon, when he had been appointed successor to Mel- 
tridis.^" Unwilling to exchange his sacred office, for the administration of 
any temporal affairs entrusted to him, Cataldus was appointed Bishop, to 
the great joy of the king, who conferred the territory of Meltridis on his 
church, by a perpetual grant. Cathaldus is said to have divided this terri- 
tory, into twelve Bishoprics f ' whilst, at the same time, his own seat had 

tory of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect. Noct. ii., Lect. iv., p. 22. 

xi., n. 136, p. 126. '5 See Joannes Juvenis, "DeAntiquitate et 

"See Petrus de Natalibus, "Vita S. VariaTarentinorumFortuna,"lib.viii., cap.2. 

Cataldi," lib. iv., cap. 143. '® A doubt exists, as to whether this was a 

" Colgan, who seems to credit this legend, proper name of the chieftain, or of the terri- 

says, that the king appears to have pro- tory, subject to hnn. 

ceeded towards Lismore, along the opposite '^ See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," viii., 

bank of the Abhan-mor or Blackwater, or Martii, nn. 9, 10, 11, pp. 555, 556. 

along its course, or, at least, from the south- '^ See Joannes Juvenis, " De Antiquitate, 

em parts of Lagenia into Munster, and from et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., 

the direction of Waterford. See "ActaSanc- cap. 2. 

torum Hibernioe," viii. Martii, n. 8, p. 555. '' See Petrus de Natalibus, " Vita S. 

'3 See Moroni's " VitaS. Cataldi,"cap. vii. Cataldi," lib. iv., cap. 143. 

'" See Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. Also, =° See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

De Burgo's "Officia Propria Sanctorum Hi- cap. viii. 

bernise," viii. Martii. In Festo S. Cathaldi, =" See " Ofificium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. 

Vol. v.— No. 4. N 



[May 10. 

been erected into an Archiepiscopal See.*' The church, over which our saint 
presided, was named Rachan, according to his office,'3 and to the Life by 
Moroni. =^4 

Various conjectures have been offered, regarding the location of the 
place so called. *5 The exact locality cannot now be identified, but probably, 
it was not far from Lismore.'^ It is said, that when Cathald governed it for 
some time, he succeeded in bringing the people of the surrounding territory 
to a knowledge of the Christian faith, and to the practice of every virtue. Not 
being able to discover any city, town, or other place, bearing the name of 
Rachau, and existing at any time, in the province of Munster, or in the rest 
of Ireland, Colgan offers a conjecture, that owing to some mistake, Rachau '7 
has been written for Rathan,^^ Ratha, or Rathach.^9 He tells us, that in the 
southern part of Meath province, and on the confines of Munster, a famous 
city and monastery existed at Rathan, or Rathen, from which St. Carthage 
and his monks had been driven, before the monastery of Lismore 3° was 
founded. But, there are three other places, bearing the name Rathain, or 
Rathen, in the Desii country, within which Lismore was situated. One of 
these had been named Sen-Rathen, or " Old Rathen." It is now known as 
Shanraghan, a parish, and a townland, in the Barony of Iffa and Offa West, 
in the county of Tipperary.s" This parish contains some fine scenery, and 
among the objects of interest is Shanbally Castle, with a fair demesne, the 
residence of Viscount Lismore. 3^ The old church — now in ruins, yet still sur- 
mounted by a square and comparatively modern belfry — presents some fea- 
tures, however, of considerable antiquity.33 It is surrounded, likewise, with a 
cemetery. The church was divided into a nave and choir ;34 but, it is now, in 

" The Rev. Dr. Lanigan remarks, how it is 
ridiculously stated, that having obtained this 
wonderful grant of a whole principality, he 
divided it into twelve bishoprics, and raised 
Rachan to the rank of an archiepiscopal See. 
Perceiving the absurdity of this fable, 
in his edition of St. Cataldus' office. Bishop 
De Burgo has changed the bishoprics into 
pari>hes, and the archiepiscopate into a sim- 
ple bishopric. See "Ecclesiastical History 
of Ireland," vol. iii., cap. xviii., sect, xi., n. 
138. p. 127. 

=■3 See "Officium S. Cataldi," Lect v. 

'■* See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," cap. ix. 

'5 The BoUandists throw out a conjecture, 
that Rachan may have been the city of 
Ragusa, in the province of Illyricum, as 
Joannes Lucius, in his work on Dalmatia, 
calls it " Ragusium et Rausium," and it is 
added, " quasi Ragausium, ut inde Rachau 
potuisset formari." However, this seems to 
be abandoned as a rather improbable sup- 
position, for reasons alleged in that passage. 
See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii x. 
De Sancto Cataldo, &c. Inquisitio de .^tate 
et Gestis S. Cataldi in Vita, num. 4, p. 

"* See Dr. William Smith's and Henry 
Wace's " Dictionary of Christian Biogra- 
phy," vol. i., p. 422. 

'' When republishing the office of St. 
Cataldus, from the "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nioe," Dc Burgo ought not tohave thrust into 
the text Rathan, instead of Rachau, which 
Colgan has preserved. See " Oflicia Propria 

Sanctorum Hibernire," Martii viii. In Festo 
S. Cataldi, Noct. ii., Lect. v., p. 22. "This 
is not the only alteration he has made in said 
office, motu propio," remarks Dr. Lanigan, 
"and without any sufficient authority." 

^^ It is remarked, that if for Rachau we 
read Rachen — the n, and u, being often 
interchanged in MSS. — the probability of 
Colgan's conjecture will be rendered more 
apparent, by such similarity of names. See 
"Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," vol. iii., 
chap, xviii., sect, xi., n. 131, p. 125. 

°^ According to the Irish sound of th, 
Rathan is the same as Raglian or Rahan. 

3° It would seem, the Anglicized form of 
this word, meant " the great fort." The lios 
or lis was a circular enclosure, which the 
ancient Irish founders of monasteries — as in 
this instance — threw up around their habi- 
tations. See Dr. Patrick W. Joyce's 
" Origin and History of Irish Names of 
Places," part iii., chap. i.. pp. 261, 262. 

3' See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," 
vol. iii., cap. xviii., sect, xi., n. 131, p. 

3^ Sec Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 552. 

33 The accompanying illustration, from a 
sketch, by George V. Du Noyer, preserved 
among the Tipperary Sketches of Antiqui- 
ties in the Royal Irish Academy, vol. iv., 
has been drawn on the wood, by William 
F. Wakeman, and this was engraved by 
Mrs. Millard. 

'•i It is described, in " Letters containing 

May 10.] 



many places, greatly dilapidated. Another locality was known as Rath- 
cormaic ;3s and the third was named Rath-Ronain.36 It is not unlikely that 
either of the two first-named places had been the See of Cathaldus, since 
Kathen of Meath might have been occupied, by our saint, after tlie expulsion 
ot Mochudda, or Carthage ;37 and, as many monks belonging to this place 
became Abbots and Bishops, in various parts of Ireland, those twelve bishops 
appointed by our saint might have been among the number.38 it is still more 
probable, however, that Sen Rathen, or Slianraghan, had been the city of 
Cathaldus, for this reason, that it was situated near Lismore, in accordance 
with what IS stated.39 However, Colgan admits the claims of Rathcormaic 

Shanraghan Old Church, County of Tipperary. 

and Rath-Ronain, for the like reason. These three places are said, likewise, 
to have been comprised, within the territory of Meltridis, who was supposed 
to have been chief over the Desii, while Rathen of Meath could not have 
belonged to this chieftain.'*" 

Information relative to the Antiquities of the 
County of Tipperary, collected during the 
progress of the Ordnance Survey in 1840," 
vol. i., Letter of John O'Donovan, dated 
September, 5th, 1840, pp. 44 to 46. 

3S This Colgan learned, through corres- 
pondence with Dr. Patrick Comerford, 
Bishop of Lismore. 

3* This is now a parish, in the Barony of Iffa 
and Offa West, and it is shown on the " Ord- 
nance Survey Townland Maps for the County 
of Tipperary," sheets 76,77,82, 83. The 
townland proper is marked on sheet 77. 

37 His Life will be found, at the 14th of 
May, the day set apart for his feast. Nor can 

he be confounded with St. Cataldus ; since, 
not only are the parents of both distinct, the 
places for their death different, but all the 
circumstances related in their respective 
Acts show them to have been altogether 
distinguishable, so that he. wlio is called Car- 
thagus by the Irish, cannot be confounded with 
the saint, named Cathaldus, by the Italians. 

3^ Such is Colgan's conjecture. See 
"Acta Sanctorum Hibernice," viii. Martii, 

n- 2, p. 555- 

39 In his Life, by Moroni, lib. 1., 
cap. v., vii. 

<° See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nise," viii. Martii, n. 2, p. 555. 


Having discharged the duties of his episcopate for some years, 
and with great fidehty to his trust, the saint resolved on undertaking a 
pilgrimage, to visit the Holy Sepulchre, at Jerusalem/' Having called 
together twelve bishops, he disclosed this design to them, while he com- 
mitted his flock to their charge. He embarked on board a vessel, while habited 
in a pilgrim's garb, and without a single attendant ; so that, as the author of 
his Life remarks, he could not be distinguished from any ordinary person, but 
for the majesty of his mein and a certain nobility of countenance, which 
are said to have characterized him. After many labours and dangers, he 
arrived at Jerusalem. There, he visited the Holy Sepulchre, and other places, 
which have been rendered illustrious, by the miracles and presence of Christ. 
He then came to a resolution, he would not return to his native country. 
Being desirous of leading a solitary life — one then much practised in the east 
— he besought the Almighty, with prayers and tears, that he might be per- 
mitted to spend his remaining days, in some lonely wood or hermitage of 
Palestine. He was anxious, also, to remove the burden of the pastoral office, 
and the care of souls, to other shoulders ; that thus, he might die on the soil, 
consecrated by our Saviour's forty days' fast, and among a people, where 
souvenirs of Christ's visible presence on earth might be found. -^^ But, the 
Lord had otherwise ordained ; for, whilst engaged in a recital of Matins, 
before the morning sun arose, Cataldus had a vision. 43 In this, the Deity 
ordered him to direct his course towards Tarentum, where the Apostles, St. 
Peter and St. Mark, had first laid a foundation for the Christian Religion. 

Ever obedient to the Divine will, Cathaldus embarked on board a vessel, 
without any delay. When wafted out into the open sea, and not far from 
a port, at which he disembarked, he foretold the approach of a tempest.'** 
When this storm took place, contrary to general expectation, he appeased it 
by recurring to prayer.'^s A certain youth, who had ascended the mast to 
connect a broken cable, fell from his elevated position, and he was killed on 
the spot ; but, Cataldus afterwards restored him to life.*^ The accounts which 
follow, as found in most of his biographies, do not appear to be well connected; 
however, it seems somewhat improbable, that on his way from Ireland to Italy, 
Cataldus may have filled some distinguished positions, at Geneva, near 
the Lake of Leman. It is stated,^? that as prelate and professor of that city, 
he was there venerated.''^ Notwithstanding, this account wants further confir- 
mation, as also the supposition, that he had even travelled to the Holy Land. ■♦9 
Some persons were of opinion, 5° that when Cataldus left Palestine for Italy, 
he had been accompanied by Euprepius s' — afterwards called Leuctius s^ — 
Bishop of Brundusiuni, and by Barsanophrius,53 the Eremite. s-* However, as 
may easily be seen, their respective periods do not harmonize. It will only 
be sufficient to remark, that besides our saint having left Ireland, in the seventh 

*' See "Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. HiberniK," lib. i., cap. i., p. 6. 

*^ See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., *' This is stated, by Joannes Juvenis, in 

cap. ix. " De Antiquitate, et Varia Tarentinorum 

*3 Dempster says, "a Sancto Petro in Fortuna," lib. viii., cap. 2. 
somnis monitus," he set out for Italy. See 5° According to Bartholomew JNIoroni. 

" Historia Ecclesinstica Gentis Scotorum," s> His festival is kept, on the ilth of 

tomus i., lib. iii., num. 278, p. 164. January. See " Martyrologium Romanum," 

■*•• See Joannes Juvenis, " Ue Antiquitate at that date. 
et Varia Tarentinorum Fonuna," lib. viii., s-- jje lived, in the time of Theodosus the 

cap. 2. Great, about A. D. 380. 

«s See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. ss His feast is kept, on the llth of April. 

<* See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., See Les Petits Bollandistes, "Vies des 

cap. X. Sainis," tomeiv., xi^ jourd'Avril, p. 327. 

<7 By Raph. Volaterranus, in Commentar. s* \\^ lived about the time of Justinian, 

Urban, lib. iii. A.I). 584. 

♦^ See Sir James Ware, " De Scriptoribus 55 Thomas Dempster has published the 


century, those already named as his companions ss could not even have been 
contemporaries. Others say, that DonatuSjS^ who was the brother ofCatal- 
dus, came with him to Japygia,57 where he was made Bishop of Lupias ;5' 
while both lived eremitical lives together, at a little town, afterwards called by 
the name of our saint. S9 As having carefully examined them, Moroni remarks, 
that these accounts were not to be found, in the records of Tarentum church. 
However, this writer saw, near Lupias, an old citadel called Cataldus, with a 
church, and a small cave hollowed out, after the manner of a crypt. The 
Lupias people cherished a tradition, that our saint frequently prayed, and 
offered up the Holy Sacrifice of Mass in it.^° 

When Cataldus arrived in Italy, he is thought^' to have landed at 
the mouth of a river, called by the inhabitants, St. Peter de Bibagna ; 
owing to a tradition, that St. Peter the Apostle, on his way from Antioch 
to Rome, disembarked at this same place, Avhere he celebrated Mass in 
a chapel, which remained there, even to the seventeenth century. At 
that period, also, the ruins of a town, named Fellini, might be seen on the 
summit of a hill, near INLanduri; at which, when the saint approached on 
his way to Tarentum, he met a girl, tending a small flock by the wayside. 
She was deaf and dumb.^* Of these facts the saint was apprized, when he 
saw her inattentive to an enquiry he made, about the direct course to Taren- 
tum. Wherefore, he wrought a miracle in her favour, whereby she was restored 
to the use both of hearing and of speech .^3 As the evening was about to 
close, this woman manifested her gratitude, by requesting the saint to remain 
in her house, until the day following. The news of this miracle having 
reached the people of Fellini, their veneration towards the servant of God was 
wonderfully increased ; and, it was manifested, in a manner most consoling 
to his heart, by their embracing truths of the Christian Religion. Cataldus 

following Latin lines, on the Scottish Patron Dempstero Veneti assurgunl, et bella 

Saints of the Italian cities, and those verses loquuntur 

are ascribed to Galcottus Picus, the excellent Parthenopes Scotos maitia corda 

Prince of Miiandula. See his "Historia duces. 

Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., Lanea sus, Celebris dira olim clade 

lib. iii., num. 278, pp. 164, 165 : — Ravenna, 

Laudem horum Tarrus sanguino- 

" Lux tenebras, aurum plumbum, sic lentus habet. 

Scotia leriien Hos sanctos fortesque simul colit 

Vincit, doctrina, religione, viris. Ausonis ora." 
Clara etenim Innocuo pietas est Ro- 

mula pi imo, s* His feast occurs, at the 22nd of Oc- 

Tu, Bonifaci, isto clarus in orbe tober, where some account of him will be 

nites, found. 

Cyriacus decorat sedem, atque exor- s? The promontory of Japigia is at the 

nat eandem : south-eastern extremity of Italy, and shown 

Multi alii proceres, purpureique on the ancient Map, in Rev. Fathers Catrou's 

patres. and Rouille's " Roman History : with Notes 

Inde Tarentinis pergit radiare Catal- Historical, Geographical, and Critical," &c., 

dus, vol. ii., Book xvii., p. 179. 

Donatus Lupios frater et inde ss Lupia is not far from this point, but 

docet ; more northerly, and on the eastern shore of 

Inde Columbanus Bobii fundamina Calabria. See ibid. 

jecit, 59 .See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

Casta Fluentina Brigida in urbe nice," Martii viii., n. 13, p. 556. 

sonat, *° See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

Faesulae ab Andrea et Donato lumina cap. xi. 

ducunt. *' By Moroni, in Vita S. Cataldi, lib. i., 

Sancte Faventinos Aemiliane beas, cap. xii. 

Et Gunifortis Ticinum corpora gau- ^- See Joannes Juvenis, " De Antiquitate 

det, et Vaiia Tarentmorum. Fortuna," lib. viii., 

. Clara domus Plint te, Gunibalde, cap. 2. 

canit. *3 See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. 


remained among them for some days, that he might perfect a work, so hap- 
pily begun. ^4 

In the year before Christ 700, an old Greek colony, founded by Lacede- 
monian Parthenii, had been planted in Lower Italy. Their city was called 
Tarentum, one of the most flourishing and opulent cities of Magna Grsecia.^s 
For a long time, the Tarentines were jealous of the growing power of the 
Romans, and they engaged Pyrrhus, King of Epirus, to land in Italy, where he 
carried on war with that warlike people, and with varied success.^* The 
Brutii had Tarentum with other cities, in this part of Italy.^7 At last, this 
city was taken by the Romans, in the year of Rome, 481,^^ and B.C. 262. 
Afterwards, through treachery it was surrendered to Hannibal, during the 
Carthaginian war, and before Christ 199 f^ but, again, it was recovered by the 
Romans, '° under Fabius.7' The Tarentines were tlien reduced to the condi- 
tion of Roman colonists, when they became remarkable for their idleness and 
effeminacy of manners. 7^ In the sixth century of the Christian era, they were 
subdued by the Goths. However, Tarentum was recaptured from the Goths, 
by the Romans, a.d. 553.73 in order to accomplish the object of his mis- 
sion, Cathaklus set out for the city of Tarentum, at the time, as Dr. Lanigan 
supposes,74 when Romoald, Duke of Beneventum, had expelled the Greeks 
from that city, and under his presidency, which lasted from 671 to 687.75 The 
Norman invaders afterwards dominated, in southern Italy, and in turn gave 
way, before the rival pretensions of Spain and France.7^ When the Irish 
missionary reached the city of Tarentum, he was informed, that its citizens 
had already received the rudiments of faith, at an early period, from the Apos- 
tle St. Peter and his disciple St. Mark, and as is thought, about the year of 
our Lord 45. Having left St. Mark there, on going to Rhegium, St. Peter 
requested him to consecrate Amasianus, a convert to the Christian Religion, 
as first Bishop of Tarentum. He only ruled one year and a few months over 
that See, when as piously believed, he was called to the bliss of immortality.77 
A doubt is expressed, however, as to whether the inhabitants of Tarentum 
were, for the most part, addicted to idolatry,?^ as Moroni's Life declares, 
referring our saint's entrance into this city, to the year of our Lord 1 70.79 That 
is not at all improbable ; for paganism lingered in many particular districts 
and remote localities of the Roman Empire, to a period even later than the 

*^ See Moroni's " Vita S. Catakli," lib. i. '^ See "Italia Sacra," tomus ix. Taren- 

cap. xii. tina Metropolis, col. Ii6. 

''s See "The Popular Encyclopedia ; or '^See Baionius' " Annales Ecclesiastici," 

Conversations Lexicon," &c., vol. vi. p. tomus vii., num. xv., p. 367. 

525. '■• See " Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 

** See an account of this war, by the land," vol. iii., chap, xviii., sect, xi., n, 

authors of "Ancient Universal History," 141, p. 129. 

&c., vol. X., cap. xxxix., sect, ii., pp. 334 7S See " Rerum Italicarum Scriptores," 

to 344. tomus i. De Gestis Langobardorum, Pauli 

*'^ SeePietro Giannone's "Civil History of Diaconi, lib. vi., cap. ii. , p. 490. 

the Kingdom of Nnples," translated into '* See Lady Morgan's " Italy," vol. ii., 

English, by Captain James Ogilvie, vol. i., chap, xxiv., pp. 360, 361. 

Book i., chap, iv., sect, iii., p. 18. London, ^^ See Ughelli's " Italia Sacra," tomus ix. 

1729, 1731, ibl. Tarentina Metropolis, col. 120. 

''^ See Rev. Fathers Catrou's and Rouille's ?* This story might .igree well enough, 

"Roman History: with Notes Historical, with the supposition of Moroni and others, 

Geographical, and Critical," vol. ji., Book that St. Cataldus arrived at Tarentum about 

xxii., sect, xv., p. 494. English transla- the year 170. But, as the hypothesis is 

tion. false, so are its concomitant parts. 

** Sec " Ancient Universal History," vol. "» De Burgo has retained this tale, 

., chap, xli., sect, i., p. 3. whereas he lays down, erroneously, indeed, 

70 See ibid., pp. 19^0 21. that St. Cataldus died, about a.d. 492. . 

Before Christ 196. ^ See Rev. Dr. Lanigan's " Ecclesiastical 


seventh centur)'. It is stated, that when he entered the eastern gate of the 
city, Cathaldus met a bhnd man, from whom he made enquiries, regarding 
tlie introduction of religion there, and the state of its inhabitants, at that 
time. He was then given to understand, that the people had nearly altoge- 
ther relapsed into the errors of paganism.^° Understanding from the blind 
man, that although an unbeliever, he had nevertheless some yearnings after 
truth, ^' Cathaldus said to him : " If thou believest in the Holy Trinity, and 
if thou art baptized in its name, thou shalt immediately receive light of body 
as of mind."^^ The blind man replied : " I believe, sir, because it was not 
through hardness of heart, nor obstinacy of spirit, that I have been a wor- 
shipper of idols to this time ; but, owing to a want of priests and of Christian 
institutes, for it is now a long time since our city has had its Bishop and 
Pastor." On expressing these words, our saint baptized this blind man, 
who, at the same time, received the gift of sight. ^3 Being blind from the 
time of his birth, that man felt transported with delight, when he gazed on 
new objects around him, and he ran immediately to announce what had 
occurred, to other citizens of Tarentum. He invited them all to come and 
see the stranger, from whose hands he had received the Sacrament of Bap- 
tism. ^+ Full of astonishment, the citizens followed that man to the place 
where Cataldus remained. He appeared to be revolving in thought the course 
for future proceedings. The minds of the people, it would appear, had already 
received some tincture from the former lessons of Divine faith. Therefore, 
were they more easily impressed with truths of the Christian Religion, 
announced by their new Apostle. Soon was he appointed to rule over them 
as Bishop.^5 Great numbers among the inhabitants received Baptism, and all 
expressed sorrow for the commission of their former crimes.^^ The most 
general consent of writers refers the episcopate of Cataldus, at Tarentum, to 
the close of the seventh century f^ and, such an inference seems more proba- 
ble, than are those accounts derived from confused traditions, which place it, 
at an earlier period. 



The first seeds of the Gospel, being this happily sown, produced abundant 
fruit ; for, not only in a short time were all the people of Tarentum withdrawn 
from a worship of idols, but, the inhabitants of that country around it heard . 

History of Ireland," vol. iii., chap, xviii., ^^ See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. 

sect, xi., p. 122, n. 140, p. 127. ^^ See Ughelli's " Italia Sacra," tomus ix. 

8' See "Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. Tarentina Metropolis, col. 121. 

*° See Joannes Juvenis, " De Antiqui- ^^ See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

tate et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. cap. xiv. 

viii., cap. 2. ^' SeeDi. Richard R. Madden's " Shrines 

''s See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., and Sepulchres of the Old and New World," 

cap. xiii. vol. ii., chap, v., p. 154. 


the preaching of Cataldus.' It hastened their conformity to practices of 
Christian faith. The whole appearance of Tarentum and of its neighbouring 
districts soon assumed a great change. Nobles and plebeians rivalled each 
other in the practice of virtue — the city which was heretofore a sink of 
abominations became the cradle of heroic acts — the inhabitants formerly 
addicted to the sins of luxury and debauchery were now distinguished for 
chastity and sobriety — where the temples had been frequented by idolatrous 
worshippers, and Imd been profaned by the practice of pagan rites, there peo- 
ple were now assembled to celebrate the Divine mysteries, and solemnities of 
the Christian Religion. Under God, Cataldus was the recognised instrument 
of this great social revolution. In his life and actions were mirrored forth 
those virtues, which were required to sanctify his people, and the mute elo- 
quence of his example gave confirmation doubly strong to his public admoni- 
tions and exhortations.^ In all these towns and cities of his bishopric, he 
ordained Priests, Deacons, and other inferior clergy. He remained constantly 
in the churches, where he was engaged in the exercises of prayer and of 
preaching ; while the duties of his pastoral charge were performed with all 
solicitude and charity, for he gave aid and counsel to widows and orphans, 
as also to destitute and suffering numbers, belonging to his fold.3 

It has been stated, that the holy bishop left some writings behind him. On 
the doubtful authority of Dempsterj-^ Cataldus is made the author of a Book of 
Homilies, addressed to the people, and a Book of Visions ;5 but, there is no 
ground for attributing a work on either subject to him. What passes under 
the title of his Prophecies is of a sufficiently spurious character, and it rests on 
no very trustworthy foundation. At last, Cathaldus perceived his end approach- 
ing. Then, he called together the priests and chief men of Tarentum, address- 
ing them in these following words,^ calculated to confirm their faith -J " You 
know, dearly beloved brethren, that I have not been driven of my own accord 
to this your city, from remote bounds of the Western Ocean; but, when I was at 
Jerusalem, the Lord Jesus Christ deigned to address me, and He commanded 
me to adopt a different course of life, from that which I had resolved on, and 
which seemed to me a better one, for securing my salvation. I was told, 
that I should go to Tarentum without delay, where Peter, Prince of the Apos- 
tles, with his disciple and interpreter, Mark, had laid the foundations of faith. 
I most willingly did as I had been commanded : and, I came to you, bidding 
farewell to my country, and to the church of Rachau, where I well knew, my 
children liad been anxious for the return of their father, whilst bearing his 
aljsence with great inquietude. With Divine assistance, I liave restored the 
faith of Christ, almost extinguished; nor have I ceased, with tears and prayers, 
to strengthen the pliant minds of the people in Tarentum, and to encourage 
them in the perfection of a Christian life, having abandoned iUusions of vice. 
But, now I truly know, that hereafter, when I am dead, great and powerful 
enemies shall arise against you ; who, endeavouring to divide members of the 
Catholic Church by heretical sophistries, shall attempt to lead into former 
errors my flock, collected together with so much labour. Wherefore, against 

Chapter hi. — ' See " Officium S. " Homilias ad Populum," lib. i., and " De 

Cataldi," Lect. v. Visionibus Suis." lib. i. 

' See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 'See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. vi. 

cap. XV. ' According to Joannes Juvenis, these 

■* See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. vi. accounts are drawn from an ancient Life of 

* See " Historia Ecclesiastica Genlis St. Cataldus. See " De Antiquitatc ct Varia 

Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 278, Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., cap. 2. 

p. 164. ^ See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

3 Their titles, according to Dempster, are, cap. xviii. 


those enemies of your faith and of the Christian rehgion fortify the people's 
minds by your constancy, mindful of my labours and vigils. Restore this 
body to the common parent of all, and of which it is formed. Bury it in the 
large church, after a Christian manner, towards the east, within the chapel of 
St. John, in the Galilee; thus preserving it for a future resurrection."^ Having 
spoken these words, he received the sacraments conferred on the dying with great 
devotion, when his spirit passed away to Heaven. His remains were deposited 
in the Cathedral of Tarentum, as he had so willed it. 9 

According to Dempster,'" he flourished in the year 361, which that writer 
supposes to have been the year for his deposition; but, this account deserves not 
the slightest consideration. It is rather strange, that not only the year for the 
death of Cathaldus is unknown ;" but, no successful attempt has been even made 
to determine it, by the many writers who have treated about him. Nor is it 
known, how long he ruled over the See of Tarentuui,'^ of which he has become 
the chief patron. His body was brought to the church, where a great concourse 
of persons assembled, and amongst them were many, suffering from various 
diseases, from which they were healed, on touching our saint's body, that had 
been as it were a tabernacle of the Holy Ghost. '^ His funeral solemnities 
were celebrated with great pomp, and his body was honourably interred. A 
marble tomb covered the remains, in a sacristy belonging to the large church ; 
and here, also, might be seen a chapel, constructed at the instance of Pope 
Clement VHI.'^ The Second Book of Moroni's biography, containing Thirty- 
six chapters, is composed altogether of accounts regarding various miracles, 
wrought through the merits and intercession of Cataldus; and, at various 
periods, after his death. 's The reader is therefore referred to this portion of 
his work for particulars, not immediately connected with the lifetime and 
actions of our saint. Wiut lias more immediate reference, to the Finding and 
Translation of the Relics of St. Cataldus, will be found in that Tract,'^ attri- 
buted to Berlengerius of Tarentum. The following is the substance of this 
narrative, and probably the most circumstantial that can be discovered.'^ 

Drogonus,'^ Archbishop of Tarentum,^? had resolved on taking down 
his old cathedral church, which was in a ruinous state, in order to erect a 

9 " In questa Citta giaceno I'ossa di S. Civitatis Patroni. Liber Secundus. Mira- 

Cathaldo gia loro vescovo." — " Descrittione cula S. Cataldi, ex vetustissimis Exemplari- 

di Tutta Iialia," di F. Leandro Albertt bus fidelissime desumpta, stylo modice im- 

Bolognese, &c. Magna Grecia Ottava mutato, pp. 550 to 555. 

Regione, fol. 190, dorso. Published at La '* The Histoiia Liventionis et Transla- 

Vinegia, 1 55 1, 4to. tionis, already alluded to, seems to us 

" See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis founded on a Sermon or Discourse, delivered 

Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iii., num. 278, on the occasion of such a Festival, with pro- 

p. 160. bable additions to the narrative, as met with 

" Joannes Juvenis says :" Scriptura nulla in some ancient Manuscripts, preserved at 

extat, qua dignoscere possemus, quot annos Tarentum. The two first paragraphs of that 

cum Tarrentinis suis vitam duxerit Beatus Treatise, published by the BoUandists, have 

Cataldus." — " De Antiquitate et Varia brief reference to the early introduction of 

Tarentinorum Fortuna," lib. viii., cap. 2. Christianity into Tarentum, by St. Peter, 

" It is remarkable, that the cathedral Prince of the Apostles, and by St. Mark, as 

there is the only parish church of a city, also to the Patron St. Cataldus, whose Acts 

containing a population of several thousand are passed over, and the story of his relics 

inhabitants. See Rev. Alban Butler's being found is there abruptly introduced. 

" Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and other '^ Joannes Juvenis also wrote, De Inven- 

principal Saints, vol. v., May x. tione Corporis Beati Cataldi, in " De Anti- 

'3 See " Officium S. Cataldi," Lect. v. quitate et Varia Tarentinorum Fortuna," 

'* See Moroni's "Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., lib. viii., cap. 3. 

cap. xix. '^ He is called, likewise Dragonus and 

'5 See Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Hiber- Drago, and he succeeded Stephen, killed in 

niae," Martii xiii. Vita et Miracula S. a battle fought between the Greeks and 

Cataldi, Episcopi et Confessoris, Tarentina Normans, a.d. 1041. 


new and more beautiful edifice. This resolution greatly pleased both clergy 
and people. The work being commenced, while sinking a foundation, one 
of the workmen came to a marble sepulchre, which emitted a most fragrant 
odour. When this circumstance had been reported to the Archbishop, Dro- 
gonus with his clergy and people hastened to the spot. Having taken a 
spade or mattock, this tomb was opened. Here were found the relics of our 
saint, in a state of excellent preservation, his name in Latin letters ^° having 
been inscribed on a golden cross, which was likewise discovered. A proces- 
sion being then arranged, lights were brought, with various aromatic spices 
which were burned. But, that miraculous and fragrant odour, proceeding from 
tlie relics, was found to surpass the smell of frankinscence.^' The Archbishop 
collected these relics, a.d. 1071.*^ The marble tomb was transferred to a 
conspicuous place, and it was set beneath the high altar of the Cathedral 
Church, where the remains of Cataldus were deposited. ^3 Many miracles '♦ 
were wrought, during the time of and after this Translation. ^5 In the time 
of Raynaldus,^^ Archbishop of Tarentum, the relics of our saint were kept in 
the marble tomb under the high altar. When Eugenius HI. was Pope, Roger 
being King of Sicily, that he might do further honour to the memory of our 
saint, Gerald,^7 then Archbishop of Tarentum, had a silver shrine prepared, 
on which were carved images of our Saviour, of the Angels, and of the Twelve 
Apostles. In this, also, he placed a particle of the wood of the true cross, 
enclosed within a gold case, and ornamented with gems. Having proclaimed 
a fast, this Archbishop and his suffragan Bishops, with a great concourse of 
clergy and laity assisting, opened our saint's sepulchre, under the high altar, 
on the loth day of May, a.d. 1151.''^ He afterwards transferred the rehcs of 
Cataldus to the silver shrine prepared to receive them, whilst the choir sang 
hymns and spiritual canticles. A great concourse of the faithful was present, 
on the occasion. At this time, also, numerous miracles were wrought, in 
favour of those labouring under all sorts of afflictions and infirmities.*^ For 

'9 He is classed as the sixteenth Archbishop claim the miracle wrought by Cataldus ; and 

of Naples, by Ughelli, in " Italia .Sacra" to- that a youth, deprived of the use of his limbs 

mus ix. Tarentina Metropolis, cols. 126, 127. was healed, at the sepulchre of the holy man, 

*° According to Moroni, it was written in and in the presence of a great number of 
full ; although Joannes Juvenis has it " dua- persons. See the Bollandists' "Acta Sane- 
bus litteris Latinis C. T. significantem." torum," tomus ii, Maii x. Historia Inven- 

"' Berlengerius adds: " Ingens oritur gau- tionis et Translationis Auctore Berlengerio 

dium : osculatur Reliquias : et gratias Deo re- Tarentio et forsan aliis. Ex codicibus MSS., 

feruntpro taminKstimabilirepertothesauro." cap. i., sect, i to 5, pp. 570, 571. 

" This is the date given by Ugheli, and ^5 See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

this year, likewise, the Bishop of Tarentum cap. xx. 

was present, at the consecration of the '* Raynaldus ruled over Tarentum, a< the 

Casino Church, according to Leo of twenty-tirst Archbishop, from a.d. 1 106 to 

Ostia, in " Chronicum Ostiensis," lib. iii., 1 1 19. See Ughelli's " Italia Sacra," tomus 

cap. 30. ix. Tarentina Metropolis, cols. 128, 129. 

^3 The Historia of Berlengerius states, '^ On the deposition of Philip, i;i the year 
that the holy relics weie then to be seen, 1 139, Giraldus became the twenty-hfth Arch- 
where they had been reverently placed. bishop of Tarentum, and he lived until A.D. 
Joannes Juvenis has it : "In sacello, quod 1172. See ?'Z'/i/., col. 121. 
a brachio ipsius Sancti nomen." — " De An- -' Joannes Juvenis and Bartholomew 
tiquitate et Varia Tartenlinorum Fortuna," Moroni have wrongly placed this Transla- 
lib. viii., cap. 3. tion, at the year 11 50, which was the thir- 

°* Among these Berlengerius relates, that the teenth Indiction. Berlengerius has it: 

withered arms of a woman were restored, by "Est autem gloriosa Transi.itio celebrata 

touching the saint's tomb; that a paralytic anno Dominicce Incarnationis MCLI., die 

of Beneventum was healed, in like manner, decimo mensis Maji xiv., Indictione, ' &c. 

while the bells of the church were rung, at ^ See Moroni's " Vita_S. Cataldi," lib. i., 

the same time, by the hands of Angels ; that cap. xvi. 

a woman who had been deaf and dumb was ^° For a more detailed account of the 

restored to the use of speech, and to pro- miracles wrouglit, through the intercession 


several succeeding ages, those evidences of the Patron's power in Heaven 
were manifested. 3° 

After the lapse of many years, and during the presidency of Roger 
Capitignonus, the forty-second Archbishop of Tarentum,3' the Finding 
of the Tongue of St. Cataldus is thus recorded. Having selected some good 
and respected clerics of the place, these were directed to remove some relics 
of the holy man from a silver shrine, or casket, shaped like an arm, so that 
these might be placed, in a memorial of a more beautiful design. The persons 
employed for this purpose found the tongue of our saint, which had so often 
celebrated the Divine praises, and preached the word of God to his people. 
It was then encased, by Archbishop Roger, within a crystal covering ;32 and, 
that member appeared of full size, having the natural colour it should present, 
as if just extracted from the saint's mouth. When the people of Tarentum had 
often experienced the efficacy of their illustrious Patron's intercession, and when 
devotion towards him had greatly increased ; at a subsequent period, the 
clergy and senators of that city erected a silver statue to our saint. It ap- 
peared to be about the natural size, and the figure 33 seemed clothed in an epis- 
copal dress, with a mitre on the head, and a crozier borne in the hand. 34 This 
had been elaborately wrought, and intrinsically it was of great value. It is 
related, that the skull of Cathaldus had been enclosed in an upper part of the 
statue, whilst other portions of his relics were similarly covered. Before the 
breast of this statue to Cathaldus hung that golden cross, which had been 
found in his tomb, with those words inscribed on it, Cataldvs Rachav.35 

During the reign of Ferdinand,3^ King of Naples, Sicily, Jerusalem, 37 &c., a 
prophecy of St. Cataldus, is said to have been miraculously discovered, and 
in the following manner. A deacon of Tarentum, and who was named 
Raphael Cucera, standing during prayer, in the choir of the great cathedral, 
about two or three o'clock at night, on the Sunday before Passion Sunday, a.d. 
1492, had a reputed vision of St. Cataldus. At first, the Deacon was greatly 
terrified, but he heard these words addressed to him : " Often and often have 
I told you to enter the church of St. Peter, about a stone's cast, beyond the 
walls of Tarentum, and you have refused to do so : I now tell you once more, 
go to the Bishop.38 who, having collected the inhabitants and clergy of the 
city, shall approach the aforesaid church, in the front of which, on a column, 

of St. Cataldus, the reader is referred to the To him then succeeded the Emperor Charles 

Bollandists' "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., V., of Austria. "His father, Philip the 

Maii X. De Sancto Cataldo Episcopo Handsome, Archduke of Austria, was the 

Tarentino in Italia. Historia Inventionis son of the Emperor Maximilian, and of Mary, 

et Translationis Auctore Berlengerio Taren- the only child of Charles the Bold, the last 

tino, et forsan aliis, cap. ii., iii., sect. 6 to 36, prince of the house of Burgundy. His 

pp. 571 to 575- mother, Joanna, was the second daughter of 

3' His term began A.D. 1334, and it lasted Ferdinand, King of Aragon, and of Isabella, 

until 1348. Pee Ughelli's "Italia Sacra," Queen of Castile." — "History of the Reign 

tomus ix. Tarentina Metropolis, col. 138, of the Emperor Charles V.," Book i., p. 67. 

139. See the works of William Robertson, D.D., 

3=* According to Joannes Juvenis, " De edited by Dugald Stewart, vol. i. London, 

Antiquitate et VariaTarentinorumFortuna," 1845, ^^o- 

lib. viii., cap. 3. 3? The Bollandists intimate, that during 

33 It is said to have presented the figure his reign, the prefixed words of the prophecy, 

of a Bishop, as if preparing to celebrate " Domino nostro D. Ferdinando," were 

Mass. forged. 

3-* Joannes Juvenis adds : "argenteis lami- 38 j^e appears to have been Baptista Car- 

nis ad incudem extensis." dinal Ursinus, who ruled over this See, from 

35 See Bartholomew Moroni's "Vita S. a.d. I491 to 1498. He was the sixty-fourth 

Cataldi," lib. i., cap. xxii. Prelate in succession. See Ughelli's "Italia 

3* This was Ferdinand II., called the Sacra," tomus ix. Tarentina Metropolis, 

Catholic King, who was inaugurated as King col. 144. 

of Sicily, A.D. 1473, and who died A.D. 1 516. 39 The Bollandists present a rough dia- 



[May 10. 

he shall find a boy's image admirably painted, and that figure shall point with 
his hand and two fingers towards a place, where a certain prophetic judgment 
shall be discovered ; this I pronounced while living, and I buried it under 
the feet of that same image, which I caused to be painted. In that place, you 
shall first find a lead cross on which carved letters are inscribed ;39 afterwards, 
you shall bring to light a book of lead, under the same cross, and covered 
with bands of lead, on it are marked certain inscribed letters/" Let that 
closed book be brought to the king, and let him observe what is contained in 
it ; otherwise, woe to his kingdom, for it shall suffer great injury, pestilence, 
faming, and war, waged by infidels. And, if he believe not the prediction, do 
you Raphael approach him, and relate to him this vision manifested to you." 
Saying these words, the apparition vanished from his sight. This prediction 
is said to have come to light, the eighth year of Pope Innocent VIII., which 
corresponds with a.d. 1492 ;t' although Anthonius Carracciolus 4^ has its dis- 
covery, at A.D. 1494,43 as likewise Alexander ab Alexandre. Accordingly, 
the Bishop, with a great attendance of clergy and people, went in procession 
to the spot indicated, and there found the book inscribed on leaden tablets, 
and which was kept apparently, under a lock and key.^^ It is probable, that 
this prophecy,'*5 referring to the state of the Neapolitan kingdom, to the times 

gram of this lead cross, with the following 
inscription : " Aperiatis hie : invenietis 
librum, in quo C. T. D. et statim mittatur 

*° The BoUandists give a diagram, nearly 
square, supposed to represent this Book, 
while on its cover apparently was the follow- 
ing inscription : " Cataldus Rachau Archiep. 
Tarentinus. Hunc nonaperiat nisi Rex cum 
uno solo sibi fideli : et statim mittatur 
Regi. i." 

4' According to an anonymous writer of 

'^ He published an account of this pro- 
phecy, at Naples, in 1626. 

<3 Writing under this year, he states : 
" Isto anno fuit repertus Tarenti liber S. 
Cathdi, consistens in tribus laminis plum- 
beis, videlicet duabus extremis semiscriptis, 
et media scripta ex utroque latere ; qui prre- 
sentatus fuit Domino Regi loquens de dicti 
Regis repentina morte : et sic fuit repente 

4« Such is the account given by Alexander 
ab Alexandro, in his work, "Genialiuin Die- 
rum," lib. iii., cap. 15. 

■•s The following are its words, which are 
rather dubious and difficult in translation : 
" Tu ex riesperia venisti, unde pestis bis 
mortifera ob infidelitatem, et mon>tia quse- 
dam, interquam tui commemorabuntur. 
Damna tamen lecompensahunt duo potentes 
conjuges regnantes. V'cetibi Christiana re- 
ligio : incredulos et hypocritas apertos, et 
occultos habebit spoiisa Christi ; quoniam 
sponsus sjionsce irascetur. Cai)ita eorum in- 
sensata erunt ; et occuli eorum tenebuntur, 
ne videant. Sensualitas, ambitio, et cupidi- 
tas regnandi prrcvalebunt. Sed dicent : 
Beati pauciora pcissidantcs. Oricntur prx- 
lia : Insurgent I'harisa:i contra Samaritanos ; 
et erunt ingentes Christianorum strages : quo- 

niam nota erunt nimis oppropria eorum super 
terram. Tu morte tua, quae cito aderit, 
liberaberis, ne videas tuoium ruina.-; : piK- 
videbis tamen, et sollicitus vi\es : prre do- 
lore, ira et timore, repente morieiis : et dua- 
bus regni successionibus, una ex te deserta, 
altera ex aliorum nobiliori, et potentiori 
successione erit. Regnum olim tuum inva- 
dent ; et, ut leones, cum magno appaiatu 
depopulabuntur. Ante eos labentur homines, 
et mLi;nia cadent. Vincent in albis : rubri 
et nigii cessalnmt colores. Inferi ad superos, 
et superi ad inferos, descendent, et mirabitur 
muiulus revolutiones cum ca;lo. Nee prce- 
sens dies erit prseterito similis. Nulla fides ; 
simultates, fictiones, machinationes, defec- 
tiones, planetus, lamentationes, mendacium, 
rapince undique regnabunt. Dies aderunt 
tribulationis, in quibus altiora anhelantes, 
in profundum cadent : et dissolventur fxdera, 
et gaudentiores tristal)untur. Occitlens com- 
movebitur : et occidet : Oriens ob.>curabi- 
tur, et timebit valde. Vailet homines leve 
priiicipium et horrendus finis : ex modica 
fiainma ingentes ignes, ex arido fomento nu- 
triti, longiores eiunt. P'cederibus, et 
perturbabitur nmndi nobdior pars ; et de 
summis principatihus contendetur, et eiit 
multorum destructio ; quoniam iratus est 
Deus. Ante faciem ejus peicutient se 
priores, et de regno in regnum commovebun- 
tur. Et terra, uti mare, a ventis fluctuabit : 
submergentur multi qucerentcs portum, et 
nun invenient ; quoniam a recto itinere de- 
viaveiunt. Invcniat quendam tuus fune 
vexatum, cujus aucupio et occulto consilio 
dcponit sua, et omnia donabit, diiigens 
qua; cunque in meliorem viam : Et regnabit 
ex hoc usque in nomen generationem. Ser- 
pentes multi venena effundeiit ; sed deficiet 
ex illis caput ; et ilulciore efticientur venena 
ex percussionibus. Potentes ex adversitati- 

May io.] 



of Ferdinand, called of Arragon,'*^ and first King of Naples,-*' as, also, to the 
French Invasion, was a forgery,i8 made up on the occasion of passing events, 
and to serve some peculiar interestJ^ However, it must be observed, that 
Alexander ab Alexandro declares, the prophecies therein declared were ful- 
filled, in a remarkable manner, by events which followed. 5° A prophecy of this 
saint, and said to have been composed by him, is introduced by Moroni, towards 
the close of Cathaldus' Life. When a student at Naples, that writer saw such a 
document in the possession of Adrian William Spataphori, a learned antiqua- 
rian. The same document was found by a Friar, in the Aracseli Library, at 
Rome, and thence it was sent to him for insertion is his Life of our saint. 5' 
In the year 1600, John de Castro, s^ a noble Spaniard, who had been Arch- 
bishop of Tarentum, added another cross to the silver statue of Cataldus, 
much larger in size, than that one formerly placed upon the figure. This cross 
was made of gold, likewise, ornamented with emeralds, and it was exquisitely 
wrought. S3 

Many towns and parishes in Italy are called after St. Cataldus. 54 At 
Venice, in Umbria, and Sicily, he was venerated. At Coralti in Apulia, 
permission was given to the Minorite Fathers in 1506, to build a church, in 
honour of Blessed Cataldus, so that a plague which broke out might cease. ss 
In the Island of Malta, and near its chief city, there was a crypt and ceme- 
tery, dedicated to St. CatalduSjS^ in the middle of the seventeenth century. 
There, also, was a small church dedicated to him, and it was frequented by a 
great number of devoted clients, because of the graces they received, through 

bus minores coram Deo in facies cadent, et 
humiliabuntur. Et bonorum supplicationibus 
placabitur Omnipotens ; et Orientalis rabies 
magno apparatu petetur. Bonum ex malo 
nascetur ingens ; quoniam apparebit Ange- 
lus cumgladio, et magna minabitur. Insur- 
gent multi et potentissimi ; et renovabitur 
mundus. Erit homo super mensam plum- 
beam comedens in una de quatuor civitati- 
bus, qui omnibus istis remedium affert." — 
Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., cap. 
xvii., xviii. 

^* Although we read in Alexander ab 
Alexandro, lib. iii., cap. 15, " Cum florente 
fortuna Ferdinandi Primi Regis Aragonii 
Urbs Neapolitana," &c., yet, Colgan re- 
marks, that this prophecy appears referable to 
Ferdinand the first King of Naples, bearing 
this name, but, he was not the first King of 

47 Ferdinand, son of Alphonsus, King of 
Arragon, who died A.D. 1494, was the first 
King of Naples, bearing such name, and the 
second King of Arragon known by this 
name, as will be found, on referring to histo- 
ries of those respective countries. See 
"Acta Sanctorum Hibernise," viii. Martii, 
n. 17, p. 556. 

^^ A printed Tract, on the Finding of this 
Prophecy, has stated, however, that it came 
to light anno 1362. See Colgan's "Acta 
Sanctorum Hibernice," viii. Martii, n. 16, 

P- 556. 

^9 Dr. Richard R. Madden, when alluding 
to St. Cataldus, says, " Enquiries into this 
subject have led the author to the acquisi- 
tion of information of a very singular nature, 
respecting the alleged fabrications of metallic 

plates with an inscription, in apparently an- 
cient characters, purporting to be prophe- 
cies of St. Cathaldus, which had been ful- 
filled after his death." — "Shrines and 
Sepulchres of the Old and New World," 
vol. ii,, chap, v., pp. 154, 155. In a note to 
this passage, the author promised this infor- 
mation in his Appendix, under the heading 
" Pretended Prophecies of St. Cathaldus." 
Yet, we search there in vain for this matter, 
which the author seems to have overlooked. 

5° In his work, " Genialium Dierum," lib. 
iii., cap. 15. 

5' It was extracted from the work of Petrus 
Galatinus, " De Ecclesia destituta," lib. 
viii., cap. i. 

5^ He was elected the seventy-fifth bishop 
over this See, on the 20th of March, A.D. 
1600. " Sedit plus minus annis tribus,"&c. 
— Ughelli's "Italia Sacra," tomus ix. 
Tarentina Metropolis, col. 147. 

53 See Moroni's " Vita S. Cataldi," lib. i., 
cap. xxii. 

54 According to Joannes Juvenis, " De 
Antiquitate et Varia Tarentinorum For- 
tuna," lib. viii., cap. 3. 

55 See " Malta Antica Illustrata co' Monu- 
menti, e coll' Istoria," dal Prelato Onorafo 
Bres, &c., lib. vi., cap. xvi., pp. 447, 448. 
Roma, 1816, 4to. 

5^ This is stated, by Joannes F'ranciscus de 
Abela, Vicecancellarius, in a work " De- 
scriptio InsulcE Melitne," lib. i,, Notitia iv. 
De Coemeteriis. He states, that it was 
"prope cryptam S. Pauli et contigua cryptae a 
S. Maria de spe noncupatae," &c. — See p. 
47. This work was issued, at Malta, A.D. 


his intercession. In it, too, Masses were almost daily celebrated. Formerly, 
he was honoured, at Genoa, at Mondovi, and at Sens, where the parish of 
Saint-Cartaud has evidently borrowed its name from St. Cataldus.s? Espe- 
cially to commemorate the Feast for the Finding and Translation of St. 
Catald's Relics, at the earnest request of Laelius Brancarius, Archbishop of 
Naples, Pope Gregory XIII. granted a Plenary Indulgence, for the solemn 
celebration on May loth. From about this period, the Office of St. Cataldus 
was sanctioned by the Sovereign Pontiff, s^ and it began to be recited by the 
Archbishop and clergy of Tarentum, in choir, after the form in the Roman 
Breviary. The office of this saint is recited as a double, by the Irish clergy, 
on the 8th of March. 59 The published Martyrology of Tallagh has no festi- 
val occurring, in honour of this saint.^ But, we often find, in cases of Irish 
saints, who died on the Continent, that there is no record of their names, in 
our domestic Calendars or Martyrologies. According to the Roman Martyr- 
ology,^' Constantinus Ghinius,^^ and Bartholomew Moroni,^3 the loth of May 
is a festival, commemorating the Translation of Cathaldus' relics. ^4 Father 
Stephen Whitens has notices of this saint, and Sir James Ware*^ places his 
festival, at the present date. In Convseus' List of Irish Saints, Cathaldus Epis. 
and Patron of Tarentum, in Italy, may be found, in the pages of O'SuUevan 
Beare, at the loth of May .^7 The Martyrology of Donegal, ^^ on this day, 
registers a festival, in honour of [Cathaldus,^? Bishop of Tarentum, in Letha]. 
Thomas Dempster, quoting Constantinus Ghinius, has the Festival of Finding 
the precious Body of Bishop Cataldus, at the loth of May. 7° Cardinal 
Baronius has the Finding of his relics, at this same date. 7' Again, the Festival 
is noted, by Bishop Challoner,?^ by Rev. Alban Butler,73 and in the Circle of 
the Seasons. 74 

Not alone was Ireland honoured, in giving birth and education to this 
holy prelate, but still more did the citizens of Tarentum deem themselves 
blessed, by his ministrations among them. 75 The career of a great saint 
is at all times of interest to posterity, and the lives of the great teachers, or 
doctors of Catholicity — the men who towered like beacon fires in the compara- 

57 See Les Petits Bollandists, "Vies des cap. i., p. 8. 
Saints," &c., tome v., xe. jour de Mai, n. 2. ^^ See " Historic Catholicse Ibemise Com- 

p. 425. pendium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. x., p. 48. 

5* The Decree is dated thus: "Datum '^Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

Romse in palatio Apostolico, in loco 124, 125. 

nostrse solita: residentise v. Nonas Julii *' In a note, Dr. Todd here says, "The 

MDLXXX. paragraph within brackets is in the more 

59 This is thought, by some writers, to have recent hand. Letha is the Irish name for 

been the aniversary for his death. However, Italy." 

we can find no mention of his name, in the '" It is thus entered, in the " Menologium 

ancient Irish calendars, at that date, nor even Scoticum :" "Tarenti inventio pretiosi 

at the 8th of May. corporis Cataldi Episcopi." — Bishop Forbes' 

*" See Rev. Dr. Kelly's "Calendar of Irish " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. 199. 
Saints," &c., pp. xvii., xviii. '' In his Note (h) to the Roman Martyr- 

*' At the loth of May we read : "Apud ology, p. 211. 
Tarentum S. Cataldi Episcopi, miraculis '= .see '• Britannia Sancta," parti.. May x., 

clari." — " Martyrologium Romanum," p. pp. 285, 2S6. 
210. Edition of Baronius. " See " Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs and 

'' In "Natales Sanctorum Canonicorum." other principal Saints," vol. v., May x. 

*^ See "Vita S. CatalJi," lib. i., cap. 7^ See p. 131. 

xxi. " This is expressed, in that versicle sung in 

** "Cujus Nalalis Dies celebratur 8 Id. the church of Tarentum, and from a remote 

Mail. Inventio 6 Id. ejusdem." — Ughelli's period : — 
" Italia Sacra," tomus ix. Tarentina Metro- 
polis, col. 121. " Felix Ilibemia, sed magis Taren- 

*5 See " Apologia pro Hibernia," cap. ii., tum, 

p. 15. Also, cap. iv., p. 37. Qux claudis in tumulo grandc talen- 

**Sec "DeScriptoribus Ilibernix," lib. i., tum." 


tive gloom of earlier times — ought to be among the studies of Catholics, who 
rejoice in the growth of the Universal Church, and in her triumphs over the 
powers of sinfulness and error. 

Article III. — Cormac or Connachtach, Abbot of Iona. {Eighth 
and Ninth Centuries.'] On the authority of the Martyrology of Tallagh, 
which enters Cormac^ at the loth of May, Colgan assigns to this day, the 
festival of the present holy man.* This authority is followed, likewise, by the 
Bollandists,3 who remark on the number of Irish Saints so called, as enume- 
rated by Colgan, 4 when treating about several bearing that name. Connach- 
tach — a name substituted for Cormac — is said to have been a select scribe, 
and he became Abbot of Iona, most probably, after the demise of Bersal 
Mac Seghine, which is given, at the year 8oi, ha.'ing been incumbent for 
thirty-one years. Connachtach followed his predecessor to the tomb, after a 
very short term of rule.s He died, according to some accounts, in 797 — but 
rede 802 — assuming the corrected chronology found, in Dr. O'Donovan's 
Annals of the Four Masters.^ The cause assigned for Connachtach's death, 
is not recorded ; but as Hy-Columcille was burned by the Gentiles, a.d. 802,7 
it is probable enough, that our Abbot met with a violent death, at their hands, 
having perished during the calamity inflicted on his religious community. 

Article IV. — Barban the Wise. In the Tripartite Life of St. Patrick,' 
there is mention made of Barbanus Sapiens, or Barban the Wise. Colgan 
indicates, that his feast is referable to this day.* Here, too, the Bollandistss 
insert a notice of him. 

Article V. — Reputed Festival of Hildebert, Archbishop of the 
Scots. We have an account, by the Abbot, John of Trittenheim,' of Hilde- 
bertus, bishop of Mans, and also Archbishop of Tours, as a celebrated eccle- 
siastical writer. According to Dempster,* he had for his disciple Caius 
Cselius Sedulius,3 the Senior, or Presbyter,* who in like manner — to follow 
his account — belonged to the Scottish nation. If such be the case, Hildebert 
must have flourished, at a very early period. However, as the Bollandists, who 

Article III. — ' That copy, published by at the 17th of March, in his Life there 

the Rev. Matthew Kelly, D.D., has by mis- given. 

take Conmac ; the Franciscan copy more ' See " Trias Thaumaturga," Septima 

correctly CoyviriAc. Vita S. Patricii, pars, ii., cap. Ixvii. 

^ See "Trias Thaumaturga," Quinta Ap- 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

pendix ad Acta S. Columbte, cap. iii., sect. Maii x. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 

iv., v., pp. 500, 501. 492, 

3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii Article v. — ' In his work, " Catalogus 

X. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 492. Scriptorum Ecclesiasticorum," &c., at fol. 

* See "Acta Sanctorum HiberniEC," xvii. Ixviii., he is set down, as having flourished, 

Februarii, Appendix ad Acta S. Cormaci under Henry IV., A.D., MXC. 

Episcopi Athtrumensi, et postea Archiepis- ^ See " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Sco- 

copi Ardmachani, cap. i., pp. 360, 361. torum," tomus ii., lib. viii., num. 671, p. 

5 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life 353. 

of St. Columba." Additional Notes (O), ^ See what has been stated already re- 

p. 388. garding him, in Second Vol. of this work, 

® See vol. i., pp. 404, 405. and at the 12th day of February, Art. i., 

7 See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life chap. ii. 

of St. Columba," Additional Notes (O), ♦ Trithemius places him, as having 

p. 388. flourished under Theodosius, the Emperor, 

Article iv. — ' See vol. iii. of this work, at a.d. ccccxxx. See "Calalogus Script©- 


notice him at the loth of May. remark,s that author^ bestows upon neither 
the Master nor the Disciple the title Beatus or Sanctus. A modern Cata- 
logue of the Saints of Scotland mentions St. Hildebert, Archbishop, and 
Blessed Sedulius, Priest, at this date. Again, Camerarius, in his Menology 
of the Scottish Saints, gives to both the title of Sanctity, at the loth of May; 
while, Hildebert, called Abbot in Scotia, is praised for his wonderful holiness 
and for his remarkable learning. He is stated, to have been living in the 
year 309 ; but, this account will not agree with the statements of other Scottish 
writers. 7 Now, Dempster's Hildebert, Archbishop, flourished during the reign 
of the Emperor Theodosius the Great,^ and while Pope St. Innocent I. was 
in the Roman See. 9 The latter governed the Church from a.d. 402 to 417 ;'° 
so that we see here and hereafter how conflicting, and even how contradictory, 
becomes the chronology. Notwithstanding, the original bent of Thomas Demp- 
ster's inventive genius dispenses altogether with the accordance of date, 
and the contemporaneousness of persons ; for, while he makes St. Hildebert 
Archbishop of the Scots, the preceptor of Sedulius the Scot and bishop of the 
Greeks " — to preside as bishop over Mans,'^ in Gaul, and afterwards to have 
become Archbishop of Tours '3 — the death of Hildebert is set down, also, at the 
1 8th day of December, a.d. 1136.'* In reality, he died, November i8th, a.d. 
1 1 33. '5 Dempster also cites William of Malmesbury, for support of his state- 
ment. However, if an earlier St. Hildebert, Archbishop of the Scots, flourished, 
and had Sedulius for his disciple, it seems more likely, that he belonged to 
Ireland, rather than to Scotland. 

Article VI. — Aedh, or Aedus. The Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 
loth of May, simply records Aedha ; but, as in the next line, Conmac' follows, 
it is possible — but not probable — this had been intended to indicate his 
father's name. In the Franciscan copy, we have on the same line, in the 
third column, Aedo. Cormac.3 The Bollandists ■* quote this entry, at the same 
date, calling him Aedus, and stating, that no less than twenty-five, bearing 
a similar name, are enumerated among the Irish Saints. 5 Considerable doubt 
seems to exist, regarding the proper identification of this saint. Colgan 

rum Ecclesiasticorum," fol. xxxiiii. Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. viii., num. 671, 

5 See "Acta Sanctorum,"' tomus ii., PP- 353 to 355. 

Mail X. Among the pretermitted saints, '= The chief city of Maine, in France. 

p_ AM. '^ No doubt alkision is made to Hildebert, 

' Viz. Trithemius. who was born at Lavardin in Vendome, in 

7 In the " Scotichronicon " of Rev. Ur. J. 1057, who was chosen as Bishop of Mans, at 

F. S. Gordon, his notice is set down thus, first, and who was elected to succeed Gil- 

among the Early Bishops in Scotland, bert, Archbishop of Tours, a.d. 11 25, at the 

" Hildebert, a.d. 490."— Vol. i., p. 43- age of sixty-eight. See Abbe Fleury's 

^ He reigned from a.d. 379 to 394, when " Histoire Ecclesiastique," tome xiv., liv. 

he became sole Emperor, and he died a.d. Ixvii., sect, xlii., p. 336. 

^915. See Rev. John Alzog's "Manual of '■* See the Bollandiats' "Acta Sanctorum," 

Universal Church History," translated by tomus ii., Maii x. Among the pretermitted 

Rev. F T. P.ibisch and Rev. Thomas S. saints, p. 492. 

Byrne, vol. i.. Period i.. Epoch 2, chap. '5 See Abbe Fleury's " Histoire Ecclesias- 

ii. sect. loi, pp. 338, 339. tique," tome xiv., liv.lxviii., sect, xix., pp. 

9 Dempster states: "Floruit anno CD. 424,425. 

sedente Romae S. Innoccntio I., Scoto, im- Article vi— ' Edited by the Rev. 

perante Theodosio. Meminit Trithemius." Matthew Kelly, D.D.. p. xxiii. 

—"Historia EcclesiasticaGentis. Scotorum," ' (?) Cormac. We believe this should be 

tomus ii., lib. viii., num. 671, p. 355. referred to Conmac or Connachtach, Abbot 

'" See Sir Harris Nicolas' " Chronology of of lona, already noticed. 

History," p. 210, ^ Thus given in the Irish characters Ac'oo. 

" See " Historia Ecclcsiastica Gcntis CoptriAC. 


asserts, however, that he was surnamed Dubh, and after having been a King 
over Leinster, he became a monk, as also an abbot and bishop of Kildare.^ 
When assigning this day, as being a festival for St. Aidus, Bishop of Kildare, 
whose acts are recorded at the 4th of January ; yet, there is only a possibi- 
lity of such being the case. Reasons for this statement will be found, else- 
where, in our text and notes. 7 St. Aedh is said to have died, on the loth of 
May, and in the year 638.^ According to the Martyrology of Donegal,^ we 
find, that Aedh, son of Cormac, had veneration paid him, at this date. 

Article VII. — St. Connla. The simple entry of Connla, Bishop, 
appears in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the loth of May. ^ In a later record, 
we learn, that on this day was venerated, Connla, 3on of Leinin, Bishop. This 
we read, in the Martyrology of Donegal.3 But, we suspect some error has 
been admitted, in reference to the patronymic. 

Article VIII. — Mac Lemruin, or Mac Leninn. According to the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,'' a festival in honour of Mac Lemruin ^ was cele- 
brated, at the loth of May. In the Franciscan copy, the entry is Mac Lemnse.^ 
Following the same authority, the BoUandists * have Mac-Leninn, or Filius 
Lenini, without any further indication of his age, or place. 

Article IX. — St. Finntan. The simple entry, Finntan, occurs, in the 
published Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the loth of May, as also in the Fran- 
ciscan copy.^ The BoUandists 3 also insert his name, at this date, and remark- 
ing only, that there are many holy men so called,^ in the calendar. 

Article X. — St. Mohsionoc, of Cluain Caoinchne. This name 
and this address are entered, at the lothof May, in the Franciscan ^ and pub- 
lished Martyrology of Tallagh,^ as Moshinoc of Cluana Caichne. Quoting 
the same authority, the BoUandists 3 have Mosinocus de Cluain-Caichne, at 

* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 3 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
Maii X. Among the pretermitted Saints, 124, 125. 

p. 492. Article viii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

s See also Colgan's " Acta Sanctorum Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Hiberni3e,"Januariixxxi., Appendix ad Acta =* Apparently, an incorrect reading for 

S. Maidoci, cap. i., pp.220, 221. Mac Lemnin. 

* See Archdall's " Monasticon Hiberni- 3 Thius given in the Irish characters, 111 ac 
cum," p. 323. LemriAe. 

7 See, at the 4th day of January, Art. i., in "■ See " Acta Sanctorum," toraus_ ii., 

the First Volume of this work. Maii x. Among the pretermitted saints, 

* See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," Ap- p. 492. 

pendix Quiata ad Acta S. Brigidse, cap. ii., Article ix.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

p. 629. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

5 Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. ^ He is there entered as V'^cahi. 

124, 125. 3 See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

Article vii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Maii x. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Kelly, p. xxiii. p. 492. 

* In the Franciscan copy, the separate in- '' Some of these are venerated, respectively 
sertion of Con'oLAi epi appears in a line, as at the nth, 15th and 20tli of this month. 

if apart from what immediately follows, viz., Article x. — ' Here we read : llloi'inoc 

UlAcLeninAe. .1. CluAin CAichne. 



this day. The place so designated has not been identified. Again, the 
Martyrology of Donegal ■» records on this day, Mohsionoc, of Cluain Caoin- 
chne, as having been venerated. 

Article XI. — Feast of St. Florentius, Bishop of Strasburg. The 
Life of this saint had been prepared for publication, at the present date, and 
for the 7th of November, by Colgan. In that anonymous list, published by 
O'SuUevan Beare, the name occurs, at the loth of May. At the same date, 
Henry Fitzsimon enters Florentius, on his Calendar of National Saints.' At 
the loth of May, likewise, Thomas Dempster has a festival for St. Florentius, 
who, \Yith certain holy men named,^' is said to have founded a monastery for 
the Scots, at Strasburg, over which See he presided. Surius 3 has relegated 
the notices of this holy prelate, to the 7th day of November, which appears 
to have been his chief festival, and where a biographical account of him will 
be found, in this work. 

Article XII.— Festival of St. Wiro, and of St. Plechelm, Bishops 
AND Confessors, and of St. Otger, at Ruremond, in Holland. In the 
Diocese of Ruremond, Saints Wiro, Plechelm, and Otger, are specially vene- 
rated, at the loth of May.' A Double Office, and one Proper, with Antiphons 
and Hymns, are then and there recited. At this date, reference is only made 
to St. Wiro and to his Double Office.^ 

Article XIII. — St. Saranus. A St. Saranus is recorded, for the loth 
of May, in the anonymous list of our Irish Saints, published by O'SuUevan 
Beare.' He is also set down, in Father Henry Fitzsimon's list,^ at this day, 
and at the i8th of May, as the BoUandists notice.^ 

Article XIV. — Translation of the Relics of St. Laurence 

O'TooLE, Archbishop of Dublin. The anniversary for the translation of 
St. Laurence O'Toole's relics is observed, with great solemnity, at Eu, in 
Normandy. The translation itself, which took place, on the loth of May, 

* Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. tomus xi. Novembris vii.. Vita S. Flo- 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., rentii. 

Maii X. Among the pretermitted saints, Article xii. — ' See the BoUandists' 

p, 492. " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii viii. De 

^ Edited by Dis. Todd and Reeves, pp. S. Wirone Episcopo Ruremundce in Gelria. 

124, 125. Commentarius Prcevius Joannis Bollandi, 

Article xi. — ' See O'SuUevan Beare's sect, i., num. 3, 4, 5, pp. 309, 310. 

" Historice Catholics Ibernice Compen- = See ibid., Maii x. Among the preter- 

dium," tomus i., lib. iv., cap. xi„ xii., pp. mitted saints, p. 492. 

^o, 54. Article xiii. — • See " Historii^ Catho- 

" Tlie following is the entry, taken from licae Ibernioe Compendium," tomus i., lib. 

his " Menologium Scoticum :" "Argentina iv., cap. xi., p. 50. 

Florentii Eremitre el episcopi, qui cum " See " Catalogus Aliquorum Sanctoruna 

Sanctis Hildulpho, Argobasto et Adeodato Hibernice." 

Scotiam e_^ressus, sedem illam rexit, ^ yee " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

monasterium Scotis condidit." — Bishop Maii x. Among the pretermitted saints, 

Forbes' " Kalendars of Scottish Saints," p. p. 493. 

199. Article xiv. — ' See Chapter x. 

^ See " De Probatis Sanctorum Vitis," *AMS. in T.C.D., classed B 3, 12, con- 


A.D. 1226, will be found treated at much greater length, in the Life of St. Lau- 
rence O'Toole,' at the 14th of November. The present feast was celebrated, 
with an office of Nine Lessons.^ 

eiebeutl) JBaj) of illaj)* 



THE exigencies of life require, that a man ought not only to know those 
things which serve his interests, but he should strive to put that know- 
ledge acquired into practice, if he desire to succeed. It is moreover very 
necessary, that he learn, as a man of business, or as a professional man, or 
as one following some craft or calling, every detail of his life-day occupations, 
so as to exercise his skill and intelligence in their prosecution. In order to be 
useful and efficient, he must thoroughly understand his true aim, and well 
direct his means to the object of pursuit. But, the Christian has more sacred 
obligations towards God ; he should know his duty as a citizen and as the 
member of a family ; he must live in the discharge of every duty ; and, he 
should know, that he is destined for an immortal life hereafter, which will be 
one of happiness, for those who labour well and with purity of intention. From 
the eulogy pronounced on him, we may learn, that the present holy man bore 
the repute of having been faithful to the end. The Feilire of St. ^ngus ' 
enters My-Critoc, designated "a fair servant," at the nth of May. The name 
of Critan Mic Iladon is mentioned, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,^ at the 
nth of May.3 The Bollandists,'* quoting this notice, call him Critanus, the 
son of Illudion,and they state, that he bore also the name Mochritocus, which 
may be Anglicized " My Chritoc." Thus, from the early calendars, we learn, 
that his father was called Iladon or loUadon ; and, he was born — as appears 
most probable — some time in the sixth century. This we can discover, by 
reference to the period, when some of his contemporaries flourished. He is 
variedly called Criotan, Credan, Credanus, or Cridanus., He seems to have 
been the disciple of that holy Briton, St. Petrock,5 or St. Petrocus,^ who fled 

tains, at May lOth, or Ides vi. Translatio Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 

Saiicti Laurentii Archiepiscopi Dubliniensis, vol. i., part i., p. Ixxix. 

ix. Lect. "^ Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Article i. — ' In the "Leabhar Breac" 3 Jn the Franciscan copy we read, in the 

copy, the text runs thus : — first instance Cimcaii niAC iLLa'ooii ; and 

subsequently, we find this entry, at the pre- 

buAit) 1ob cerroeiMiiAC gg^t date, lllochiMcoc i.e. Ctmcaii triAc iUa- 

TJoiMsnelbAyo^TOA^AC .^on A5UI' Ci\umchii\ Co|\iiiac A-^wy in 

riloch^MCOc cAiti muincet\ ^^AAimj aca 1Se -^o choniAi\c ■oe -oiAbol 

Aguf c^uimche|\ CoiMriAc. cinnAf ^u i^ofpex) nenih. Ax) <\\.\em -oiAbol ; 

It is thus rendered into English, by Dr. x>x. . . . The remainder seems to be 

Whitley Stokes : " (The) victory of Job obliterated. ••,.•• 

without oblivion, to (the) King of Clouds he ^ See Acta Sanctorum, tomus 11., Man 

was manifest. My-Critoc, a fair servant, xi. Among the pretermitted samts, p. 611. 

and Priest Coimac."— " On the Calendar of s His feast occurs, at the 4th of June, 

Oengus " See " Transactions of the Royal where his Life will be found, in the succeed- 



[May II. 

into Ireland, 7 after having embraced the monastic state, in his own country. 
He passed over to this Island, and afterwards he applied to learning, and to 
the study of the Sacred Scriptures. For twenty years, he read assiduously in 
our Island ; but, we know not in what school or monastery he lived. It 
seems probable, however, that it was somewhere in the eastern part of Lein- 
ster. He afterwards returned to Britain, while Credan, Medan,^ and Dagan 9 
left, perhaps, the Leinster provi)ice, where they had been his pupils, to receive 
further instruction from him. In Cornwall, St. Credan, with those other Irish 
youths, attended the lectures of Petrocus.'° We can scarcely doubt, that they 
became novices, in the religious state, under him. How long our saint re- 
mained, with so distinguished a master, does not appear; but, he returned to 
Ireland, and he probably selected a place for his religious retirement, not far 

Moycreddin Cemetery, County of Wicklow. 

from the district, where he was born. St. Credanus was venerated in Lein- 
ster, at a place called Acadh Einnech, on the nth of May, according to 
Colgan," who, however, does not particularly identify it. We think, there is 
a mistake, in the correct spelling of that local denomination. Tiie proper 
name of this place appears to have been Aghamanagh,'^ " the field of the 
monks." It is now known as Aghavannagh,'^ in the parishes of Moyne and 

Life of this 


ing volume of this work. 

* John Capgrave gives 

'See John Leland's "Itineiarium, 
viii., p. 52. 

' Among the Irish Saints, there is .i 
Medan, sonof Fcchin, venerated at the 17th 
of February, and a Medan, son of Moil, at 
the i6th of September. 

His feast occurs, at the 12th of March, 

and at the I3lh of September. 

'" John Leland is authority for this state- 

"See " Acta Sanctorum Ilibernia:," xii. 
Martii. De S. Dag.-ino, Abbate et Epis- 
cop. Ex vaiiis, cap. iv., p. 585, and nn. II, 
12, 13, p. 586. 

" So described, on Sir William Petty's 

" There is a mountain, so called ; while 


Ballinacor, and barony of Ballinacor South, in the county of Wicklow. It 
lies circled round witli slieltering hills, in a highly romantic part of that moun- 
tainous region. There is a cemetery, at the spot, and still greatly resorted to 
for interments. No trace of a church now remains ; but, the burial-ground is 
covered with large trees, beneath which, the graves and tombs are sheltered. '■* 
Yet, tradition has it, that a church was formerly there, and the people have 
a great veneration for that place of interment. Not far removed from Augha- 
vannagh, are the townlands of Macreddin East and \Vest,'5 in the parish of 
Ballykine, barony of Ballinacor South, and county of Wicklow. Not many 
centuries ago, this was written Moykredine '^ — evidently in English — " the 
plain of Credin." At the present time, there is a Catholic church there, 
which was authorized to be placed under the patronage of St. Laurence 
0'Toole.'7 It would seem, however, that Credin was formerly the local 
saint, and that he gave denomination to those townlands. The Martyrology 
of Donegal,''^ on this day, records the name of Criotan, son of loUadon ; but, 
the date for his death cannot be met with, in our annals. In the Irish Calen- 
dar — now kept in tlie Royal Irish Academy — at the nth of May, we find 
mention of Criotan Mac lolladon.'^ A patriotic and distinguished prelate ^° 
of our country has remarked, that if there be beatified remains in foreign lands, 
we may find, too, the bones of martyred and sainted forefathers, whitening 
the soil around us.^' In many of our almost forgotten and neglected ceme- 
teries — as in the present case — it seems more than likely, the relics of holy 
founders repose, with tliose of the faithful, for long past generations, while 
awaiting the final resurrection and sentence of the just. 

Article II. — St. Laeghair Lobhar, or Lughaire, the Leper. A notice 
of Laeghair Lobhar is found, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the nth of 
May f and, immediately preceding it, there is an entry, Luguir, Infirmitas. 
We cannot doubt, that there has been some error of transcription, or mis- 
placement, here, and not met with in the original document. The BoUan- 
dists copy from the Tallagh Martyrology, Lugarius in Fir. et Leogarius Lovar 
seuleprosus, as if they were distinct persons. 3 At the i6th of Marcli, when 
treating about St. Finan the Leper,-* Colgan indicates, in a note,^ that Luga- 
rius Lobhar, i.e., kprosus, had a feast, on the nth of May. We cannot find 

with it, the two townlands, Aghavannagh '^ Thus given in Irish characters, Ci\ioc<iti 

(Ram) and Aghavannagh (Revell) are de- mclotlA'oon. 

scribed, on the "Ordnance Survey Town- ™ Right Rev. James Doyle. 

land Maps for the County of Wicklow," *' See William John Fitzpatrick's "Life, 

sheets 22, 28, 29. Times, and Correspondence of the Rt. Rev. 

'■t The accompanying sketch, taken on the Dr. Doyle, Bisliopof Kildare and Leighlin," 

spot by the writer, in August, 1874, was vol. ii., p. 470. 

drawn on the wood, by William F. Wake- Article ii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

man. It was engraved by JNIrs. Millard. Kelly, p. xxiii. 

'5 These denominations are described, on -The Franciscan copy has Loe5AH^e 

the "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps tobo^A, at this date, 

for the County of Wicklow," sheet 34. 3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Mali 

'° See " Inquisitioues CancellariEC Hiber- xi. However, they remark, that perhaps 

nise Repertorum," Lagenia. Tempore Jacobi Lugarius and Leogarius may betaken for 

I., Dec. i8th, 1617. one and the same person. See, among the 

'7 By Most Rev. Paul Cullen, Archbishop pretermitted saints, p. 611. 

of DubHn, on the 14th of November, 1864, ■'See the account oi him, at the i6th of 

and at the request of Rev. Richard Galvin, March, in the Third Volume of this work, 

P.P., of Rathdrum. Art. i. 

'^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, p. 124, s See " Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," Mar- 

12^. tii xvi. De Sancto Finano, cognomento 


anything more distinctive regarding him. For this day, a festival in honour 
of Lughaire, a Leper, is set down, Ukewise, in the Martyrology of Donegal.^ 

Article III. — St. Fintan, or Fionntain, of Cluain Caoin, pro- 
bably Clonkeen, Queen's County. At the 7th of February,' we have 
already treated about a St. Fintan, of Clonkene, probably Kill of the Grange. 
The name of St. Fintan is entered, also, in the INIartyrology of Tallagh,^ at 
the nth of May.3 From the same source, the Bollandists * have Fintanus 
de Cluain-Caoin or Chaoin. In giving the Life of St. Fintan, Abbot ot 
Clonenagh, Colgan s makes allusion to Fintanus Presbyter of Cluainchaoin, 
said to have been venerated, at the 7th of February, where he is not men- 
tioned, by that writer; but, he also has a festival, for the same holy man, at 
the nth of May. According to Archdall,^ this saint was connected with the 
ancient monastery of Clonkeen, not far distant from Clonenagh, in the 
Queen's County. However, where that author refers to Colgan, for substan- 
tiation of his opinion, his reference is not verified. Although, we seem to 
have no warrant for Archdall's identification of this Cluain Caoin with the 
Queen's County Clonkeen ; yet, his statement is probably correct, as Fintan 
was, and even yet is, a name much venerated, and abounding in its neigh- 
bourhood. Veneration was given, on this day, to Fionntain, of Cluain caoin, 
as we find entered, also, in the Martyrology of Donegal.7 

Article IV. — Sr, Cormac, Priest, of Achadh Finnigh, on the 
Dodder, County of Dublin. Various conjectures have been thrown out, 
to derive the name of this saint, by the scholiast on St. ^ngus. That writer 
seems to have thought, he had been either Conmac,' or Cormac.^ Again, the 
same scholiast appears to have confounded the name of Cormac, with that 
of Mo-Critoc, although it is plain, that they were distinct persons. The pious 
servant of Christ, St. Cormac, must have flourished, at a very early period, 
as we find from an entry, in the Calendar of St. Oengus,3 at the nth of May, 
where his ecclesiastical rank is also announced. Of this saint, we only know, 
that he had been a Priest. His memory appears to have been venerated, 
chiefly at a place called Achadh-Finnigh. This is said to have been near the 
River Dothra,^ supposed to be the present River Dodder, by a learned 
authority. 5 It is placed, by a commentator on St. ^ngus, in Hui-Donnchada, 

Leproso, n. 2, p. 628.\c con .1. \xo clion aLI.c<m ]\o-oiipiAl,- 

' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. C|\«ini, which is thus Englished, by Dr. 

124, 125. \Vhiiley Stokes, "Or Conmac, i.e , son of a 

Article hi. — ' In the Second Volume hound, ?>., a she-wolf nurtured him." 

of this work, Art. xi. ° On this name, the commentator writes : 

' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiii. Co|\mAC .1. coemfeixee .1. a me [cibi] ec a 

3 Tiie Franciscan copy enters pncAin re 1111I11. tiel 00^x111 oic .1. nuvc ^xuca-o hiCA]\- 

CbuAin Caiii. puc. mine •oi.\ic. pi^ut^' -oicobACuiv. net 

* .See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii. Copnuvc .1. ^'iluii' co]\t)i]' ii-icei\pi\ecAru]\. 
Mail xi. Among tlie pretermitted saints, It is thus rendered, by Dr. Whitley Stokes : 
p. 6n. "Cormac i.e., mutual (?) love from me to 

5 See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernire," Feb- thee and from thee to me. Or Cormac i.e., 

ruarii xvii. Appendix ad Vitam S. Fintani, child (mat) that was l)orn in a chariot." — 

cap. i, p. 355. "Transactions of the Royal Irish Aca- 

* See " Slonaslicon Ilibernicum," p. demy," Irish Manuscript .Scries, vol. i., 
593. part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. 

' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, Ixxxv. 
pp. 124, 125. 3 Edited by Dr. Whitley Stokes. See 

Article iv. — ' lie writes : no ConmAC "Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy," 

May II.] 



ill the west — rather should it be the east — of Leinster.^ Such, however, is not 
a correct statement, according to another opinion. In the Rev. Dr. Kelly's 
edition of the Tallagh Martyrology, we find the feast of " Cormaic in Achadh 
Finnmaighi " placed, at the v. of the Ides, or at the nth of May.? In a suc- 
ceeding page, Achadh Finnmaigh is identified, by the editor, with Finmoy, in 
Iveagh, county of Down f but, this may be regarded as a mistaken identifica- 
tion. 9 On the authority of tlie Tallagh Martyrology, the BoUandists '° insert 
a notice of him, in like manner, at this date. Colgan " thought Achadh- 
Finnigh to have been situated in the province of Leinster." He has offered a 
conjecture, likewise, that the present Cormac may not be different from that 
son to the King of South Leinster, who seems to have studied at Clonenagh, 
under St. Fintan,'3 and who was afterwards kept a close prisoner by the King 
of North Leinster, until released, through the intercession of the holy Abbot. 
Then, he lived for a long time in the kingdom of Leinster, before he became 
a monk, under St. Comgall, Abbot of Bangor.^ Here he died, in the odour 
of sanctity. 'S But, as we have already seen,'^ his place in Leinster was else- 
where, nor is there any account of that Cormac having been connected with 
Achadh Finnigh. Tlie Ui-Dunchadha were a tribe, seated in that district of 
Dublin County, through which the River Dothair, now the Dodder, flows.'? 
This tribe descended from Dunchadh,'^ grandson of Bran Mut, the common 
ancester of the Leinster O'Byrnes and O'Tooles. There was another 
Ui-Donnchadha, or O'Donaghue territory, in Ireland; but, its situation has 
not been ascertained. '9 The Dodder has its source among the Mountains 
near Kippnre, in the southern part of Dublin County. Several small streams 
unite their branches, in the romantic valley of Glenismole, whence the River 

vol. i., part i., p. Ixxix. 

■• Dothair (fern.) Dothia. 

5 See " teAbliA^A ha 5-CeAy\c, or Book of 
Rights," edited by John O'Donovan, p. I2, 
n. (f). 

* See Dr. Whitley Stokes, on the Calen- 
dar of Oengus. "Transactions of the Royal 
Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, 
vol. i., part i. , p. Ixxxv. 

^ In the Fransciscan copy, we find, Co|\- 
111AC111 <\c1nro pn'omiiji. 

* See " Calendar of Irish Saints," &c., pp. 
xxiii. and 9. 

9 There appearsa second entry of Mocritoc 
or Critan Mac Illadon, and of Crumlhir 
Cormac, at the same day, and afterwards, ni 
the published Martyrology of Tallagh, the 
following legend is thus found inserted : '' in 
Arainn ata Ise ro imcomairce do diabol 
cinnas ro seisedh nemh. Ad quem Diabolus 
dixit. Diamba Cieirech nirbat irach." — 
Ibid., p. xxiv. 

'» See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii.. 
Mail xi. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 611. 

" See "Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae," xvii. 
Februarii. Appendix ad Vitam S. Cormaci, 
cap. i., p. 360. 

'^ He writes : " S. Cormacus Prsesbyter 
de Acahdh-finnigh juxta fluvium Dothra, in 
Lagenia II. Mail. 

'3 See his Life, in the Second Volume of 
this work, at the 17th of February, Art. i. 

''» See the BoUandists' " Acta Sanctorum," 

tomus ii., Maiix. De SanctoComgalloAbbate 
Benchorensi in Hibernia. Vita ex MS. an- 
tiquo et editione Sirini, cap. iii., num. 40, pp. 
586, 587. ^^ 

'S SeeColgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 
nii-e," Februarii xvii. Vita S. Fintani Abbatis 
de Cluain-Edaech, cap. xviii., and n. 19, pp. 
352, 354- 

'^ See his Life, at the day preceding, 
Art. i., chap, iv. 

'7 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Leabhar na 
g-Ceart, or Book of Ri^jhts," n. (f), p. 12. 

'* According to another account, Dun- 
cuan, son of Tuatal, prince of I'Mureday, 
lived about a.d. iooo, the period when 
patronymics had been adopted in Ireland, 
"suivant I'invitation du roi Brian Borouma." 
This Duncuan is said to have adopted first 
the name of Ua-Tuatal, or O'Toole. "Ses 
descendants formerent le clan ou la Tribu 
des O'Toole, laquelle aveccelle des O'Byrne, 
s'est particulierement illustree par sa con- 
stance dans la lutte contre la race Anglaise 
pendent 400 ans, quoique son territoire fut 
situe pour ainsi dire aux portes de Dublin, 
capitale de I'ennemi." — " Les O'Toole," &c. 
Extrait des collections Nationales Ireland- 
aises de Charles-Denis Cte. O'Kelly-Farrell, 
p. I, Folio, La Reole, 1S64. 

'9 See Dr. O'Donovan's edition of " Topo- 
graphical Poems of John O'Dubhagain and 
Coilla na Naomh O'lluidhrinn," pp. 72, 73, 
and n. 355, p. xlvi. 

*° John D'Alton thus describes the course 



[May II. 

has its main issue, over a rock-impeded course,='° on towards Templeogue and 
Rathfarnham, until winding round Dublin city, it takes a north-easterly course, 
before it joins the Liffey, at Ringsend.''' The church of Achadh-Finche " was 
situated on the Dodder's brink, as a gloss on the Feilire-Aenguis, at this day, 
slates.^3 Cill IMochritoc appears to have been another name, for the same 
church.^* That place has been clearly indicated, by the compiler of that Irish 

View of the River Dodder, County Dublin. 

Calendar,^5 now preserved in the Royal Irish Academy, at the nth of May, 
when uniting this saint's name and festival, with those of Criotan Mac 
lolladon. According to the Calendar of Cashel, St. Cormac rests in an Island 
of Tyrconnell, called Inis-Caoil.^^ This Island, near the mouth of Gweebarra 

of this river. "Its early character is wild 
and boisterous, foaming amidst rocks, and 
usually swelled by mountain floods and 
showers; the close of its course, however, is 
gentle even to sluggishness." — " History of 
the County of Dublin," Ninth Excursion, 
p. 847. 

*' The accompanying sketch, by William 
F. Wakeman, taken on the spot, in June, 
1884. and on the upper i)art of the Doiider, 
about one mile west from Templeogue, has 
been transferred by him to the wood, en- 
graved by Mrs. Mdlard. 

" Achadh Finnidh, on the Dodder, is 
alluded to, in the "Dublin Extracts," for the 
Irish Ordnance Survey, at p. 129. 

'3 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 
Four Masters," vol. ii., n. (q) p. 676. 

=•' See Dr. O'Donovan's "Topographical 
Poems of John O'Dubhagain and Giolla na 
Naonih O'Huidhrinn," n. 59, p. xiv. 

-5 In it, we have the following entry, Co|\- 
r»u\c Saj;ai\c. 111 <Xch<i-o V'^^'S r<Jl^ ^r^ 
■Doc]\A muib •ouiicAt)A. — Ordnance Survey 
Office copy, formerly kept at Mountjoy Bar- 
racks, PJirenix Park, but now in the Royal 
Irish Academy. " Common Place Book F," 
p. 44. In a marginal note, in Mr. 0'I>ono- 
van's handwriting, at the word t)ori\,.\, I 
find, " qr. the I>odder." 

^' Acconling to Colgan's account : " quics- 
cit in quadam Tirconnallice insula, Inis-caoil 
nuncupata, juxta Calendarium Casseiense." 
— "'Acta Sanctorum Ilibcrnite," xvii. Feb- 
ruarii. Appendix ad Vitam S. Cormaci, 
cap. i., p. 360. 


Bay, belongs to Boylagh Barony, in the county of Donegal. It is now known 
as Inishkeel.^7 St. Cormac's festival is assigned to this day.^^ But, a mis- 
take probably has been committed, in confounding St. Cormac with St. 
Conall of Inis Gael, whose festival has been assigned to the 22nd of May, and 
concerning whom, other particulars will elsewhere be found. The scholiast, 
on the Calendar of Oengus, seems to place a feast for the latter, at this day.^? 
The O'Clerys, likewise, have united Criotan, son of lolladon, and Corbmac, 
Priest, at this date. In Achadh Finnich, on the brink of the Dothar, in Ui 
Dunchadha, in the east of Leinster, they are said to lie,3° or to be interred. 
This latter statement is incorrect, as only Corbmac appears to have departed 
there, or to have been buried, in the locality just mentioned. The Kalendar 
of Drummond, at the nth of May, 3' has entered a Feast, for the holy con- 
fessors, Saints Cormic and Critoc.s^ As found so united, in our ancient Aleno- 
logia, there is colour given for supposing, that both saints may have been 
contemporaries, and that some personal intimacy existed between them. 

Article V. — Reputed Feast of St. Mac Tail, of Cill Cuilinn, 
OR KiLCULLEN, CouNTY OF KiLDARE. Under the head of Cill-Cuilinn, 
Duald Mac Firbis records Mac Tail of Cill-Cuilinn,^ at the present date. How- 
ever, this is manifestly a mistake, for the nth of June ; since none of our calen- 
dars have entered his feast, at the nth of May. It seems strange, that he is best 
known, by the patronymic, Mac Tail, or son of Tail. His own name was 
Eoghan, according to Duald Mac Firbiss. St. Mac Tail of KilcuUen must 
have flourished at a very early period, and he was born, probably, towards 
the close of the fifth century. He was appointed as bishop, over that ancient 
See, in the sixth century. He died a.d. 548,^ with which date other accounts 
do not agree. 3 If we trust the authority of Duald Mac Firbis, May nth 4 
was his feast. However, the reader is referred to the real day, for its cele- 
bration, June nth, where further notices of St. Mac Tail occur. He is also 
distinguished as Eoghan, son of Corcran.s 

Article VI — St. Senach, the Smith, of Derrybrusk, County of 
Fermanagh. [^Supposed to have lived in the Sixth Century?^ We cannot ascer- 
tain, with certainty, the period when this holy man was born, or where he 
flourished ; but, it seems probable, he lived in the sixth century. We read, 
however, in the Martyrology of Donegal,^ that veneration was given on this 
day to Senach, the smith, son to Etchen, of Airiadh Brosca, on Loch Eirne. 

^7 See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the Sanctorum Confessorum Cormic et Critoc." 
Four Masters," vol. v., p. i8ii,n. (k). ^^ See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendarsof Scot- 

°^ In the Irish Calendar, at the v. of the tish Saints," p. 13. 
Ides (nth) of May, Common Place Book F, Article v. — ' Old Kilcullen, county of 

at p. 44. Kildare, according to William M. Hennessy's 

*' In a note, he writes : ^reit CoriAiLL \w\e note. 
CaiL hie .1. o inif CaiL AniAT\chAi\ Ci^xe ^ See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

CoMAiLl, thus Englished by Dr. Whitley Four Masters," vol. i., pp. 186, 187. 
Stokes, " The feast of Conall of Inis Gael ^ Thus the "Chronicum Scotorum," edited 

here i.e., from Inis Cael in the west of Tyr- by William M. Hennessy. There his death 

connell."— "Transactions of the Royal Irish is placed, at A.D. 551. See pp. 50, 51. 
Academy," Irish Manuscript Series, vol. i., ■* See "Proceedings of the Royal Irish 

part i. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. Academy," Irish MSS. Series, vol. i., part i., 

Ixxxvi. pp. 94, 95. 

^° See "The Martyrology of Donegal," 5 See William M. Hennessy's "Chroni- 

edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and Reeves, cum Scotorum," pp. 50, 51. 
pp. 124, 125, and n. 2. _ Article vi.— ' Edited by Drs. Todd 

3'Thus: " V. Idus. Item inHibernia Natale and Reeves, pp. 124, 125. 


If we believe one account, this saint is reputed to have been brother of the illus- 
trious St. Columkille ;^ but, we doubt the accuracy of such a statement. His 
mother, according to Co]gan,3 was Ethnea,-* said to have been ninth in descent 
from Daire Barrach, second son to Cathair Mor, King of Leinster.5 Accord- 
ing to this parentage, the present holy man must have been born, early in the 
sixth century. However, the father of St. Columkille is known to have been 
the son of Fedhlimidh, and he had only another junior son, named Eogan or 
Eugene,^ while the Either of our present saint is noted as Etchen. From the 
soubiiqnet attached to his name, we may suppose, that Senach was probably 
a metallic artist, and belonging to a profession, which, formerly in Ireland, 
produced some exquisite workmanship, in the more precious metals. Or, per- 
haps, he only practised the trade of a smith, which was an artisan calling very 
prevalent among our ancestors, long ages before cast iron articles had been 
produced. In connexion with this epithet, applied to St. Senach, it is very 
remarkable, that Killygowan, " the wood of the smith," is at present the deer- 
park of John Grey Vesey Porter, Esq. ,7 whose public spirited efforts to im- 
prove the social condition and trade of Ireland, and especially of this locality, 
are so well known. The place of Senach — called Airech-Brosga — is now 
identified as Derrjbrusk, a parish,^ partly in the barony of Magherastephana,? 
but chiefly in the barony of Tirkennedy,'° in the county of Fermanagh." 
From the fourteenth century, at least, there was a parsonage at Airech Brosga," 
and a house of hospitality had been maintained there,^3 by a learned vicar, 
named Gilchreest O'Fiaicli, or O'Fey, who died, a.d. 1482. Port-Airidh- 
Broscaidh,'-* or the Port of Derrybrusk, is near Enniskillen. Down to the 
sixteenth century, the deaths of vicars, connected with Airidh Brosga, are 
commemorated in our Annals. Near Derrybrusk is Belleisle,'s formerly called 
Ballymacmanus.^^ It was so called perhaps from the fact, that Mac Manus, 
the chief of this place, had founded a monastery for Dominican friars adjoin- 
ing Lough Erne. Here, too, tradition places a monastery, and, of this, some 
traces, it is supposed, yet exist.'? There are traces, likewise, of the village 

* See his Life, at the 9th of June, Art. i. Ireland," vol. ii., p. 13. 

3 See " Trias Thaumaturga," Quarta Ap- " This section has an area of 285a. ip., 

pendix ad Acta S. Columba;, cap. x., p. 492. and of which 23a. 31-. and 24p. are under 

See at St. Natalis, Jan. 27. Avater. See ibid. 

♦A sister of St. CoUimkille is called '^ In 1384, the master erenagh and parson, 
Sinech ; and hence appears to have arisen John j\IacGilla-Coi>gh, died. 
Colgan's mislake, by substituting her '^ While the " Annals of the Four Mas- 
name, for a supposed brother, denominated ters " state for eleven years, the " Annals of 
Senacli. Ulster " have it, for forty years. 

5 See her descent traced, in Rev. Dr. '* Alluded to by the Four Masters, at a.d. 

Reeves' Adamnan's " Life of St. Columba," 1484. 

Preface, p. Ixx., and nn. (q, r), and p. 8, '5 A beautiful demesne is to be seen here, 

n. (u). and which belongs to John Grey Vesey 

* See ibid. Additional Notes, A, S. I'ortcr, Esq. It was formerly the property 
Columbse Discipuli et Cognati, pp. 245 to of Lord Rosse, from whom the father of Mr. 
247, with notes. Porter purchased it. 

7 See William F.Wakeman's "Lough Erne, '* There are traditions of an ancient reli- 

EnnisUillen. Belleek, Ballysliannon and gious establishment having been here ; but, 

Bundonan," &c.. Second Excursion, p. 68. no traces of any such building now remain. 

^ " It is cut into the separate parts by in- Here, likewise, Cathal Maguire compiled the 

sections of theparishes of Enniskillen. herry- Annals ol Ulster. 

vullen, and Cleenish." — " Parliamentary '' Certain yew-groves, at Belleisle, are 

(jazettcer of Ireland," vol. ii., \>. 13. sujiposed tohavehad connexion with it. See 

9 See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the William F. Wakeman's "Lough Erne, 

Four Masters," vol. iv., n. (o), p. 693. Enniskillen, Belkek, Ballyshannon .ind 

'0 This section has an area of 4, 373a. 32p., Bundoran," &c. Second Excursion, pp. 63 

and of which 217a. 2r. and 2p. are under to 65. 

water. See "Parliamentary Gazetteer of '^ See, for an account of this pKice and cf 

May II. 



and priory of Gola/^ in wliich place a Dominican house was situated. '9 The 
ruined niediseval church, now at Derrybrusk, is thickly mantled over with 
luxuriant ivy.^° A handsome mullioned window, in two compartments, and 
pointed, under a coved arch, is in a tolerable state of preservation. In 
the Acts of St. Columba,^' we read of a certain holy smith, named Senach, 

Interior of Derrybrusk Old Church. 

who presented a bell to the church of Naal. He was possibly — if not proba- 
bly — identical with St. Natalis,^^ tlie patron saint of Kinnawly, in the county 
of Fermanagh ; for this place was quite contiguous to Derrybrusk. A great 
portion of this latter parish is upland, and most of the remainder has an inferior 
soil. Yet, all lies in the midst of an ornate country, and as it adjoins Lough 
Erne, towards the east, it shares in the brilliant lacustrine and fluvial land- 
scapes of that magnificent flood of water. ^3 Lough Erne is one of the most 
beautiful lakes in Europe f^ and, most certainly, none of these excel it for 
variety of scenery, and natural advantages, hitherto little developed in the 
locality. Save by anglers, few strangers or tourists are to be met with, on the 

its religious house, De Burgo's " Hibernia 
JJominicana," cap. ix., sect, xli., pp. 330 to 


'5 See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 
of Ireland," vol. i., p. 452. 

=° The accompanying illustration, drawn 
on the spot by William F. Wakeman, and 
transferred by him to the wood, has been en- 
graved by Mrs. Millard. 

°' See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga, " 
Quinta Vita S. Columlxis, lib. iii., cap. iii., 

P- 431- 

" See his Life, at the 27th day of January, 

in vol. i. of this work, Art. i. 

^3 As viewed from the high mountain, over 
Ballyconnell, in the county of Cavan, the 
upper course of the Erne especially presents 
an enchanting prospect, with its broad waters 
enchaining a multitude of islands, and flow- 
ing in mazes, remarkable for their intricacies 
through a vast extent of territory. The writer 
had this advantage of a fine day and a clear 
view, in the summer of 1876. 

^■^ Richard Twiss' "'Tour in Ireland in 
1775," p. 107. 


spot, to hold communication with the inhabitants there, and to admire its 
myriad beauties. 

Article VII. — St. Caoimhghin, Abbot. We find the name of 
Caoimghin, Abbot of Glynn da locha, placed in the published Martyrology 
of Tallagh,' at the nth of May. The Franciscan copy,^ however, only sets 
him down, as Coemgin, Abbot. The Bollandists 3 quote its authority, but 
they state, that the date foi this saint's death — supposing him to have been 
the celebrated founder of Glendalough — was on tiie 3rd of June, when his 
ciiief feast is celebrated.'* At the nth of May, was venerated, Caoimhghin, 
Abbot, as we read in the Martyrology of Donegal. 5 From what has been 
stated, it may well be doubted, if the present St. Caomghin were abbot of 
Glendalough, in the county of Wicklow. There is a holy w^ell, near to the 
churchyard of Clonabreny or Russagh, in the deanery of Kells, and county of 
Meath. It was dedicated to St, Kevin, whence we may infer, he was the 
patron of that place, But, the old church has disappeared, and only the 
tombs of the dead are to be found in a graveyard, and choked up with 
weeds.* We do not pretend, however, that its identification with the present 
saint has been established. 

Article VIII. — Feast of the Finding of the Relics of St. 
GiLDAs, Abbot of Rhuvs, Bretagne. \^Sixth Century?^ Lobineau has 
written the Acts of St. Gildas, first founder and first Abbot of Rhuys. He 
flourished, a.d. 570. His feast is assigned to the 29th of January,' and to the 
I ith of May.^ This latter is the date for the finding of his body, in the dis- 
trict of Vanne, in Armorica.3 The Bollandists ^ note the present festival. 

Article IX. — St. Lasrea, or Lassar, Virgin. The name occurs, at 
the nth of May, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' as Lasrea, a Virgin.^ The 
Bollandists 3 notice this holy virgin, on the same authority. Several pious 
women, bearing this name, are mentioned by Colgan ;"* but, the present virgin 
is not further distinguished, by patronymic, place, or date. According to the 
Martyrology of Donegal, s veneration was given, likewise, on this day, to St. 
Lassar, Virgin. 

Article X. — St. Fionnlugh, or Findloga. In the Martyrology of 
Tallagh,' at the nth of May, an entry appears of Findloga's feast.' It is 

Article vii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 3 According to Andrew Saussay, in his 

Kelly, p. xxiii. " Martyrologium Gallicanum," at tliis day. 

^ The entry here is Coem^nii <\bb. •• bee ''Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., Maii xi. Among the pretermitted feasts, 

Maii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, p. 611. 
p. 612. Article ix. — ' Edited by Rev, Dr. 

* See the Life of St. Kevin, at the 3rd of Kelly, p. xxiii. 
June, in vol, vi. of this work. Art. i, - 'I'lie Franciscan copy has l,A]-i\Ae Utii. 

5 Edited by Drs, Todd and Reeves, ^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii,, 

p, 125. Maii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, 

" .See Rev. A. Cogan's " History of the p, 611, 
Diocese of Meath, Ancient and Modern," * See " Acta Sanctorum Hiberni.Te," Feb- 

vol, ii., chap. xvi. p. 322, ruarii xxiii. \'it.i S, Finniani, n, 26, p. 399. 

Article viii, — ■ See his Life, at that s Edited by Drs, Todd and Reeves, pp, 

date, 124, 125 

' See " Les Vies des Saints de Bretagne," Ar iicle x, — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, 

tome i., pp. 301 to 317. p. xxiii. 

May II.] 



noticed, also, by the Bollandists,3 who Latinize the name to Finulugus. A 
festival in honour of Fionnlugh is recorded, in the Martyrology of Donegal,'* 
as having been celebrated, on this day. 

Article XT. — Reputed Feast of St. Ampudan, or Anpadan, Bishop 
OF Glenn-da-locha, or Glendalough, County of Wicklow. Under 
the head of Glenn-da-locha, Duald Mac Firbis enters, Ampudan, or Anpadan, 
bishop of Glenn-da-locha, for May nth.' In the Martyrologies ofTallagh and 
of Donegal, his feast occurs at the ii th of January, where some notices of him 
are given, in our First Volume.^ 

Article XII. — St. Columcain. A festival, in honour of Columcain, is 
/ound set down in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the nth of May.' The 
Bollandists 3 note, likewise, Columba Cain. 

Article XIII. — St. Maoldoid. According to the Martyrology of 
Tallagh,' Maoldoid, had a festival, at the nth of May.^ The Bollandists ^ 
notice Moeldodius, at this day. 

Article XIV. — St ^lgnei, or Aelgnceus, The simple entry, -^Ignei, 
is found, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the nth of May."^ At this date, 
the Bollandists 3 enter ..^ilgnseus. 

Article XV. — Reputed Festival of St. Cataldus, Bishop of Taren- 
TUM, Italy. {Seventh Century.'] We are told, by the Bollandists,' that the 
Monk Michael, in the Capuan Kalendar, gives third place, at this date, to S. 
Cataldus Episcopus Confessor. Already have we treated about him, on the 
preceding day. 

Article XVI. — Reputed Festival of Virgnoi, or Virgneus, Her- 
mit, Scotland. {Sixth and Seventh Centziries.'] At the nth of May — but 
no authority is specified — Dempster has the Feast of Virgnoi, a hermit, at 

' The Franciscan copy enters piToLojo. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 6ii. 

^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
124, 125. 

Article xi. — ' See "Proceedings of 
Royal Irish Academy," Irish MSB. Series, 
vol. i., part i., pp. 1 12, II3. 

' See Art. iii. 

Article xii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

Franciscan copy has it Colum 


3 See 
Maii xi, 
p. 6x1. 

"Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Among the pretermitted saints. 

Article xiii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

^ In the Franciscan copy, vire find m<iel- 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii xi. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 611. 

Article xiv. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 
Kelly, p. xxiii. 

^ The Franciscan copy enters -Aeilgnei. 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii xi. Among the pretermitted saints, 
p. 611. 

Article xv. — 'See "Acta Sanctorum," 
tomus ii., Maii xi. Among the pretermitted 
saints, p. 611. 

Article xvi. — ' It is thus entered : " In 



[May ii. 

Murebulkmar," in his " Menologium Scoticuni."^ For confirmation of this 
entry, he cites Adamnan, and this reference brings us to that St. Virgnous, 
who spent many years irreproachably in subjection to St. Columba ;3 and, he 
is said to have lived the life of a hermit in IMiuxbulcmar,* for twelve years. s 
Although nothing more is known about him from other sources, according to 
Thomas Dempster ; yet, this writer had been able to ascertain, that he wrote 
a " Visio de iVlorte S. Columbce," — his master and teacher — in one Book, and 
that he flourished a.d. 606.* This invention of Dempster appears to have 
been based on the account of Adamnan, ' regarding that vision Virgnous had 
about the death of St. Columba,^ whom he survived. Virgnous is thought to 
have been identical with Fergna Brit, son to Failbe, Abbot of Hy, and con- 
cerning whom notices will be found, at the 2nd of March, 9 in this work. The 
Bollandists '° notice, at this day, St. Virgneus eremita, in Murebulckmar ; 
but, solely, on Dempster's authorit)'. 

Article XVIL — Festival of Holy Job. At an early age, in the Irish 
Church, this holy man, so great a model of humility and patience, was vene- 
rated, and with a high eulogy, as we have already seen, in the Feilire of St. 
.^ngus.^ This day is there called Job's victory.^ However, his chief feast 
is kept on the day preceding, when tlu's holy Prophet from the land of Hus,3 
was specially commemorated. His Book, among those sacred records of the 
Old Testament, must ever give the most edifying lessons of patience and 
humility to the pious reader.-t He is placed first, at the nth of May, in the 
Tallagh Martyrology,^ as the Bollandists remark.^ 

Murebulkmar Virgnoi Eremits." 

' See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of 
Scottish Saints," p. 199. 

3 For this statement, Dempster quotes S. 
Adamnanus, in " Vita S. Columbx," lib. iii., 
cap. xxxi. 

•♦ This seems to be a mistake for Muirbulc- 
mar ; a name which does not appear to be 
known, at present ; but, it probably belonged 
to some bay. in or near to Ardnamurchan. 
In Prince O'Donnell's " Vita S. Columbte," 
he has it Bulgmara alias Murbulg. See 
Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," lib. iii., 
cap. Ix., p. 442. 

s See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life 
of St. Columba," lib. i., cap. 12, n. (f), p. 41, 
and lib. iii., cap. 23, also n. (h), p. 237. 

' He adds : '•^iartyrologii tabulis ascrip- 
tus non est, sed celebri cultu eum nostrates 
coiunt." — " Ilistoria Ecclesiastica Gentis 
Scotorum," tomus ii., lib. xix., num. 11 70, 

P- 655- 

7 This writer declares, that he had seen the 
vision inscribed on pages ; and, that he had 
also heard it related, by discreet seniors. 

* See Colgan's " Trias Thaumaturga," 
Vita Quarta S. Columbre, lib. iii., cap. xxiii., 
and O'Donnell's Vita Quinta S. Columba^ 
lib. ii., cap. cviii., p. 429. 

9 See volume iii., Art. iv. 

'" See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii xi. Among the pretemiilted saints, 
p, 612. 

Article xvii. — ' Sec "Transactions of 

the Royal Irish Academy, "Irish Manuscript 
Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of 
Oengus, by Dr. Whitley Stokes, p. Ixxix. 

* The commentator takes care to explain 
the text of .(Fungus, by remarking, that it 
meant his victory over the devil, and without 
forgetfulness of God. Then follows in Irish, 
inc<in ]\ob^iff CAch -po^TOeiiion, thus trans- 
lated by Dr. Whitley Stokes into English, 
" When he won a battle over the devil." Be- 
sides tlie scholiast enters in Latin, ".i. li- 
beratio iob de niartirio liberatio iob dolentis 
de martirio suo qui pasus est per xxx. annos 
sed temptatus est in .Ixx. ix. anno cetatis suk 
et postea uixit .cxl. annis." 

3 So called from IIus, the son of Aram, 
the son of Sem. See Genesis x., 23. Some- 
times it is called Idumen, and sometimes 
Arabia, by the Holy Fathers. See R. P. 
Jacobi Tirini Antverpiani, e Societate 
Jesu, " Commentarius in Sacram Scriptu- 
ram," &c. Commentarius in lib. Job, tomus 
i., cap. i., n., p. 168. 

^ See the Bollandists' " Acta Sanctonmi," 
tomus ii., Maii x. De Sancto Jobo Propheta 
in Terra IIus. Eight paragraphs, pp. 494 to 


5 In the Franciscan copy, the first entry 
among the saints, specially classed as Irish, 
is 108 pp<Ne, at the v. of the Ides of May, 

' See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus ii., 
Maii xi. Among the pretermitted feasts, 
p. 611. 


Clwelft!) IBai? of iiflap* 



PLACES rendered sacred in connexion with God's holy servants, or by his 
saints' beatific presence, have always betn visited with pious veneration. 
Over and above the advantages to be derived, Trom any work, performed in a 
penitential spirit, or through a supernatural motive, additional good results, 
when undertaking a religious visit to holy places. There, pious fervour will be 
generated or increased ; and, especially, when intercession is made with those 
saints, in whose honour the pilgrimage had been undertaken. The Festival 
of Ailithir, with a eulogy, is entered, at the 12th of May, in the Feilire ' of St. 
.^ngus. His name is elsewhere found Latinized as Alitherius, seu Peregrinus 
de Mucinis. Yet, we cannot be assured, that this was his proper name. How- 
ever, from the sequel, it seems likely, that he has been identified with a holy 
man so named, and belonging to one of the ]\Iuskerrys, in the south of Ire- 
land. An entry, Ailitir Muccinsi, is found in the published Martyrology of 
Tallagh,^ and in the Franciscan copy,3 at the 12th of May. The Martyr- 
ology of Marianus O'Gorman notes, + at this date, likewise, Elithir of Muicinis, 
on Loch Deirg (Derc),5 now Lough Derg, in the Shannon. It would seem, 
that both here, and at Clonmacnoise, his memory was held in veneration.^ 
The word, Ailitir, or Elithir, signifies " a pilgrim ;" and, hence, it may not 
necessarily be a proper name. At the year 595, however, the Annals of the 
Four Masters 7 state, that Ailithir, Abbot of Cluain-mic-nois, died. He was 
the fourth Abbot, having succeeded Mac Nissi, who departed this life, on June 
the 1 2th, A.D. 585.^ The Ailithir, there mentioned, has been identified with the 
present saint. The Annals of Ulster 9 record his death, at a.d. 598 ; while, those 
of Tighernach '° and the " Chronicum Scotorum " place it, at a.d. 599. The 

Article i. — ' In the "Leabhar Breac" 12th of May, the Bollandists express a wish 

copy, we read : — for further information, and add, as a con- 
jecture : " Alitherius seu Peregrinus de cella 

diMAcui" cjvoch'OA duorum Peregrinorum in Garnina, in Occi- 

ccc. Alb •oonA|'cnAi dua plaga Connactise et in Cluain-geise in 

OiLichii\ Ainm coenTOAi Campo Geise in Magh-lheagha, cognatusest 

i^h ey\cc noeniTDAi T1a]^cai. Muadani Peregrini de cella Muadani, in 

monte Corbre ; et ferunt germanos fuisse. 

Thus translated into English, by Dr. Whitley Vel est de Corco-niogha et nomen ejus 

Stokes: "Crucified Cyriacus with three Lugadius." See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus 

hundred who accompanied him. Ailithir a iii., Mali xii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

lovable name, with sainted Ere Nascai. " — p. 2. 

On the Calendar of Oengus, "Transactions ' See Dr. O'Donovan's Edition, vol. i., 

of the Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manu- pp. 220, 221. 

script Series, vol. i., part i., p. Ixxix. * See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's " Life 

° Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiv. of St. Columba," lib. i., cap. 3, n. (e). 

3 Thus given -diLiuhi^ muccnifi. 5 Thus : " a.d. 598. Ailitir, Abbas Cluana 

■* See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," mac Nois pausat."—" Annates Ultonienses." 

Quarta Vita S. Columbce, n. 38. p. 34. See Rev. Dr. Charles O'Conor's "Re- 

5 In Irish, eiichVjX niuicinp ^'oja toe rum Hibernicarum Scriptores," tomus iv. 

■081^5 Xiei^c. '° In Irish, at 599, we find : Ailill, Ah. 

* While recording these particulars, at the cIuaiia niAC Tloif tJAUfAC. tdo t11ui-C|\Ai'ohi 


latter authority states, that his family was of the Muscraidhe." This day, the 
Martyrology of Donegal " records a veneration paid to Elitir, of Muic-inis, 
in Loch Derg-derc. Under that name, it is difficult to find it there, as it does 
not appear, on the Irish Ordnance Survey Maps. Acts of pilgrimage pro- 
cure many graces for the soul, and sometimes even miraculous cures for 
bodily ills ; while, they have an atoning effect, through the merits of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. '3 

Article IL — Erc, or Ercus, Nasca, of Tullylish, County of 
Down. In the Feilire ' of St. ^ngus, there is a commemoration of " sainted 
Erc Nascai," at the 12th of May. We are informed, that Earc descended, 
from the race of Art Corb, son to Fiacha Suighdhe.^ There appears to be some 
difficulty, not alone in determining the period when that saint lived, and what 
had been the station he occupied, among our holy personages ; but, even, the 
individuality ofthe subject is doubtful, as those entries of our calendars in refer- 
ence to him are conflicting. Thus, the simple entry of Nasc3 occurs, at this 
date, in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,4 and, in the Franciscan copy, it 
is nearly similar.s Nevertheless, the Bollandists,^ quoting such authority, have 
Ercus Nasca de Talach-leis, on the same day. This place has been identified 
with Tullylish, in Lower Iveagh. This parish and that of Donaghcloney 
formed a territory, which was anciently called Clan-Connell.7 The parish of 
Tullylish was formerly part of the property of the Maginnis family, Lords of 
Iveagh ; but, in consequence of the part taken by the head of that family in 
1641, it was declared forfeit to the crown. In it, the remains of several ancient 
forts ^ are to be traced ; and, at TuUyhoa, there are extensive ruins, supposed 
by some, to have been those of an abbey.9 The River Bann passes, in a 
winding course, through Tullylish parish, the soil of which is fertile and 
highly improved, while the scenery is very beautiful. In the Franciscan copy 
ofthe Martyrology of Tallagh, at the 12th of May, we have the entry of 
Here ;'° while, immediately over it, and the proper name Nasc, we find the 
comment, i.e., in Tilaig Leis." This parish includes 11,707a. or. ip., and 
probably in the townland proper " had been erected his ancient church. The 
Martyrology of Donegal '3 mentions, that on this day, veneration was given to 
Here Nasca, ^4 of Tulach-lis, in Ui Eachach Uladh. At the 12th of May,'S 

t)o. See ibid., tomus ii., p. i6i. ' See Rev. William Reeves' "Antiquities 

"See William M. Hennessy's "Chroni- of Down, Connor and Dromore," Appen- 

cum Scotorum," pp. 66, 67. dix EE., n. (m), p. 304. 

" Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. *The largest of these is that at Banford, 

124, 125. on the River Bann. On it, a Protestant 

'3 See Rev. Sylvester Malone's "Church church is built, and the general outlines can 

Histoiy of Ireland," chap, xv., p. 382. First be traced, although the ramparts are now 

Edition. levelled. 

Article II. — ' See " Transactions of the ' See Lewis' " Topographical Dictionary 

Royal Irish Academy," Irish Manuscript of Ireland," vol. ii., pp. 658, 659. 

Series, vol. i., part i. On the Calendar of '" Thus written in Irish lle]\c. 

Oengus, p. Ixxix. " Thus set down .1.1 CiIolij leif. 

^ See the O'Clerys' "Martyrology of " See it sliown, on the "Ordnance Sur- 

Donegal," Edited by Rev. Drs. Todd and vey Townland Maps for the County of 

Reeves, pp. 124, 125. Down," sheet 26. The parish itself is 

3 Immediately preceding it, however, we described on sheets 19, 20, 26, 27. 

have the entry " Erc i maigh Leis," which '^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, 

must have been another name for Tully- pp. 124, 125. 

lish. '* In a note. Dr. Todd says, at Here 

* Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, p. xxiv. Nasca : " The more recent hand adds here, 
s The writing in Irish is 11 <i]'ci. "Secundum Mart. Taml. e<si\c a tHuig 

* See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii. bciy 1U\i'ci. Earc, in Magh-lis, Nasci." 
Among the pretermitted saints, p. 2. 's See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 


the Natalis of St. Ere, Confessor, in Ireland, is thus entered in the Kalendar 
of Drummond.'^ 

Article III. — Reputed Festival of St. Erca, a Virgin. It seems 
to us, that we can hardly separate St. Erca, said to have been a virgin, from 
the former holy personage; in the first place, because the names Ere, or Earc, 
are so nearly similar with Erca, and, in the second place, because both festi- 
vals are recorded on the same date. Thus, do we read, that St. Erca, a 
virgin, whose feast is held on the 12th of May, was the daughter of Ernin, 
son to Trian, son of Dunius, son to Eochod, son of Bronfinn, son to Eugene, 
son of Artcorb, son of Fiach Suighdhe, founder of the Decies family.^ Here 
again, her race is derived from a common progenitor with Ere, or Earc, to 
whom allusion has been previously made. 

Article IV. — Reputed Feast of St. Bearnosga, of Tullylish, 
County of Down. There can scarcely be a doubt, that under the present 
form of name, we are to recognise Nasca of Tulaeh Leis ; but, we are at a 
loss to learn, if he should be regarded as identical with, or distinct from. Ere, 
Earc, or Erca. We suspect a confounding of two diverse individuals, by our 
Martyrologists. The Rev. William Reeves appears to have had, from a 
different copy of the Donegal Martyrology, than from that one afterwards 
edited by him, an account of Bearnosga — called Bearnasga in his calendar — 
of Tullach-lis, or "fort of the hill," in Iveagh, of Ulidia.' Already has 
sufficient allusion been made to this locality, in our previous notice. 

Article V. — St. Lugid, or Lughaedh, of Drumiskin, County of 
Louth, and said to have been Priest, of Tigh Luta, in Fotharta- 
MORA. {_Supposed to have lived in the Fifth Century.'] We have not been 
able to clear up doubts which obtrude, when treating about this saint's his- 
tory. Some of the Irish Martyrologies assign a festival for St. Lugaedh, or 
Lugad, at this day. Thus, at the 12th of May, we find entered, in the 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' as also, in that of Marianus O'Gorman, the name of 
Lughaeth, or Lugadh, Mac Aengusa.^ This latter is said to have been the 
celebrated King of Munster, who was baptized by St., Patrick ;3 and, who is 
related to have left a very numerous posterity of sons, many of whom are 
ranked among the'saints.4 According to such supposition, the mother of our 
saint should be Ethnea, daughter to Crimthann, King of Leinster. His 
brothers were Eochadh, Felemidh, Cronan, Olild, Bressal, who, with others, 

Scottish Saints," p. 13. ■ The Franciscan copy has LugAech ITlAC 

"^ Thus : " iv. Idus. Et apud Iliberniam Oenjuf A. 

Sancti Confessoris Erci Natale celebratur." 3 See his Life, in the Third Volume of this 

Article hi.— ' See Colgan's "Acta work, at the 17th of March, Art. i., chap. xix. 

Sanctorum Hiberniae," xv. Januarii. Ap- '■ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- 

pendix ad Acta S. Itae, cap. ii., p. 73. nire," xxvii. Januarii. De S. Natali Abbate 

Article iv. — ' See "Ecclesiastical Anti- et Confessore, ex diversis, cap. ii., p. 169, and 

quities of Down, Connor and Dromore," nn. i to 13, pp. 173, I74- 

Appendix EE., p. 316, and n. (w). Also, s The words of an old author, quoted by 

Appendix LL, p. 378. Colgan, are: "Aengussius filius Naitfraich 

Article v.—' Edited by Rev. Dr. Kelly, genuit 24 filios, et 24 filias, et obtulit Deo et 

p. xxiv. S. Patricio 12 filios, et 12 filias : qui omnes 


were heads of the most noble families, in Munster.s Besides these were the 
following holy men, who lived religious lives, viz. : St. Carthage, Senior,* the 
instructor of St. Carthage,^ Junior, St. Colman of Derrymore,^ St. Foilan,9 
Abbot of Kill-foelain, in Leinster, and of Rath Erenn, in Albania, St. Folio- 
man, '° bishop, St. Pappan," St. Naal '= of Kilnamanagh, besides many 
others.'3 If we make the present saint a son of .^ngus Nathfraich, he must 
have lived, in the fifth century ; and, probably, he was baptized by St. 
Patrick.'^ If, afterwards, he became a disciple of Ireland's illustrious Apostle, 
this event should be assigned to the close of the holy missionary's career. By 
some, Lugaidh has been identified, with one of the two following, placed by 
him at Druim-in-esglainn. There, St. Patrick's two disciples,'5 Daluanus '* of 
Croebheach, and Lugadius,'^ are said to have lived. '^ Following the autho- 
rity of Archdall, '9 who quotes Colgan^° for his own mistake, the place of St. 
Lugad, and which is called Druim-in-esglainn, or Druim Inisclainn, in the 
territory of Dealbna, is thought, by Rev. Dr. Lanigan,=" to have been Drum- 
shallon," in the county of Louth. However, jNIr. O'Donovan tells us, that the 
former name is yet retained, and applied to a village, now called Drumiskin, 
which is near to Castle Bellingham,^3 in Louth County. A monastery seems 
to have been there, from a remote period ;''*• and, even one of its Abbots is also 
called a bishop. '5 It is always pronounced Druminisklin, by natives of the 
Fews and of Cuailgne, who are said to have spoken the Irish language, with 
great fluency.^* At the time, when this parish was visited by antiquarians, ''^ 
connected with the Irish Ordnance Survey, an old graveyard and some anti- 
quities existed, in the townland of Dromiskin. There, a considerable portion 
of a round tower still remains. ^^ The graveyard was used as a place of 
burial.^' There were no ruins in it, save those of a deserted parish church, 

Sancti et Sanctse celebrantur." The Psalter '* See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," 

of Cashel and the Genealogies of IMunster Septima Vita S. Patricii, pars, ii., cap. xii., 

have such a statement. p. 131, and nn. 40, 41, p. 174. 

* His feast is assigned, to the 5th of '' See " Monasticon Hibemicum," p. 461. 

March. =° See " Acta Sanctorum Hibernioe," xx. 

7 His feast is held, on the 14th of May. Januarii, Secunda Vita S. Fechini, n. 17, p. 

' His festival is kept, on the 20th of May. 141, and xxvii. Januarii, De S. Natali Ab- 

9 His feast was celebrated, on the 20th of bate et Confessore, cap. ii., p. 169, and n. 8, 

June. p. 173. 

'°We do not find his name in the Irish -' See "Ecclesiastical History of Ire- 
Calendars, land," vol. iii., chap, xvii., sect, xi., n. 145, 

" The only saint we find, called Pappan, p. 52. 
or Poppon, is he venerated, at the 25th of " This parish, in the barony of Ferrard, is 
January. See some notices, in the First shown, on the " Ordnance .Survey Town- 
Volume of this work, at that date. Art. xiii. land Maps for the County of Louth," sheets 
Again, at the 31st of July, we have another 19, 21, 22. 

feast for St. Pappan, supposed to be of San- =3 a neat town, in tlie parish of Gernons- 

try, in the county of Dublin. town, and barony of Ardee, shown on the 

" See his feast, at the 31st of July. "Ordnance Survey Townland Maps for 

'3 According to the Mcenology of the Irish the County of Louth, "sheet 15. 

Saints, the Catalogue of the Munster Kings, -*■ In tlic year 7S8, or rccte 793, the death 

and the Munster Genealogies. of Cronnmhael of Druim-Inesglainn and 

'■• See his Life, at the 17th of March, vol. Abbot of Cluain-Iraird, now Clonard, is re- 

iii., Art. i., chap. x. corded. 

'5 See Colgan's "Trias Thaumaturga," =5 At A.D. 876, the death of Tighearnach, 

Quinta Appendix ad Acta S. Patricii, cap. son of Muireadhach, Bishop and Abbot, is 

xxiii., p. 226. placed. 

'* See what has been already stated, in the '* See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

First Volume of this work, at the 7th of Four Masters," vol. i., n. (y), pp. 394, 395 ; 

January, Art. ix. pp. 522, 523; at A.D. 887, pp. 549.541; 

■' See an account of them, at the 17th of as also vol. ii.,at a.d. 908, pp. 578, 579. 

March, in the Life of St. Patrick, Art. i., '? Messrs. Patrick O'Kcefe and Tho 

chap. x. Tliird Volume of this work. O'Conor. 

May 12.] 



in which parts of the wall of Druiminisclinn old church were said to have 
been included. But, in the north-west corner of this graveyard, a perfect 
round tower — called Tor by some — and rising about 50 or 60 feet in height, 
is to be seen. On its south side, an entrance, about five feet and a-half high, 
and three feet broad, at bottom, appeared. Outwardly, this tower had been 
much shattered, on both sides.s^ On the south-east side, about twenty feet 
from the ground, another entrance was shown, being about seven feet high, 

Diomiskin Round Tower, County of Louth. 

by two broad. Dressed stones around its edges had partly fallen off. There 
were four openings, immediately under the cap of this building, and looking 
towards the east, west, north and south. These were about four feet high, 
by two feet and a-half broad ; and, to the north side of the west one, there 
was also another small pointed opening, about eighteen inches high, by ten 
inches broad. 3' Whether or not Druimiskin had any affinity with another 
place, mentioned by the O'Clerys, cannot well be ascertained. However, 

^' The accompanyhig ilhistralion was 
drawn, by the writer, on the spot in August, 
1883 : this sketch has been transferred to 
the wood, by William F. Wakeman, and it 
has been engraved, by Mrs. Millard. 

^9 Thomas Duffy, a respectable resident 
farmer of Diomiskin townland, gave those 
engaged on the Irish Ordnance Survey much 
information regarding this locality, as thus 
acknowledged. " Dromiskin parish situated 
one mile to the north of Castlebellingham, is 
invariably called by the people 'Oi\uni 1<inAfc 
tm, pA|\<M'pce ■O^Aum, &C. Thomas Duffy 
says, the name is '0|uiim, dorsinn, \w\\ insii- 
IcBf CluAin sccessits — CluAin he says signifies 

' a church,' or * resting place ;' but, this last 
name he acknowledges to have been taken 
from the Abbe Mageoghagan." — " Louth 
Letters, containing Information relative to 
the Antiquities of the County, collected dur- 
ing the Progress of the Ordnance Survey in 
1S35-36." Joint Letter of P. O'Keefe and T. 
O'Conor, dated Castlebellingham, January 
22nd, 1836, vol. i., p. 152. 

3° A bell was hung on the inside, which was 
considered to be the identical one, which be- 
longed originally to this tower. It had been 
used, until a short time before this visit, 
when a chain, by which it was tolled, hap- 
pened to become broken. 



[May 1 

from them we learn, in t'ne Martyrology of Donegal,3^ that Lughaedh, son of 
Aenghus, Priest of Tigh Lata, in Fotharta-mora, had a festival celebrated, on 
this day. It seems a difficult matter to discover, where the special locality of 
Tigh Luta lay, or which was the Fothart thus denominated. There are 
various districts — especially in the province of Leinster — formerly known as 
Fotharta, or Fotliadh, with some other addition. These are said to have 
taken their name from Eochaidh Finn Fothart,33 brother to the Monarch 
Conn of the Hundred Battles,34 and who had been banished from Midhe, or 
Meath, by his nephew Art, settled in Leinster, where his descendants acquired 
considerable territories.35 Among these are distinguished Fotharta Osnad- 
haigh,36or Fotharta Fea,37 now the barony of Forth, in the county of Carlow; 
Fotharta an Chairn,?^ from which the barony of Forth, in the county of Wex- 
ford, had its name ; Fothart Airbreach, around the Hill of Cruachan Bri 
File ;39 Fothart Oirthir Life,4° in the present county of Wicklow ; as also, 
Fothadh-tire, probably the barony of Iffa and Offa West, in the county of 
Tipperary;4i however, according to another writer, it is identified with the 
barony of Forth, in tlie county of Carlow.-t^ The Fotharta sank under other 
tribes, at an early period /3 and, their history is one of great obscurity, when 
occasionally alluded to, in our Irish Annals. Besides what is already set 
down, the reader is referred to notices, regarding St. Lugadius, at the 2nd of 
November, when Marianus O'Gorman enters again his Natalis, in connexion 
with the church of Druim Iniscluinn, belonging to the Diocese of Armagh.'''* 

Article VI. — St. Diomma, of Kildimo, County of Limerick. The 
name Dimma Mac Caiss appears, in the Martyrology of Tallagh,' at the 12th 

3' The common name for the tower was 
Clogap or f ; because, as Duffy said, it was 
used as a Belfry. The tradition is, that both 
it, and the old church to which it belonged, 
were erected by St. Patrick. Within the 
churchyard lay the arms of an ancient cross, 
which was said to have been taken from an 
old monastery. This was at Baltray (bAile 
An C^AOigA) on the sea shore. This Baltray 
is now included, in the townland of Dromis- 
kin. — Ibid., p. 153. 

3^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 
124, 125. 

33 Otherwise written Ohy Finn Foihart 
[Fohart]. See Dr. Patrick W. Joyce's 
" Origin and IIi-,tory of Irish Names of 
Places," part ii., chap. ii. , p. 126. 

^ So called on account of his numerous 
battles. He ruled over Ireland from a.d. 
153 to A.D. 182, according to Dr. Sylvester 
O'Halloran, who relates his adventures in 
the "General History of Ireland," vol. i., 
Book v., chap, vii., pp. 231 to 241. 

35 See Roderick O'FIahcrty's "Ogygia," 
pars iii. He states : " Quare in Lageniam 
perrexit, ct rex illius provincise duas plagas 
Fothaitas ex ejus agnomine dictas, unani .\ 
Momoniae conlinio ad ostium Slanii, alteram 
ab ad versa ripa, Slanio intcrutiamque meilio 
in Wexfordix sinum occurrcnle. Ibi do- 
minati sunt nepotes per multa sKCula ad in- 
territum non ita pridcm O Nuallan ultimi 
domini. Alias quoquc rcgioncs contlidcrunt, 
quae Fotharta; dicuntur ; utpote Fotliartam 

Airbreach, quae et Bri-eli dicta est, coluerunt 
posteri Corci, Lugadii et Crumathii (ex 
yEnea filio) nepotero Achaii, Fothartam 
LifTei orientalis nepotes Fergusii Tarbra;i, 
Fothartam Imchlair juxta Ardmacham sobo- 
les Sednaei filii Artcorbi, Fothartam Fea 
semen Adnadii filius Artcorbi, a cujus Ad- 
nadii semine Fotharta de Moy-itha quoque 
habitata. Sunt etiam Fotherta File, Fotherta 
Thuile, et Fotharta Bile. Bressalius Conlce 
filii Arlcorbii ex Denio filio nepos, a quo 
Hy-bresail in Hyfalgia proavus extitit Sanc- 
tissim.-e virginis Thaumaturgce Brigida; com- 
munis Hiberniae patronce." — Cap. Ixiv., pp. 

324. 325- 

3° It was thus called, from one of its prin- 
cipal churches, Cill Osnadha, now known as 

37 So called, fiom Magh Fea, according to 
the Book of Ballymote, fol. 77b. 

3^ Or Fothart of the Carn, so called from 
Carnsore Point. See " The Topographical 
Poems of John O'Dubhagain and Giolla 
na Naomh O'lluidhrin," edited by Dr. 
O'Donovan, n. 469, p. Ivi. 

39 Now the Hill of Croghaii. 

■'° This was eastward of the present River 

<■ According to Dr. O'Donovan's " An- 
nals of the Four Masters," vol, i., pp. 482, 
483, and n. (z). 

•" Sec William M. Hennessy, "Chronicum 
Scotorum," Index, p. 386. 

*3 See the " LcAbh^iA 11 .\ 5-Ccon\c, or the 


of May.2 We are informed, that this saint was the patron of Cill-Dioma, 
now Kildimo,3 in Caenraighe, belonging to the county and diocese of Lime- 
rick. There, he had a hohday, as also, a festival, and a station. He is said 
to have been the master of Dec!an,4 and of Coirbre, son of Colman, bishop. 
He had relations with the Desi of Mumhain. Amongst our Irish missiona- 
ries of the fourth of fifth centuries, who preached and founded religious 
establishments in Ireland, was the pious Dima. This holy man's name is 
said to have been given to a church, called Kildimo, in the county of Lime- 
rick.s It is still retained, in connexion with that locality,^ which is near 
Adare.7 Besides the Bollandist notice of him,^ this Dimma, son of Cass, is 
entered in the Martyrology of Donegal,^ at the same date. 

Article VII.— The Festival of St. Cvriacus, with Three Hundred 
CoMPANiOx^JS, Martyks. The Fcilire ' of St. yEngus commemorates, at the 
1 2th of May, the martyrdom of St. Cyriacus ^ and of his three hundred com- 
panions. The Bollandists 3 quote various ancient Martyrologies, at this same 
(lay, in reference to those holy Martyrs. In some records, it is found stated, 
that they numbered over fifty-four ; while, in the Martyrology of Tallagh, 
l.'csides Cyriacus, said to have found the cross of our Lord, there are others 
named, and in addition to them three hundred and six Martyrs. The date for 
iheir passion is not recorded, nor the occasion that caused their fidelity to 
ihe Faith ; but, it is thought, that they suffered at Rome. 

Article VIII. — St. Hernen, or Ernin. The name, Hernen, occurs 
in the published Martyrology of Tallagh,^ at the 12th of May; as also, in 
the Franciscan copy.^ From the same source, the Bollandists 3 notice 

Ernenus, or Hernanus, for the same date. Nothing further seems to be 
known, in reference to him, or to his place, in our ecclesiastical history. The 

Book of Rights," edited with translation and marked, on sheet 21. 

notes by John O'Donovan, Esq., p. 211, and ^ " Dima filius Cassii." See the " Acta 

n. (j), and p. 221, n. (y). Sanctorum," tomus iii., Maii xii. Among the 

■'*' See Colgan's '• Acta Sanctorum Hiber- pretermitted saints, p. 2. 

nix," xxvii. Januarii, De S. Nalali, Abbate ' Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

et Confessore, n. 8, p. 173. 124, 125. See, also the Table, appended to 

Article vi. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. that work, pp. 402, 403. 

Kelly, p. xxiv. Article vii. — ' See "Transactions of 

= In the Franciscan copy, we find ■OininiAe the Royal Irish Academy," vol. i., part i. 

niAC CAij'f. On the Calendar of Oengus, p. Ixxix. 

3 This parish, in the barony of Kenry, is ~ On his name, the scholiast has observed, 

shown, on the " Ordnance Survey Towiiland " qui invenit crucem Domini et Judas nomen 

Maps for the County of Limerick," sheets 4, ejus prius." Note at p. Ixxxvi. Ibid. 

11, 12. The town and townland are on ^ See " Acta Sanctorum," Maii xii. De 
sheet 12. Sanctis Martyribus Cyriaco, Maximo, Grado, 

* The patron saint of Ardmore. See his Sothere Virg. Rothere, Joanne, Achille, 

Life, at the 24th of July. iloiseo, Aphiodito, et aliis Quingentis Qua- 

= See Ferrar's "History of Limerick," tuor. Item Alexandro, Moisete, Lucio. pp. 

part iii., chap, iii., p. 184. 25, 26. 

*See Dr. Sylvester O'Halloran's " Gene- Article viii. — ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

ral Histoiy of Ireland," vol ii., Book vii., Kelly, p. xxiv. 

chap, ii., p. 9. ■ Thus he^neni. 

^ This parish, situated in the baronies of '^ See " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

Upper Connello, Coshma and Kenry, is Maii xii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

shown, on the " Ordnance Survey Townland p. 2. 

Mapsfor the County of Limerick, "sheets II, '» Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

12, 20, 21, 30. The town and townland are 124, 125. 


festival, in honour of Ernin, was celebrated on this day, as we read in the 
Martyrology of Donegal.* 

Article IX. — Reputed Feast of St. Coxgal, or Comgall, in 
Dercomgal, or Holywood, Scotland. \Sixih and Sevetith Centuries.^ 
At the 1 2th of May, the festival of St. Congal was celebrated, in the Church 
of Scotland.' However, it would seem, that he is not a different person from 
St. Congal, or Comgall, Abbot of Bangor; but, his feast was celebrated, in 
Scotland, at the present date. He was an Irish Pict, who, after a rule of 
seven years over Bangor, is said to have crossed over to that part of Britain, 
now called Scotland, in 598, and to have founded a church in Terra Heth,^ 
or Tiree. His differences with St. Coluniba led to the battle of Culdremy.3 
In the Antiphonary of Bangor, there is an alphabetical Hymn, concerning St. 
Comgall.'* An ancient Life of him, quoted by Fordun,5 gives an account of 
the arrival from Ireland of Fergus, son to Ferquhard.^ The Breviary of 
Aberdeen makes him tutor to the blessed Merenus ; and, it assigns the site 
for his ailius to Drum Congal, by which Dercongal is probably meant. How- 
ever, the latter place is usually associated with St. Drostan,? in the Scottish 
Kalendars. It has been conjectured,^ also, that the Congal, in Dercongal,? 
has nothing whatever to do with the name of Comgall ; but, that in a primary 
sense, it may be regarded as meaning " a habitation," and in a secondary 
sense, as "a monastery," or "an ecclesiastical establishment." His churches 
in Scotland are Dercongal, or Holywood,'° and Durris, where his fair is still 
held. According to Dempster," St. Congallus, Abbot of Haliwode, was 
remarkable for his sanctity of life ; an observer and a maintainer of virginity ; 
so that, by association with him, even the most dissolute were attracted to 
the virtue of continence. This is said to have been declared in the Book of 
his Miracles." The Bollandists '3 who notice St. Comgall, Abbot of Haly- 
woode (Latinized Sacri Nemoris) in Scotia, state, on the authority of Thomas 
Dempster, that he was illustrious for his religious continence, while they add, 
that Camerarius has attributed to him many things, taken from the Life of St. 
Comgall, Abbot of Bangor, in Ultonia, which they had published, at the loth 
of May. There our biography of him will be found. If such be the case, 
not only have several of the Scottish writers mistaken his identity, but even 
the period, when he flourished. Thus, at the 12th of May,'+ Adam King 

Article ix.— ' See Bishop Forbes' 7 His feast occurs, at the 15th of Decern- 

"Kalendars of Scottish Saints," pp. 30S ber. 

to 310. ^ By "William F. Skene. 

" See a paper on the Island of Tiree, in ' This has been interpreted " the Oak- 

the "Ulster Journal of Archeology," vol. ii., wood of Congal," from an Irish recluse, so 

pp. 233 to 244. named. See the "Imperial Gazetteer of 

3 Tliis was fought in 561, according to Scotland," vol. i., p. 89. 

the Annals of Tigernach. See Rev. Dr. " According to " Registrum Episcoporum 

O'Conor's " Rerum Hibernicarum Scrip- Glasgua:," vol. i., p. 117. 

tores," tomusii., p. 142. " See " Ilistoria Ecclesiastica Gentis 

^ See Rev. Dr. Reeves' Adamnan's "Life Scotorum," tomui i., lib. iii., num. 266, p. 

of St. Columba," lib. iii., cap. 17, n. (b), 158. 

p. 220. " Dempster adds, "quern Patricius An- 

s III his " Scotichronicon," vol. i., lib. ii., dersonus se vidisse scribit." 

chap. 12, p. 48. Goodall's edition. "^ 5^5 "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., 

* On this subject, sec the remarks of Maii xii. Among the pretermitted saints, 

William F. .Skene, in his preface to tiie p. 2. 

"Chronicles of the Picls, Chronicles of the '■•Sec Bishop Forbes' " Kalendare of 

Scots, and otiier early Mcmori.ils of Scottish Scottish Saints," p. 151. 

History," pp. clxxi. to clxxviii. 'S Thus : " S. Congall abet of haliwode 


enters in his Kalendar,'S St. Comgall, Abbot of Holy wood, a confessor in 
Scotland, under King Malcolm II., who flourished, a.d. 10 13. With some 
additions of his own, Thomas Dempster'^ quotes King, for this entry, at the 
same date.'? He is followed by Ferrarius.'^ The Bollandists '9 cite, like- 
wise, a Manuscript Catalogue, in their possession, in whicli his name, position, 
place, and period, are marked.^° He wrote Trophaea Cruce Signatorum,'' 
lib. i., in elegant verse, and Catenam Bibliorum, MS. Parisiis, lib. i., accord- 
ing to Dempster. Among the Scottish entries in the Kalendar of David 
Camerarius^^ is one for St. Comgall, at the 12th of May.^s According 
to one authority, ^'^ his body was preserved at Fulda ; but, we do not attach 
much credit to this statement, especially if the present saint has been con- 
founded with St. Comgall of Bangor. Churches are said to have been decU- 
cated to him, in various parts of the kingdom of Scotland.=5 

Article X. — Reputed Feast of another St. Congallus, in Scot- 
land. There seems to be no just foundation for introducing this notice, from 
any of the Kalendars. At the 12th of May, however, Dempster,' quoting 
the authority of King," has an account of a St. Congallus, who flourished a.d. 
446. He is said to have been distinct from and to have preceded the former, 
by nearly six hundred years ; that he was an abbot, and a holy bishop of the 
Culdees,3 is also asserted. It is possible, this notice is drawn from that 
of Camerarius, who has a St. Comgallus,* at the 2nd of January; his period 
being fixed at a.d. 600. He appears to have been confounded with St. Com- 
gall, of May loth, whose Life has been there given. 

Article XI. — Reputed Feast of St. Antonina and Six Companion 
Virgins and Martyrs of St. Ursula, Cologne. In the Church of St. 
John the Baptist, in the city of Cologne, these holy Virgins and Martyrs are 
said to have been venerated, on the 12th of May. As companions of St. 
Ursula, their commemoration may be referred to her chief feast, celebrated 
on the 2ist of October.' 

and conf. in Scotland vnder king mal- cites the Scottish Breviaiy. See " Historia 

colme 2." Ecclesiastica Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., 

'* In "Menologium Scoticum." — Bishop lib. iii., num. 266, p. 159. 
Forbes' "Kalendars of Scottish Saints," Article x. — ' See " Historia Ecclesias- 

p. 199. tica Gentis Scotorum," tomus i., lib. iii., 

■' Thus : " Monasterio Sacri Nemoris num. 248, p. 149. 
Haly VVoode Congalli abbatis, religiosa ^ Now it is amusing to find, that King's 

continentia clari. K. Congallus is said to have flourished, under 

'* In " Catalogus Generalis Sanctorum." King Malcolm II., a.d, 1013, and at Hali- 

"' See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., wode. 
Mali xii. Among the pretermiited saints, ^ jje adds : " dum Ertha ab insula Buta 

p. 2. cum S. Blano filio in ulteriorem Scotiam ap- 

°° In this form: " Congellus Abbas de pulit, ut ex Hist. EcclesiDe Dumblanensis et 

Sacro-Bosco et Confessor anno 1013." Vita S. Blani ex Georgio Neutono archidia- 

"' Fordun is said to have praised it. cono liquet, S. Kennethi collega. Vide supra 

" See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of lib. 11. in S. Blano. Scripsit Conciones ad 

Scottish Saints," p. 237. Scotos et Pictos, lib. i. Homiliarum Opus, 

°3 Thus: "12 Die. Sanctus Congallus lib. i. Contra, Arrianos, lib. i. 
Abbas Rathurelfigi monasterii in Scotia." ■• See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of Scot- 

This is the Rathmelsigi of Venerable Bede. tish Saints," p. 310. 

^■t See Fordun's " Scotichronicon," vol. i., Article xi. — ' See the Bollandists' 

lib. vii., cap. 28, p. 406, Goodall's edition. "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Mali xii, 

^s For the latter statements, Dempster Among the pretermitted saints, p. 4. 


Article XII. — Reputed Feast of St. Merexus, Abbot of Bangor. 
On the authority of Camerarius/ the BoUandists^ have noted a feast on this 
day, for Merenus, as he stated, it was held, as also on the 28th of June. For 
this, the Aberdeen Breviary is quoted ; but, the Bollandists remark, in their 
copy of it, printed a.d. 1509, at neither date is there such an entry. Whether 
this presumed Abbot of Bangor had connexion with Ireland, or otherwise, is 
not made very clear. 

CI)utfrntI) Gap of i¥la|> 




DURING this lovely month of May, we are introduced to the genial 
warmth of summer. The beauty and fragrance of flowers overs[)read 
the land ; but, the sweet odour of virtue can be extracted only from the flowers 
of Heaven. From age to age, the spirit of sanctity is perpetuated in the 
Church of Christ. This distinguished and holy teacher was universally 
esteemed and beloved by the clergy of Ireland. The scene of his labours 
was but a small island, set in the bosom of the Atlantic ; but, the seed he had 
sowed was destined to produce a harvest of souls among his pupils. This 
pious doctor is supposed to have been master to Marianus Scotus,' and he is 
called the chief anmchara of Ireland. St. Tighernach — or as styled also by 
his disciple Tigernncb Borchecb ^ — probably belonged to the eleventh cen- 
tury. Even those faults of character, which to the world seem trivial and of 
little consequence, are otherwise viewed by the saints, and, represented in their 
full deformity. They are judged by holy persons, according to the standard 
of Heaven, and when weighed in the balance of their estimation, the com- 
pensating merits are found wanting, without acts of great penitence. 
Marianus Scotus declares, that from his superior Tigernach, he learned the 
cause of Amnchad's or Anmchad's 3 exile, on the occasion of his having com- 
mitted a slight fault. That superior of the celebrated chronologist is supposed 
to be identical with the present holy man. We are told, he was one of the 
Abbots of Bangor ;* yet, I cannot find his name on the list of Archdall, of 
Rev. Dr. Reeves, or of Dr. O'Donovan, when treating about that place. The 
Annals of the Four Masters relate, that a certain Tighernach Boircheach, chief 
anmchara of Ireland, was an anchoret and a successor of Finnen, Abbot of 
Clonard. By the i)ostfix to the name Tighearnach, we are to understand, that 
he was of Beanna-Boirche Mountains, near the source of the Upper Bann, in 

Article XII. — ' At the xxvii. Junii. rum, tomus v., Mariani Scotti Chronicon, 

" See "Acta Sanctorum," toinus iii., ji. 557. 

Maii xii. Among the pretermitted saints, ' See his Life, already given at the 30th of 

p. 3. January, in the First \'ohimc of this work, 

Article i. — • See Colgan's *' Acta .Sane- Art. i. 

torum Hibcrnia:," xxx. Januarii, De B. * See Rev. James O'Laverty's " Historical 

Anmichado Confessorc, n. 8, p. 206. Account of the Diocese of Down and Connor, 

'See Monumenta Gernianire Ilistorica," Ancient and Modern," vol. i., p. 10. 

edited by Professor George Waitz, Scriplo- 5 See Dr. O'Donovan's Annals of the 

May 1 3. J 



the county of Down.s This grand congeries of sublime ranges spread over 
the whole barony of Mourne. These extend considerably, into Upper and 
Lower Iveagh.*^ A narrow band of country stretches, however, along the sea 
coast. 7 On the east side, they rise stupendously high over the Irish sea, and 
on the north side, they screen the south shores of Lough Strangford. One 
road runs round their sea base, from Rostrevor^ to Newcastle,^ a distance of 
eighteen miles. Two run across them from Hilltown,^° respectively to Kil- 
keel and Rostrevor. Eoirche is known to have been identical with the 
Chersonese district of Mourne," or Mugarna, said to have derived its name 
fromMugharna, inOrighillia — an ancient territory, which included the county of 

Tlie Mourne Mountains, County of Down. 

Monaghan.'^ This Chersonese is bounded on the north-east by that exceedingly 
high mountain, celebrated in the Western world, which formerly bore the name 

Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 878 to 881, and 
n. (o), ibid. 

* These are sometimes called the Ivea^h 
Mountains, and sometimes the Hen and 

' .See the " Parliamentary Gazetteer of 
Ireland,'' vol. ii. , p. 808. 

^ In the parish of Kilbroney. It is de- 
scribed, on the "Ordnance Survey Town- 
land Maps for the County of Down," sheets 

5I' 54- 

9 Newcastle is in the parish of Kilcoe, and 
it is shown, on the "Ordnance Survey 
Townland Alaps for the County of Down," 
sheet 49. Tiie parish itself is on sheets 42, 

43' 48, 49, 52. 

'° In the parish of Clonduff. See sheet 
48. Ibid. 

" See Rev. William Reeves' "Ecclesias- 
tical Antiquities of Down, Connor and Dro- 
more," Appendix K, pp. 205 to 210, and 
Appendix LL, p. 37S. 

'= The " Irish Itinerary" of Father Edmund 
MacCana, as translated by Dr. Reeves from 
the original, and which is preserved among 
other treasures of Irish literature, in the Bur- 
gundian Library at Brussels, adds, that 
" when the family of MacMahon were driven 
by the English, through craft and force, from 
the lands of Bregia (the great plain of Bre- 
gia embraced East Meath with some of the 
adjacent portions of Louth into the fastnesses 
of Origillia, and when the one small terri- 
tory was not sufficient to accommodate the 
two families — namely, the MacMahons and 
the MacEochys — the latter sought for them- 


of Slanga. In the common use of modern times, afterwards, from a patron 
saint,'3 it bore the name of Domangart — pronounced Donard.'-* This huge 
mass of land towers high over the sea, between which and its base, neverthe- 
less, was a thicket which the Irish called Bellach-a-Neaghri — that is, the 
"Pass of the JFood ;" and, there still exist the ruins of sacred buildings, once 
tenanted by some of our country's saints. This district is most romantic, and 
it will well repay the health-inspiring toil of the adventurous and robust 
tourist, who may desire to explore the passes and heights of tliose wild moun- 
tains.'s Colgan states,'^ that this Tighearnach was abbot over Clonard, where 
a celebrated monastery had been founded, in the sixth century. He was an 
anchoret, likewise, and a successor of St. Finnen,'? in that place. We read 
from the Irish Annals,'^ that in 1059, great diseases '£» prevailed in Laighin, 
and which caused the death of a great number of persons there. This holy 
and learned servant of Christ died of the plague, in a.d. 1061."^° This is the 
date assigned by Tighernach, tlie Irish Annalist, for the great pestilence,^' 
which raged in Leinster, and which seems to have extended its ravages to 
other parts of Ireland." At the 13th of May,^3 the Natalis of St. Tighernach, 
Anchoret and Confessor, in Ireland, is entered in the Kalendar of Driim- 
mond.^+ On this day was venerated, as we find set down, in the Martyr- 
ologies of Marianus O'Gorman, and of Donegal,^5 St. Tighernach, of Boirche. 

Article II. — St. Moeldod, or IMoeldodius, Abbot of Mucnaimh, 
OR MucKNOE, County of Monaghan. At this date, in the published 
Martyrology of Tallagh,' we meet with the name of J^Ioeilidoid ; while, a 
nearly similar entry is in the Franciscan copy.' The Bollandists have given 
some brief Acts of this saint,3 at the 13th of May. Father Godefrid Henn- 

selves another settlement— namely, this '^ See William M. Hennessy's " Chroni- 

Mugharna, which they subdued by force of cum Scotontm," pp. 284, 285. 

arm's and called after the name of their for- '' These are called the Rolgach, Anglicized 

mer inheritance. Of this they retained *' the small-pox," and the 'I'reaghait, or "the 

possession even unto the times Heniy VIII." colic." 

So the writer learned from the mouth of '° See Dr. O'Donovan's " Annals of the 

many aged men. See the Rev. James Four Masters," vol. ii., pp. 878 to 881, and 

O'Laverty's "Historical Account of the Dio- n. (o). 

cese of Down and Connor, Ancient and " It is called, bolJAC Ajuf CTAejAiT), 

Modern," pp. 24, 25. Latinized by Dr. O'Conor, " Profluvium van- 

»3 See the Acts of St. Domangart, or tri>, et virium exinanitio." 

Donard, at the 24th of March, Art. i., in the "" See Rev. Dr. OConor's "Rerum Hiber- 

Third Volume of this work. nicarum Scriptores," tomus ii. Tigernachi 

'« A view of this scenery is here given, Annales, p. 303. 

from a Photograi>h drawn on the wood, "^ See Bishop Forbes' " Kalendars of 

by William F. Wakeman, and engraved Scotiish Saints," p. 13. 

by Mrs. Millard. The town of Newcastle is "* Thus : " 1 1 1 Idus. Et in Hibernia Na- 

represented on the coast line, and Slieve tale Sancii Tigernaig Ancorite et Confesso- 

Donard is the highest mountain top, tower- ris." 

ing in the distance. '= Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. 

'5 A very excellent description and direc- 1 26, 127. It may here be observed, that in 
tion may be found — with a good map of that the Appendix to the Introduction of the 
district embmcing the Mourne .Mountains — Donegal Martyroloi^y, these words occur, 
in Black's "Guide to Belfast, the Giant's Cef a^a 1iuci\. 13 Mail. But, Dr. Todd de- 
Causeway and the North of Ireland," pp. clares, in a note, he is unable to explain, 
356 to 364. what this signifies. See p. xlvii. 

•*See "Acta Sanctorum I liberniae," XXX. Article ii.— ' Edited by Rev. Dr. 

Januarii, Dc B. Anmichado Confcssore, n. Kelly, p. xxiv. 

8, p. 206. ''His name is there written mAelmoit). 

''' See his Acts, at the 23rd of February, 3 Sec " Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., Mali 

and at the 1 2th of December. xiii. De Sanclo Moeldodio, Abbate in 


schenn was the compiler. We are informed, that St. Moeldod was a member of 
the great house of the Orgiel dynasts, representing the three Collas.* It will 
be difficult, however, to determine the exact time, when he flourished ; but, 
we may partially approximate to it, by following the genealogical tree of his 
family. St. Moeldod, or Maldod,5 was son to Eingin, son of Aldus, son to 
Fiach, son of Fiech, son to Eugene, son to Brian, son of Muredach Meth, 
son to Imchad, one of CoUa Dacrioch's ^ sons. We have few particulars to 
state regarding this saint. We are told, however, that he was Abbot of 
Mucmaimh, in Orgiellia,? or Uriel ; and that place has been converted by 
Archdall ^ into Monaghan, said to have been anciently called Muinechan.9 
The Rev. Dr. Lanigan '° asserts, that it was well known an old monastery 
stood at Monaghan — which he identifies with Mucnaimh — and, of this, 
Moeldod was Abbot, if not the founder. Sucii identification, however, is 
quite incorrect. In Monaghan," which has an antique history of its own, 
there is now no trace of the former Abbey ; but, tradition states, that it arose 
over a lake, near this town, and on those grounds, where the Protestant 
endowed school now stands, on a most beautiful site. Notwithstanding the 
contrary assertion of Rev. Dr. Lanigan, Mucnamh — sometimes written Muc- 
shnamh — is now identified with Muckno," a parish in the barony of Cremorne, 
and county of Monaghan. Chiefly within its bounds is the beautiful lake of 
Mucno, with its soft and swelling shores richly wooded, and having pretty 
isles and islets to diversify its fine landscapes. A Druidical circle is on the 
northern border. The eastern and north-eastern districts are mountainous. '3 It 
is situated, near to Castleblaney.''* The time, when this saint lived, has not 
been specified. The feast of a St. Maldod, Confessor, in Ireland, occurs, 
likewise, on the following day, May i4th.'5 At this date, in his Scottish 
Menology,'^ Dempster speaks of Maldod, Bishop, in Ireland, a Scot by birth, 
and a man distinguished for his great holiness, remarkable patience, and the 
influence of his virtuous example.^? As a proof of these assertions, he adds 
the letters M. C. ; by which he asserts, the Carthusian Martyrology to be 
indicated as authority, Canisius, and Adam Walasser. The Bollandist writer, 
in the " Acta Sanctorum," had not seen this latter work ; but, in the former 
authors, he found nothing regarding Moeldod's episcopacy, or about his Scot- 
tisli origin. It is supposed, however, that this saint was identical, with an 
Abbot, who ruled over Muc-naimh monastery.'^ His feast was assigned to 

Hibernia, pp. 245, 246. vol. iii., cliap. xxi., sect, i., n. 8, p. 273. 

'* See Rev. James O'Laverty's " Historical " See an account of this important town, in 
Account of the Diocese of Down and Connor, Lewis' "Topographical Dictionary of Ire- 
Ancient and Modern," vol. i., p. 25, n. land," vol. ii., pp. 382 to 384. 

5 Colgan mentions him, at the 21st day of " See Dr. O'Donovan's "Annals of the 

March, in his Appendix to a life of St. En- Four Masters," vol. i., n. (d), p. 445. 

deus, who was Abbot in Aran. '3 gee "Parliamentary Gazetteer of Ire- 

^ See Colgan's "Acta Sanctorum Hiber- land," vol. ii., pp. 822, 823. 

nise," xxi., Martii, p. 713. ''♦See Dr. O'Donovan's " Leabhar na 

7 The people of this large tertitory are said g-Ceart, or Book of Rights," n. (a), p. 150. 

to have been so distinguished, because they 'S "• in MS. Florario Sanctorum, in Auc- 

had a privilege from the Monarch of IrelaiKi, tuario Greveni ad Usuardum, Martyrologio 

that if any of their race should be demand etl Germanico Canisii, Catalogis Ferrari! et Fitz- 

as hostages, these should be bound in chains Simonis." 

of gold, " hence they were called Oirghialla, '^ See Bishop Forbes' "Kalendars of Scot- 

i.e., of the golden hostages." — Rev. James tish Saints," p. 199, 

O'Laverty's " Historical Account of the Dio- '? Li his " Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis 

cese of Down and Connor, Ancient and Scotorum," Dempster has nothing regarding 

Modern," p. 25, n. Moeldod, or Moeldodius. 

* See "Monasticon Hibernicum," p. 585. '^ See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii.. Maii 

9 See nn. (h. i.), ibid. xiii. De Sancto Moeldodio Abbate in Hiber- 

'° See " Ecclesiastical History of Ireland," nia, " p. 246, 


this date, by Richard Whitford, in his English Martyrology.'s Also, on this 
day, the Martyrology of Donegal,^" registers tlie name Alaeldoid, of Muc- 
namh, as having been venerated. 

Article III. — St. Abben, Hermit, of Abingdon, England. In the 
English Martyrology of John Wilson,' there is an entry at the 13th of May, 
in reference to St. Abben, the Hermit. When citing this authority, William 
Camden rejects the opinion, that Abbendun, or Abbington, in England, had 
its name from him ; but, rather does he consider, that its first name, Sheoves- 
ham, was afterwards changed into the Town of the Abbey.' Here, indeed, 
he labours under a great mistake ; and the Bollandists,3 who record, at this 
date, the feast of Abbenus, Eremita Hibernus, in Comitalu Bercheriensi, are 
also led astray by his authority. Abben was a native of Ireland, and he is 
said to have left his native country for England, after the reign of King Lucius * 
over the Britons. He received baptism,s while Pope Elutherius presided 
over the Roman See. ^ The mutilated " Chronicon Monasterii de Abingdon "7 
informs us, that a religious monk, named Abbenus, came from Hibernia to 
l^.ritain, and that he faithfully preached the word of God, as the Holy Ghost 
inspired him.^ He visited the court of the iUustrious King of tlie Britons, 
where he was most honourably received, and where he obtained the 
favour of that potentate, who regarded him as anoiiier Joseph. It is 
related, that he asked from the king a tract of land, and that he 
obtained the greater part of the province of Berroccense — now Berkshire. 
There, with the consent of the king and his council, the pilgrim happily 
founded a monastery.9 Allusions are frequently made to this place, called 
Abbandun,'° pleasantly situated at the influx of the small river Ock, into the 
Thames," in the "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle,"" and in other records, when 
noting allusions to that celebrated religious institute, called after St. Abban. 
The monastery there is said to have been founded by Cissa,'3 father to Ina, 

'9 This worlc was printed at London, a.d. autliority of the Lords Commissioners of her 

ie26. Majesty's Treasury, under the direction of 

="^ Edited by Drs. Todd and Reeves, pp. the Master of the Rolls, in two volumes. 

126, 127. London, 1858, 8vo. 

Article hi—' Printed a.d. 1640. ^ See ibid., vol. i., lib. i., sect, v., p, 2. 

^ See "Britannia," under the heading 9 The old chronicler adds, "cui nomen 

Attrebatii, p. 99, in the Amsterdam edition Abbendoniam, vel a nomine suo vel a loci 

ofhis work, Anno clo loclix., folio. vocabulo, alliidenter imijosuit. Secundum 

3 See "Acta Sanctorum," tomus iii., enim idionia Hibernensium, ut ex relatione 

Mail xiii. Among the pretermitted saints, modernorum accepimus, Abbendon "mansio 

p. 186. Alibeni " interpreiaiur ; secundum vero 

■i He is said to have sent letters to Pope idioma Anglorum.\bbendun "monsAbenni" 

Elutherius, in the second ccntuiy, and to vuli;ariter nuncupalur." — •' Historia Monas- 

have been baptized, with nearly all his sub- terii de Abingdon," vol. i., lib. i., sect, v., 

jects. See Matthew of Paris '' Chronica pp. 2, 3. 

Majora," edited by Henry Richard Luard, '" It was a place of considerable import- 

RL A., vol. i., pp. 129, 130. ance during the Saxon Heptarchy ; and OlTa, 

s John Capgrave writes : " Summe Croni- King of Mercia, had a palace there. See 

cles sey this was in yere of oure Lord 165." Charles Knight's "English Cyclopedia," 

— "Chronicle of England," edited by Rev. c;eo;^ri)ihy. vol. i., col. 15. 

Francis Charles Hingeston, B.A., Etasvi., " See Lewis' •' Topographical Dictionary 

p. 67. of England," vol. i., p. 5. 

'Seethe "Anglo-Saxon Chronicle," ac- '-See the edition of Benjamin Thorpe, 

cording to the several original Authorities. vol. i., Lulex of Places and Peoples, p. 

Edited with a Translation and Notes, by 393. 

Benjamin Thorpe, vol. i., pp. 14, 15, and '^ See William Camden's " P.iitannia," p. 

vol. ii., p. 9. 99, of the edition aheady quoted. 

^ This has been lately edited by the Rev. '< See William of .Malmesbury," De Ges- 

Joseph Stevenson, M.A., and published by tis Ponlilicum Anglorum," edited by N. E. 


King of the West Saxons.'** The site selected was a very beautiful one, on 
the declivity of a hill.'s There, St. Abban collected a great number of monks, 
amounting it is said to three hundred or more. Over these, he presided as 
Abbot,'^ and as a father ; all his subjects yielding him love and obedience, 
under the sweet yoke of Christ. In his later years, and in hoary old age, the 
holy man desired to revisit his own dearly loved land ; and, it was so ordered 
by Providence, that he should return to it, still to edify all, by his pious 
course of living. In Ireland, too, he departed from the world, to reign happily 
with Christ.'7 In his Catalogue of some Irish Saints, and quoting Camden, it 
is said, that Father Henry Fitz-simon enters a festival, for the Hermit 
Abbenus.^^ Already at the i6th of March, some allusion has been made to 
him -'9 and, as we conceive, to another and to a distinct Irish saint, called Abban, 
Abbot of Magharnaidhe, whose feast has been set down for the same date.^° 
It is possible, both may have been there confounded, by the Martyrologists; 
and, we may probably conclude, that St. Abban, the hermit of Abingdon, has 
only the 13th of May assigned as his distinctive festival. Fuller quaintly 
remarks, on the constant migrations of the early saints, that " most of these 
men seem to